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A multitude of processes in hydrology and environmental engineering are either random or entail random components which are characterized by random variables. These variables are described by frequency distributions. This book provides an overview of different systems of frequency distributions, their properties, and applications to the fields of water resources and environmental engineering. A variety of systems are covered, including the Pearson system, Burr system, and systems commonly applied in economics, such as the D'Addario, Dagum, Stoppa, and Esteban systems. The latter chapters focus on the Singh system and the frequency distributions deduced from Bessel functions, maximum entropy theory, and the transformations of random variables. The final chapter introduces the genetic theory of frequency distributions. Using real-world data, this book provides a valuable reference for researchers, graduate students, and professionals interested in frequency analysis.
Transfer learning deals with how systems can quickly adapt themselves to new situations, tasks and environments. It gives machine learning systems the ability to leverage auxiliary data and models to help solve target problems when there is only a small amount of data available. This makes such systems more reliable and robust, keeping the machine learning model faced with unforeseeable changes from deviating too much from expected performance. At an enterprise level, transfer learning allows knowledge to be reused so experience gained once can be repeatedly applied to the real world. For example, a pre-trained model that takes account of user privacy can be downloaded and adapted at the edge of a computer network. This self-contained, comprehensive reference text describes the standard algorithms and demonstrates how these are used in different transfer learning paradigms. It offers a solid grounding for newcomers as well as new insights for seasoned researchers and developers.
Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
A number of vision-based methods for detecting laser-induced defects on optical components have been implemented to replace the time-consuming manual inspection. While deep-learning-based methods have achieved state-of-the-art performances in many visual recognition tasks, their success often hinges on the availability of a large number of labeled training sets. In this paper, we propose a surface defect detection method based on image segmentation with a U-shaped convolutional network (U-Net). The designed network was trained on paired sets of online and offline images of optics from a large laser facility. We show in our experimental evaluation that our approach can accurately locate laser-induced defects on the optics in real time. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the network can be trained end to end on small samples, without the requirement for manual labeling or manual feature extraction. The approach can be applied to the daily inspection and maintenance of optical components in large laser facilities.
We fabricated a van der Waals heterostructure of WS2–ReSe2 and studied its charge-transfer properties. Monolayers of WS2 and ReSe2 were obtained by mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition, respectively. The heterostructure sample was fabricated by transferring the WS2 monolayer on top of ReSe2 by a dry transfer process. Photoluminescence quenching was observed in the heterostructure, indicating efficient interlayer charge transfer. Transient absorption measurements show that holes can efficiently transfer from WS2 to ReSe2 on an ultrafast timescale. Meanwhile, electron transfer from ReSe2 to WS2 was also observed. The charge-transfer properties show that monolayers of ReSe2 and WS2 form a type-II band alignment, instead of type-I as predicted by theory. The type-II alignment is further confirmed by the observation of extended photocarrier lifetimes in the heterostructure. These results provide useful information for developing van der Waals heterostructure involving ReSe2 for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications and introduce ReSe2 to the family of two-dimensional materials to construct van der Waals heterostructures.
In this study, coatings containing Ca and P elements on Ti6Al4V alloy were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation at different applied voltages. Subsequently, evaluation of the phase structure, morphology, element composition, corrosion mechanism, and tribocorrosion behavior of these coatings was performed. The results showed that the coatings consisted of rutile TiO2 and anatase TiO2. The ratio of rutile/anatase, surface roughness, and hardness increase with the increase of applied voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated the corrosion resistance of coatings in simulated body fluid of 400 V > 380 V > 420 V. The open circuit potential of sample 400 V declined during the tribocorrosion test. Sample 420 V possessed the highest wear volume after the tribocorrosion process. The tribocorrosion mechanism of samples 380 and 420 V was mainly confirmed as the wear effect, and the decline of corrosion resistance due to the micro-cracks formed during the abrasive wear of the coating accounts for the tribocorrosion mechanism of sample 400 V.
We report on the investigation of intermode beating mode-locked (IBML) pulse generation in a simple all-fiber Tm
-doped double clad fiber laser (TDFL). This IBML TDFL is implemented by matching longitudinal-mode frequency between 793 nm laser and TDFL without extra mode locker. The central wavelength of
, the fundamental pulse frequency of
and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of
are achieved in this IBML TDFL. With laser cavity optimization, the IBML TDFL can finally generate an average output power of 1.03 W with corresponding pulse energy of
. These results can provide an easily accessible way to develop compact large-energy, high-power TDFLs.
