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With over a century of records, we present a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal occurrence of marine turtle sightings and strandings in the UK and Ireland between 1910 and 2018. Records of hard-shell turtles, including loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta, N = 240) and Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii, N = 61), have significantly increased over time. However, in the most recent years there has been a notable decrease in records. The majority of records of hard-shell turtles were juveniles and occurred in the boreal winter months when the waters are coolest in the North-east Atlantic. They generally occurred on the western aspects of the UK and Ireland highlighting a pattern of decreasing records with increasing latitude, supporting previous suggestions that juvenile turtles arrive in these waters via the North Atlantic current systems. Similarly, the majority of the strandings and sightings of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea, N = 1683) occurred on the western aspects of the UK and the entirety of Ireland's coastline. In contrast to hard-shell turtles, leatherback turtles were most commonly recorded in the boreal summer months with the majority of strandings being adult sized, of which there has been a recent decrease in annual records. The cause of the recent annual decreases in turtle strandings and sightings across all three species is unclear; however, changes to overall population abundance, prey availability, anthropogenic threats and variable reporting effort could all contribute. Our results provide a valuable reference point to assess species range modification due to climate change, identify possible evidence of anthropogenic threats and to assess the future trajectory of marine turtle populations in the North Atlantic.
Pain is the most common complaint in primary care medicine, with approximately one-third of the world’s population currently experiencing some type of chronic pain . It’s not always a bad thing; pain serves an evolutionary purpose of warning us of unwellness. But when this signal persists, changes within the peripheral and central nervous systems perpetuate the process, leading to chronic pain (defined as experiencing pain for longer than 3–6 months) . Thus, chronic pain is not merely a symptom of an underlying condition; it is a disease in itself and must be treated as such.
In March 2013, the Barbier-Mueller collection of pre-Columbian art was auctioned at Sotheby’s Paris. This event ended with the sale of half of the works offered and generated a confrontation between six of the countries of origin of the artifacts, which were absolutely opposed to the sale, and the Sothebys’ Parisian branch. This article, taking the case described above as a reference, intends to analyze the ethical considerations and lawfulness implied in the buying and selling of cultural property at auction. With this purpose in mind, the arguments held by both parties in this disagreement are analyzed. At the same time, the efficacy of national laws, international conventions, and regulations is considered, mainly with reference to the use of principles and ethical codes that seem to be applied when the law has no jurisdiction.
Gang members engage in many high-risk sexual activities that may be associated with psychiatric morbidity. Victim-focused research finds high prevalence of sexual violence towards women affiliated with gangs.
To investigate associations between childhood maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity on coercive and high-risk sexual behaviour among gang members.
Cross-sectional survey of 4665 men 18–34 years in Great Britain using random location sampling. The survey oversampled men from areas with high levels of violence and gang membership. Participants completed questionnaires covering violent and sexual behaviours, experiences of childhood disadvantage and trauma, and psychiatric diagnoses using standardised instruments.
Antisocial men and gang members had high levels of sexual violence and multiple risk behaviours for sexually transmitted infections, childhood maltreatment and mental disorders, including addictions. Physical, sexual and emotional trauma were strongly associated with adult sexual behaviour and more prevalent among gang members. Other violent behaviour, psychiatric morbidity and addictions accounted for high-risk and compulsive sexual behaviours among gang members but not antisocial men. Gang members showed precursors before age 15 years of adult preference for coercive rather than consenting sexual behaviour.
Gang members show inordinately high levels of childhood trauma and disadvantage, sexual and non-sexual violence, and psychiatric disorders, which are interrelated. The public health problem of sexual victimisation of affiliated women is explained by these findings. Healthcare professionals may have difficulties promoting desistance from adverse health-related behaviours among gang members whose multiple high-risk and violent sexual behaviours are associated with psychiatric morbidity, particularly addictions.
