To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Telemedicine uses information and communication technologies to provide services in the field where the distance is a critical factor. The aim of the present study is to describe the experience of a synchronous telemedicine between two hospitals in Spain and Angola.
This is a retrospective observational study of all synchronous telemedicine sessions conducted between the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Paz in Angola and the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital in Spain from January 2011 to December 2014.
Seventy-two cases were discussed in the telemedicine sessions. The average age of patients was 18.02 (SD 13.75) years and mostly women (54.38 percent). Reasons to discuss the cases were 46.47 percent doubts in the diagnosis and therapeutic management, 15.47 percent were purely formative cases, and only 8.45 percent treatment doubt. At the time of presentation, 29 percent of the patients were already diagnosed, 95 percent of whom with infectious disease diagnostic, and from the undiagnosed patients 36 percent presented a febrile syndrome.
This study shows the viability of synchronous telemedicine between European and African countries without an excessively sophisticated technology.
Between 1800 and 1820, Buenos Aires and the former colonial Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata faced an unprecedented fiscal crisis caused by the revolutionary wars, eventually solved by levying forced loans. This paper considers the unintended institutional consequences of these loans. The novel devices allowed (1) the holders of forced-loan coupons to use these bonds to pay off debts incurred in customs duties and (2) the holders of bills of exchange involved in the provisioning of the military to use these bills to pay part of their forced loans. Starting with the conceptualisation of the institutional order as a complex system, this paper examines the interactions among the circulation of financial paper bills, the financing of war and changes in the position of the merchants' guild and the legal framework for Atlantic trade. It thereby contributes to renewing institutional change approaches in the Spanish-American context.
Cervids represent a mammal group which plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance. Recent studies have highlighted the role of these species as reservoirs for several arthropods-borne pathogens. Globally, hemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are emerging or remerging bacteria that attach to red blood cells of several mammals species causing hemolytic anaemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and assess the phylogenetic positioning of Mycoplasma ovis in free-ranging deer from Brazil. Using a polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA region, 18 (40%) out of 45 sampled deer were positive to M. ovis. Among the nine sequences analysed, four distinct genotypes were identified. The sequences detected in the present study were closely related to sequences previously identified in deer from Brazil and the USA. On the other hand, the Neighbour-Net network analysis showed that the human-associated M. ovis genotypes were related to genotypes detected in sheep and goats. The present study shows, for the first time, the occurrence of M. ovis in Mazama gouazoubira and Mazama bororo deer species, expanding the knowledge on the hosts harbouring this haemoplasma species. Once several deer species have your population in decline, additional studies are needed to evaluate the pathogenicity of M. ovis among deer populations around the world and assess its potential as reservoir hosts to human infections.
The presence of a new taxon, Duraznovis gallegoi new genus new species is reported and described from an early Late Triassic (Carnian) deposit in Argentina. Two specimens, recovered from the Quebrada del Durazno locality, uppermost levels of the Potrerillos Formation, Cuyana Basin (Mendoza), are represented by the molds of their shield and imprints of soft parts. The identity of these specimens appears enigmatic but closely resembles in the possession of a generalized arthropod morphology and a distinctive combination of characters, to living and fossil representatives of xiphosurans (Chelicerata) and notostracans (Branchiopoda). The new fossils are associated with a rich biota comprising abundant insects, spinicaudatans, plants, and scarce fish remains living in semipermanent swamps and/or ponds within a delta plain environment with intermittent episodes of flooding, in a warm temperate and humid megamonsoonal climate during Triassic times. In this context, we analyze the taphonomic and ecological implications of their presence. Lastly, these unique specimens at the Quebrada del Durazno locality adds to the diversity of the biota, revealing the importance of this site as an exceptional paleontological Triassic deposit.