The effects of dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intakes on colorectal cancer risk remain controversial. This study investigated the association between these dietary intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangdong, China. From July 2010 to December 2018, 2,380 patients with colorectal cancer and 2,389 sex- and age-matched controls were recruited. Dietary intake data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for various confounders. Higher dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes were associated with 43% and 52% reductions in colorectal cancer risk, with ORs of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.70) and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.61), respectively, for the highest quartile (vs. lowest quartile) intakes. A statistically significant inverse association was observed between the total dairy products intake and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.39) for the highest vs. the lowest tertile. Subjects who drank milk had a 48% lower risk of colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.59). The inverse associations of dietary vitamin D, calcium, total dairy products and milk intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer were independent of sex and cancer site. Our study supports the protective effects of high dietary vitamin D, calcium and dairy products intakes against colorectal cancer in a Chinese population.
We report on the study of single-mode fiber-laser-pumped mode-locked Yb:CALYO lasers via using a passive saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode-locking technique, respectively. Up to 3.1-W average power with 103-fs pulse duration is obtained from the passive mode-locking, and down to 36-fs pulse duration with more than 2-W average power is achieved by the pure Kerr-lens mode-locking, which is to the best of our knowledge, the highest average power from a reported sub-40-fs Yb-based solid-state oscillator.
Evidence from our research on young children's temporal understanding supports Hoerl & McCormack's view that young children rely on a temporal updating system to change representations over time. We propose that the shift from temporal updating to temporal reasoning is enabled by children's expanding representations of event sequences, along with developments in language, memory, and other cognitive competencies.
This article explores information management in the Qing government, and the challenges confronted by the Qing authorities, through the prism of imperial maps of Xinjiang. To ensure that newly gathered geographical knowledge of Xinjiang was usable for the emperor and senior officials, technocrats and artisans in the Imperial Household Department collaborated with the Jesuits and border officials to produce maps that materialized it. Because of their utility in military campaigns and everyday governance, these maps were carefully maintained by the Imperial Household Department, which discreetly distributed them to a small coterie of Manchu and Mongol statesmen. Nevertheless, information leakage from the lower echelons of the bureaucracy challenged the department's monopoly and popularized knowledge of Xinjiang among the Han literati.
Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by small bacteria of the genus Brucella. The promoter polymorphisms of IL-10 (-1082 loci, -819 loci and -590 loci) are closely related to the production of IL-10, leading to the alteration of development and pathogenesis of Brucellosis. However, the previous results were controversial. In the present study, we conduct the meta-analysis to get a more precise result of IL-10 polymorphisms with Brucellosis risk. The quality of the studies was assessed according to a predefined scale. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were counted to evaluate the association strength. No significant association was found between position -1082 loci or -590 loci polymorphism and Brucellosis risk. The significant association was found in Asian population of position -819 (T vs. C: OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44–0.82, P = 0.001), homozygote comparison (TT vs. CC: OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09–0.62, P = 0.003) and recessive genetic model (TT vs. TC/CC: OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05–0.91, P = 0.036). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that IL-10-819 loci polymorphism is not associated with Brucellosis risk of Caucasian population but may contribute a decreased risk to Asian population. And neither IL-10-1082 loci nor -592 loci polymorphism is associated with Brucellosis risk.
YBO3:Eu3+ crystals with flower-like hierarchitecture are readily synthesized through a folic acid assisted hydrothermal process using polyborate precursors in the aqueous solution. It was found that the pH value , borate/yittrium ratio and the mass of folic acid take effects on the morphology and photoluminescence emission intensity of YBO3:Eu3+ crystals. The product with the small flower-like hierarchitecture was obtained under the conditions of pH value at 9, borate/yittrium ratio at 2 and the mass of folic acid at 0.44 g, showing the strongest photoluminescence intensity. The growth process of the YBO3:Eu3+ flowers and microflowers was invesitgated based on the time-dependent experiments, which showed that the growth mechanism of the flower-like hierarchitecture follows an in situ growth rather than self-assembly process as reported previously. Such a hydrothermal route using folic acid as a capping agent may provide a green and effective method for fabricating useful and complex 3D architectures of LEDs phosphors.
Nitroethane (NE), 2-nitroethanol (NEOH) and 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) were investigated in order to determine their inhibitory effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane (CH4) production of a hay-rich substrate (alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1, w/w). The rumen liquor collected from cannulated Holstein dairy cows was incubated at 39 °C for 72 h. The addition of NE, NEOH and NPOH slowed down the fermentation process and notably decreased molar CH4 proportion by 96.8, 96.4 and 35.0%, respectively. The abundance of total methanogen and methanogens from the order Methanobacteriales were all decreased with NE, NEOH and NPOH supplementation. Meanwhile, the nitrocompound addition reduced mcrA gene expression, coenzyme F420 and F430 contents. The correlation analysis showed that CH4 production was correlated positively with the population abundance of total methanogens, Methanobacteriales, mcrA gene expression, coenzyme contents of F420 and F430. The nitrocompound addition decreased acetate concentration and increased propionate and butyrate concentrations in the culture fluid. In summary, both NE and NEOH addition presented nearly the same inhibitory effectiveness on in vitro CH4 production; they were more effective than NPOH. The results of the current study provide evidence that NE, NEOH and NPOH can dramatically decrease methanogen population, mcrA gene expression and the coenzyme content of F420 and F430 in ruminal methanogenesis.