La psychothérapie EMDR, comporte un protocole structuré faisant intervenir les différentes composantes de la mémoire : informations sensorielles, cognitives, émotionnelles et physiologiques ainsi que des stimulations bilatérales alternées . Elle comporte également une évaluation continue de l’état psychique du patient. La psychothérapie EMDR a été soumise pendant plus de 25 ans aux processus d’évaluation et a atteint le plus haut niveau de validation scientifique pour le traitement des états de stress post-traumatiques (ESPT) (Inserm 2004, NICE 2006, WHO 2013). Cette psychothérapie comporte un protocole précis et rigoureux en 8 phases qui est centré sur le processus de traitement de mémoires physiologiquement stockées de façon non fonctionnelle dans des réseaux de mémoires inadaptés, à l’aide de stimulation bilatérales alternées. Les différentes phases du protocole intègrent aussi des éléments issus d’autres approches thérapeutiques. Lors des séances, le praticien cible un évènement précis perturbant du passé qui a toujours un impact négatif dans le présent et demande au patient de le recontacter un instant en imagination. Au cours des phases de retraitement du protocole (désensibilisation, installation, scanner du corps et, si nécessaire, réévaluation) le praticien fait intervenir des séquences de 30 secondes environ à une vitesse de 2 à 4 hertz par seconde de stimulations bilatérales alternées (oculaire, tactile ou auditive). Il a été démontré chez les patients ESPT et chez des témoins que les stimulations bilatérales alternées contribuent à la diminution du niveau d’affect et de la précision des éléments observés au cours du rappel du souvenir difficile. Le protocole inclut également des évaluations périodiques (VOC et SUD) de l’évolution de l’état psychique du patient pendant la séance. Le mécanisme neurobiologique impliqué dans cet effet est en relation avec les processus de mise en mémoire, rappel et de ré-encodage des souvenirs.
La psychothérapie EMDR a fait l’objet de 650 publications d’investigation clinique et d’études de mécanisme d’action des stimulations bilatérales alternées ainsi que de 6 méta-analyses. Vingt-cinq ans après l’établissement de ce protocole cette approche thérapeutique intégrative et structurée a obtenu le plus haut niveau de preuve d’efficacité dans L’ESPT. Elle est en cours d’évaluation pour d’autres troubles mentaux dans lesquels les mémoires d’expériences difficiles ont un effet important dans le déclenchement ou le maintien du trouble : anxiété, dépression, phobie, troubles alimentaires ou sexuels, schizophrénie etc. On peut constater que cette approche thérapeutique suit les étapes et le rythme qui ont été nécessaires pour assurer l’évaluation et la validation d’autres types de thérapies.
Recent studies by Cloninger suggest that the temperament dimension of harm avoidance might be related to serotonergic activity. Since serotonergic mechanisms equally play a major role in sleep regulation, we decided to use Cloninger’s psychobiological model of temperament and character to assess whether there is a link between psychophysiologic insomnia and specific personality traits. Chronic insomnia is a common complaint in modern society, and it is still controversial whether insomniacs share specific personality traits. Thirty-two chronic insomniacs (<50 years) were studied. They underwent polysomnography for two consecutive nights and filled out the 226-item self-questionnaire of Temperament and Character Inventory as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. (1) Harm avoidance for all subscores was significantly higher in insomniac patients when compared with controls; (2) self-directedness scores were lower in insomniacs; (3) sleep latency was positively correlated to harm avoidance; (4) HA1 (anticipatory worry) was negatively correlated to REM latency. Temperament and Character Inventory is a useful tool in the investigation of chronic insomnia. Serotonergic mechanisms might explain the high incidence of harm avoidance as personality trait in psychophysiologic insomniac patients. Further studies are needed to see whether harm avoidance could be a psychological vulnerability marker for primary insomnia and be used as predictor of SSRI treatment responders.
During the Renaissance, the language of proportion became a unified theory capable of encompassing the understanding of the world within a coherent theological, philosophical and artistic framework. Music, with its harmonic paradigm, plays a key role in this construction. From the fifteenth century through to the end of the sixteenth century, architects and architectural theorists made reference, both in new treatises and commentaries to Vitruvius, to musical matters, transforming architecture into the summa of knowledge. The affinity to music was grounded on both a common mathematical and rhetoric gnosiology. Formerly conceived of as ideal, numbers became eloquent, reinforcing the quantitative paradigm of proportion with its qualitative one. The language of proportion as a compositional tool reveals the shift between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: while the Medieval tèchne based on modular thinking provides beauty and universal truth using the technique of repetition, the Humanist paradigm of variety produces pleasure and individual truth – a condition typical of the premodern.