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) remains a major threat to cassava production in Mozambique. Breeding for CBSD resistant varieties that are also preferred by farmers is an integral part of managing the disease. The main objective of the study was to determine the genetic relationship between farmer-preferred varieties from Mozambique with those from Tanzania whose resistance to CBSD is known and some of which are being used as parents in quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection studies. To achieve this, 103 genotypes collected from farmers’ field in three provinces of Mozambique were genotyped together with five varieties from Tanzania whose CBSD response is well known. Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with a high minor allele frequency in East African landraces were used. Results indicated that seven Mozambican genotypes were genetically similar to either one of the four Tanzanian CBSD resistant genotypes while Xino Nn'gole was genetically identical to Namikonga a CBSD resistant variety, based on the SNPs used here. Little genetic differentiation was observed in cassava between provinces, with the majority of genetic variation distributed within individual genotypes (98%) rather than among provinces (2%). Both observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity in three provinces were generally high (Ho = 0.496) and (He = 0.455). There is a high likelihood that the eight genotypes similar/identical to those from Tanzania may share the same QTL associated with CBSD resistance thus should be further evaluated for agronomic traits as well as response to CBSD.
The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), a mammal species whose population is declining, can play a role as a reservoir or carrier of a wide number of arthropod-borne pathogens. Translocation procedures have been used as an alternative approach for species conservation. However, the veterinary aspects of this sort of procedures are extremely important to minimize the impact on animal health. In order to detect Bartonella and haemoplasmas, two important group of bacterial that have an impact in both human and animal health, EDTA whole-blood samples were screened for the presence of these bacterial pathogens by molecular techniques. As a result, a molecular occurrence of 4.1 and 15.4% for Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas, respectively, was reported among 97 wild buffaloes sampled during a translocation procedure from Marromeu to Gorongosa Reserve, Mozambique. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of the obtained sequences were conducted. At least, three bovine-associated pathogens, namely B. bovis, M. wenyonii and ‘Candidatus M. haemobos’, as well as a probably new Bartonella genotype/species were detected in S. caffer. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether these bacterial species may cause impact in buffaloes and other sympatric ruminant species living in the release site.
The present study determined the prevalence, hematological findings and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in domestic cats from Valdivia, Southern Chile. A complete blood count and nuoG gene real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Bartonella spp. were performed in 370 blood samples from cats in Valdivia, Southern Chile. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were submitted to conventional PCR for the gltA gene and sequencing for species differentiation and phylogenetic analysis. Alignment of gltA gene was used to calculate the nucleotide diversity, polymorphic level, number of variable sites and average number of nucleotide differences. Bartonella DNA prevalence in cats was 18·1% (67/370). Twenty-nine samples were sequenced with 62·0% (18/29) identified as Bartonella henselae, 34·4% (10/29) as Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 3·4% (1/29) as Bartonella koehlerae. Bartonella-positive cats had low DNA bacterial loads and their hematological parameters varied minimally. Each Bartonella species from Chile clustered together and with other Bartonella spp. described in cats worldwide. Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae showed a low number of variable sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity. Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae are reported for the first time in cats from Chile and South America, respectively.
Seven Graphis species are reported as new to Europe from the Serra de Sintra and the Planalto das Cezaredas, two regions of Portugal where graphidoid Graphidaceae are abundant and diverse. The following species were identified: Graphis cincta, G. crebra, G. handelii, G. leptospora, G. lineola, G. plumierae, and G. verminosa. Many of these share two characters: a densely inspersed hymenium and the presence of norstictic acid in the thallus. A key to the Graphis species known from Europe is provided. The possible reasons for the high, previously unknown, diversity of graphidoid Graphidaceae in this region are discussed. Global warming might be a contributory factor.
In the sand-fly mid gut, Leishmania promastigotes are exposed to acute changes in nutrients, e.g. amino acids (AAs). These metabolites are the main energy sources for the parasite, crucial for its differentiation and motility. We analysed the migratory behaviour and morphological changes produced by aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing AAs in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis and demonstrated that L-methionine (10−12m), L-tryptophan (10−11m), L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid (10−6m), induced positive chemotactic responses, while L-alanine (10−7m), L-methionine (10−11 and 10−7m), L-tryptophan (10−11m), L-glutamine (10−12m) and L-glutamic acid (10−9m) induced negative chemotactic responses. L-proline and L-cysteine did not change the migratory potential of Leishmania. The flagellum length of L. braziliensis, but not of L. amazonensis, decreased when incubated in hyperosmotic conditions. However, chemo-repellent concentrations of L-alanine (Hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) and L-glutamic acid (hypo-osmotic conditions) decreased L. braziliensis flagellum length and L-methionine (10−11m, hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) decreased L. amazonensis flagellum length. This chemotactic responsiveness suggests that Leishmania discriminate between slight concentration differences of small and structurally closely related molecules and indicates that besides their metabolic effects, AAs play key roles linked to sensory mechanisms that might determine the parasite's behaviour.