The synergetic effects of surface smoothing exhibited during the inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) of free-standing polycrystalline diamonds (PCDs) were investigated. Changing the assistive gas types generated variable surface oxidation states and chemical environments that resulted in different etching rates and surface morphologies. The main reaction bond mechanism (C–O) during ICP-RIE and the ratio of C–O–C/O–C=O associated with the existence of a uniform smooth surface with root mean square (RMS) roughness of 2.36 nm were observed. An optimal process for PCD smoothing at high etching rate (4.6 μm/min) was achieved as follows: 10% gas additions of CHF3 in O2 plasma at radio frequency power of 400 W. The further etched ultra-smooth surface with RMS roughness <0.5 nm at etching rate of 0.23 μm/min that being produced by transferring this optimum recipe on single crystal diamonds with surface patterns confirmed the effectiveness of the fast smoothing approach and its feasibility for diamond surface patterning.
Titanium (Ti) has been extensively used in medical devices owing to their low density, high strength, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, thrombus formation and bacterial infections are still challenges for their application in specific clinical cases. Hence, we have developed a simple, efficient, and stable strategy that endow Ti with anticoagulant and antibacterial properties through chemical bonding and electrostatic bonding. A large number of hydroxyl groups were produced on the surface of Ti by annealing at 500 °C. Then, heparin was immobilized on annealed surface with chemical bonding and chitosan was captured in an electrostatically bound manner by simply soaking in solution. The results indicated that the surface-functionalized Ti exhibited excellent anticoagulant properties by a reduction in platelet adhesion and prolonged blood clotting time. Furthermore, the modified Ti also showed antibacterial properties against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).
The collective hydrodynamics in fish schools and bird flocks, which includes self-organization of multiple dynamic bodies, is complex and lacks sufficient exploration. In this paper, we study the performance of multiple self-propelled foils in tandem formation, whose flapping motions are asynchronous with a phase difference. It is shown that a compact formation, in which all of the foils perform like a complete anguilliform swimmer, can be spontaneously formed by multiple foils via hydrodynamic interactions. Both velocity enhancement and energy saving can be achieved by multiple foils in anguilliform-like swimming. Furthermore, such anguilliform-like swimming behaviour can be observed over a wide range of parameters, including the number of foils, the phase difference, the initial distance, the heaving amplitude and the pitching amplitude. The results obtained here may provide some light on understanding the self-organization behaviour of biological collectives.
Large-scale coherent structures are present in compressible free shear flows, where they are known to be a main source of aerodynamic noise. Previous studies showed that these structures may be treated as instability waves or wavepackets supported by the underlying turbulent mean flow. By adopting this viewpoint in the framework of triple decomposition of the instantaneous flow into the mean field, coherent motion and small-scale turbulence, a strongly nonlinear dynamical model was constructed to describe the formation and development of coherent structures in incompressible turbulent free shear layers (Wu & Zhuang, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 787, 2016, pp. 396–439). That model is now extended to compressible flows, for which the coherent structures are extracted through a density-weighted (Favre) phase average. The nonlinear non-equilibrium critical-layer theory for instability waves in a laminar compressible mixing layer is adapted to analyse coherent structures in its turbulent counterpart. The strong non-parallelism associated with the fast spreading of the turbulent mean flow is taken into account and found to be significant. The model also accounts for the effect of fine-scale turbulence on coherent structures via a gradient type of closure model which now allows for a phase lag between the phase-averaged small-scale Reynolds stresses and the strain rates of coherent structures. The analysis results in an evolution system comprising of an amplitude equation, the critical-layer temperature and vorticity equations along with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The physical processes of acoustic radiation from the coherent structures are described by examining the far-field asymptote of the hydrodynamic fluctuations. We demonstrate that the nonlinearly generated slowly breathing mean-flow distortion radiates low-frequency sound waves. The true physical sources are identified. Equivalent sources in a Lighthill type of acoustic analogy context also arise, but they cannot be fully determined before the acoustic field is calculated, in which sense the radiated sound waves act back on the source. The numerical solutions to the evolution system show that coherent structures attenuate nonlinearly and their vorticity field rolls up to form the characteristic rollers. A study is also made of coherent structures represented by modulated wavetrains consisting of sideband modes, in which case nonlinear interactions generate components with frequencies that are combinations of those of the dominant modes. These components, especially the difference-frequency one, acquire significant amplitudes. Finally, the directivity and spectrum of the emitted acoustic field are calculated for both cases where the coherent structures consist of discrete, and a continuum of, sideband modes.