Mitochondria play an important role in a number of fundamental cellular processes, including energy production, biosynthetic pathways and cellular oxidoreductive homeostasis (redox status), and their dysfunction can lead to numerous pathophysiological consequences. As the biochemical mechanisms orchestrating mitochondrial metabolism and redox homeostasis are functionally linked, mitochondria have been identified as a potential therapeutic target. Consequently, considerable effort has been made to evaluate the efficacy of natural compounds that modulate mitochondrial function. Molecules produced by plants (for example, polyphenols and isothiocyanates) have been shown to modulate mitochondrial metabolism/biogenesis and redox status; however, despite the existence of a functional link, few studies have considered the combined efficacy of these mitochondrial functions. The present review provides a complete overview of the molecular pathways involved in modulating mitochondrial metabolism/biogenesis and redox status. Crosstalk between these critical mechanisms is also discussed, whilst major data from the literature regarding their antioxidant abilities are described and critically analysed. We also provide a summary of recent evidence regarding the ability of several plant-derived compounds to target these mitochondrial functions. An in-depth understanding of the functional link between mitochondrial metabolism/biogenesis and redox status could facilitate the analysis of the biological effects of natural compounds as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches.
Twice within twenty-five years, Britain sent an ultimatum to Germany that resulted in war. A vast literature has illuminated the long-term and short-term causes of Britain’s actions, and the number of books and articles continues to increase. In 1972, I gave a seminar paper comparing and contrasting the state of public feeling in July 1914 and in September 1939. In the case of the former, which was my main subject, I looked at the change in British sensibilities since the turn of the century, which I thought pertinent to the public acceptance of war despite the number of those objecting to engagement in a continental conflict. The actual response to the decision for war in July was dealt with in a more cursory fashion. After some summary remarks about the effects of the Great War on public perceptions of war and an examination of the deteriorating international situation in the 1930s, which challenged the movements for disarmament and collective security, I focused on the decision for war in 1939 and the reactions of the political elite and the public to its outbreak.
Because of their young ages and compact densities, young massive star clusters (YMCs) are widely considered as potential proto-globular clusters. They are ubiquitous in environments with ongoing star formation activity such as interacting luminous infrared galaxies. To determine the galactic environmental effects on the star cluster formation and evolution, we study the YMC population of Arp 299 (NGC 3690E/NGC 3690W) using data taken with the HST WFC3/UVIS camera. By fitting the multiband photometry with the Yggdrasil models, we derive the star cluster masses, ages and extinction. While the cluster mass-galactocentric radius relation of NGC 3690E indicates that there could be an influence of the gas density distribution on the cluster formation, the age distribution of the western component suggests that YMCs in that galaxy endure stronger disruption mechanisms. With a cluster formation efficiency of 19 percent, star formation happening in bound clusters in Arp 299 is 3–5 times higher than that of a typical normal spiral.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are among the most common preventable health adverse event, associated with significant burden globally. Limited data on HAI costs in lower and middle-income countries is available. The aim of this study is to assess the cost, additional length-of-stay (LOS) and extra-mortality of HAI in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Region.
We searched Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, Cochrane, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EconLit, and gray literature published in any language without restriction of date till July 2017. We included observational studies addressing the outcomes of interest, in which hospitalized patients with HAI are compared to those without HAI. The following study designs were included: quasi-experimental, controlled before-after, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We considered the following HAI-sites: surgical site infections (SSI), catheter-associated urinary-tract infections (CA-UTI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI), as well as cross-infection (CI). Screening of citations, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted in duplicate by independent reviewers, according to the study protocol registered on PROSPERO. Reported costs were converted to USD considering official exchange rates.