Studies to quantify genetic variation in cassava germplasm, available within the national breeding programmes in Africa, have been limited. Here, we report on the nature and extent of genetic variation that exists within 1401 cassava varieties from seven countries: Tanzania (270 genotypes); Uganda (268); Kenya (234); Rwanda (184); Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; 177); Madagascar (186); Mozambique (82). The vast majority of these genotypes do not exist within a formal germplasm conservation initiative and were derived from farmers' fields and National Agricultural Research Systems breeding programmes. Genotypes were assayed using 26 simple sequence repeat markers. Moderate genetic variation was observed with evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the region. Some differentiation was observed among countries in both cultivars and landraces. Euclidean distance revealed the pivotal position of Tanzanian landraces in the region, and STRUCTURE analysis revealed subtle and fairly complex relationships among cultivars and among landraces and cultivars analysed together. This is likely to reflect original germplasm introductions, gene flow including farmer exchanges, disease pandemics, past breeding programmes and the introduction of cultivars from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Nigeria. Information generated from this study will be useful to justify and guide a regional cassava genetic resource conservation strategy, to identify gaps in cassava diversity in the region and to guide breeding strategies.
The ion beam synthesis of Pb nanoparticles (NPs) in silica/silicon films is studied in terms of the combination of a two-step annealing process consisting of a low temperature long time aging treatment followed by a high temperature short time furnace annealing. The samples are analyzed through Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The aging process leads to the suppression of the classical homogeneous nucleation of metallic Pb NPs in the silica, thus promoting Pb redistribution during the high temperature annealing. This causes the formation of dense bi-dimensional NP arrays located at the silica-silicon interface, presenting small size dispersion.
C’est avec une rigueur tenace que Bartolomé Clavero parcourt, dans son livre consacré à la condamnation de l’usure, une partie de la littérature théologique de l’Espagne et de l’Italie des XVIe et XVIIe siècles afin de produire un essai étonnant, au sens le plus classique du mot. Cette volonté de troubler offre une excellente occasion pour débattre de certains problèmes qui préoccupent les chercheurs intéressés à l’histoire économique de cet ensemble fuyant qu’on désigne sous le nom de sociétés traditionnelles. Son point de départ n’est pas totalement inconnu: à partir du moment où le péché est dans l’intention, la rémunération d’un prêt (mutuo) n’est admise que si elle intervient comme une contre-prestation, libre mais incontournable, dictée par le sentiment d’amitié et de reconnaissance propre au trafic réglé par la grâce réciproque, l’antidora; si, en revanche, la rémunération s’ajoute à la dévolution du prêt comme obligation contractuelle, c’est l’usure. En dépit d’une analyse plutôt conventionnelle de ces textes, B. Clavero organise son matériel avec adresse et une extrême intelligence afin de conduire le lecteur sur un itinéraire au cours duquel il restitue la condamnation de l’usure à l’intérieur d’une matrice de concepts interconnectés, concernant la vie économique et l’ordre social dans leur ensemble.
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study the reduction potentials of 2,5-di(ethynylphenyl)-4-nitroaniline and 2,5-di(ethynylphenyl)nitrobenzene. Although no absolute reduction potentials can be used in the correlation between solution (CV) and solid state (nanopore) embodiments, each CV plot showed two reductions. The first and second reduction might correspond to switching events of recently reported molecular electronic devices in a nanopore. Cyclic voltammetry results are also reported for other potential molecular scale electronic devices.