We identified 4,339 citations. After removing duplicates, a total of 3,029 citations were screened for eligibility. A total of 87 studies from 17 countries were included. The majority (27.4 percent) reported on VAP, followed by CLA-BSI (21.2 percent), SSI (16.4 percent), and CA-UTI (14.4 percent). Most studies (46.7 percent) reported on incremental LOS, with an average of 14.8 days (range 0.9-49 days). Costs were reported by 25 percent of studies, with average incremental costs of USD 3,460 (range 49-12,155). Average extra-mortality of 15.6 percent (range -2.8-45.2 percent) was reported by 12.6 percent of studies.
Available evidence from the LAC Region reports significant economic burden of HAI. This information will be useful for cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions aimed at reducing HAI economic and health burden.
During its XXXth General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) welcomed the island of Madagascar, under the Malagasy Astronomy & Space Science (MASS), as one of its new National Members. Founded in 2016, MASS is a non-profit association, a community of young professional astronomers and graduate students from Madagascar. As various organizational structures are gradually being established towards the development of Astronomy & Astrophysics in the country, the IAU has played a vital role and is still actively involved in achieving such ambitious goals.
This paper provides a summary of recent research connected with the shock ignition (SI) concept of the inertial confinement fusion which was carried out at PALS. In the experiments, Cu planar targets coated with a thin CH layer were used. Two-beam irradiation experiment was applied to investigate the effect of preliminary produced plasma to shock-wave generation. The 1ω or 3ω main beam with a high intensity >1015 W/cm2 generates shock wave, while the other 1ω beam with the intensity below 1014 W/cm2 creates CH pre-plasma simulating the pre-compressed plasma related to SI. Influence of laser wavelength on absorbed energy transfer to shock wave was studied by means of femtosecond interferometry and measuring the crater volume. To characterize the hot electron and ion emission, two-dimensional (2D) Kα-imaging of Cu plasma and grid collector measurements were used. In single 1ω beam experiments energy transport by fast electrons produced by resonant absorption made a significant contribution to shock-wave pressure. However, two-beam experiments with 1ω main beam show that the pre-plasma is strongly degrading the scalelength which leads to decreasing the fast electron energy contribution to shock pressure. In both the single 3ω beam experiments and the two-beam experiments with the 3ω main beam, do not show any clear influence of fast electron transport on shock-wave pressure. The non-monotonic behavior of the scalelength at changing the laser beam focal radius in both presence and absence of pre-plasma reflects the competition of plasma motion and electron heat conduction under the conditions of one-dimensional and 2D plasma expansion at large and small focal radii, respectively.
The experimental study of the plasma projectile acceleration in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) scheme is reported. In the experiment performed at the kilojoule PALS laser facility, the parameters of the projectile were measured using interferometry, a streak camera and ion diagnostics, and the measurements were supported by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. It is shown that in the LICPA accelerator with a 200-J laser driver, a 4-μg gold plasma projectile is accelerated to the velocity of 140 km/s with the energetic acceleration efficiency of 15–19% which is significantly higher than those achieved with the commonly used ablative acceleration and the highest among the ones measured so far for any projectiles accelerated to the velocities ≥100 km/s. This achievement opens the possibility of creation and investigation of high-energy-density matter states with the use of moderate-energy lasers and may also have an impact on the development of the impact ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion.
Capgras delusion is scientifically important but most commonly reported as single case studies. Studies analysing large clinical records databases focus on common disorders but none have investigated rare syndromes.
Identify cases of Capgras delusion and associated psychopathology, demographics, cognitive function and neuropathology in light of existing models.
Combined computational data extraction and qualitative classification using 250 000 case records from South London and Maudsley Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) database.
We identified 84 individuals and extracted diagnosis-matched comparison groups. Capgras was not ‘monothematic’ in the majority of cases. Most cases involved misidentified family members or close partners but others were misidentified in 25% of cases, contrary to dual-route face recognition models. Neuroimaging provided no evidence for predominantly right hemisphere damage. Individuals were ethnically diverse with a range of psychosis spectrum diagnoses.
Capgras is more diverse than current models assume. Identification of rare syndromes complements existing ‘big data’ approaches in psychiatry.