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Given the common view that pre-exercise nutrition/breakfast is important for performance, the present study investigated whether breakfast influences resistance exercise performance via a physiological or psychological effect. Twenty-two resistance-trained, breakfast-consuming men completed three experimental trials, consuming water-only (WAT), or semi-solid breakfasts containing 0 g/kg (PLA) or 1·5 g/kg (CHO) maltodextrin. PLA and CHO meals contained xanthan gum and low-energy flavouring (approximately 122 kJ), and subjects were told both ‘contained energy’. At 2 h post-meal, subjects completed four sets of back squat and bench press to failure at 90 % ten repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken pre-meal, 45 min and 105 min post-meal to measure serum/plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations. Subjective hunger/fullness was also measured. Total back squat repetitions were greater in CHO (44 (sd 10) repetitions) and PLA (43 (sd 10) repetitions) than WAT (38 (sd 10) repetitions; P < 0·001). Total bench press repetitions were similar between trials (WAT 37 (sd 7) repetitions; CHO 39 (sd 7) repetitions; PLA 38 (sd 7) repetitions; P = 0·130). Performance was similar between CHO and PLA trials. Hunger was suppressed and fullness increased similarly in PLA and CHO, relative to WAT (P < 0·001). During CHO, plasma glucose was elevated at 45 min (P < 0·05), whilst serum insulin was elevated (P < 0·05) and plasma ghrelin suppressed at 45 and 105 min (P < 0·05). These results suggest that breakfast/pre-exercise nutrition enhances resistance exercise performance via a psychological effect, although a potential mediating role of hunger cannot be discounted.
The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the evolution of health technology assessment (HTA) in Malaysia over the past decade.
We described the evolution of HTA program in Malaysia based on review of administrative data, publicly available information and quantitative description of impact evaluation.
Health Technology Assessment HTA was formalized in Malaysia in 1995 as a central structure within the Ministry of Health, Malaysia in 1995. Expansion of activities demonstrated over the years including Horizon Scanning of health technologies and implementation of evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Improvement on the processes in terms of types of report, quality, monitoring, and impact evaluation as well as accessibility was also carried out. Examples of impact/influence of the reports have also been demonstrated.
HTA program in Malaysia has evolved over the past decades. Its role in policy formulation and decision making of health technologies has become more significant over the years and is foreseen to be bigger in the future. As a trusted source of evidence, HTA in Malaysia will continue to strengthen the health system by advocating informed decision making and value-based medicine. As other countries in this region is trying to establish their own HTA processes and procedures, this review on the evolution of the HTA program in Malaysia might give some insights on developing a sustainable HTA program.
Herein, we present a method for decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using ethylenediamine (en) as a linker between MWCNTs and AuNPs. The amine group in en is as growth points for synthesis of AuNPs through electrostatic attraction between the amine groups and
anion while sodium citrate act as reducing agent. The influence of HAuCl4 concentration on the size and distribution of AuNPs in the structure of the Au-decorated nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of the decorated nanotubes was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy while the elemental composition of the decorated tubes and crystallography were investigated by energy dispersive x-ray, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Cyclic voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis revealed that the Au-decorated nanotubes have increased the electro-active surface area and conductivity of electrochemical substrate.
Many studies focused on very massive stars (VMS) within the framework of Pop. III stars, because this is where they were thought to be abundant. In this work, we focus on the evolution of VMS in the local universe following the discovery of VMS in the R136 cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We computed grids of VMS evolutionary tracks in the range 120–500 M⊙ with solar, LMC and Small Magellanic Cloud metallicities. All models end their lives as Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars of the WC (or WO) type. We discuss the evolution and fate of VMS around solar metallicity with particular focus on the WR phase. For example, we show that a distinctive feature that may be used to disentangle Wolf-Rayet stars originating from VMS from those originating from lower initial masses is the enhanced abundances of Ne and Mg at the surface of WC stars.
One of the most researched factors which contribute to the good outcome of methadone therapy is the dosage, but local studies which look into the factors associated with the dosage of methadone itself is lacking.
To compare clinical factors including level of motivation and the quality of life among the active male clients on high and low methadone dosage.
To determine the factors associated with high dosage of methadone in order to improve the services provided.
A cross sectional study of active male methadone clients who are on maintenance treatment attending the Methadone Clinic. It was conducted from early January to the end of March 2010. The questionnaires used include Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Circumstances, Motivation and Readiness to Change (CMR) and WHO-Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF).
Those on higher dosages were noted to have significantly better urinalysis results and had a higher CMR score, but quality of life did not differ between the two groups. Motivational level remained significant after regression analysis was done.
This study also confirms previous findings of higher methadone dosage having better outcomes in terms of urinalysis results. As the high dose group were also found to be more motivated to change, the regular formal counselling sessions or motivational enhancement therapy was advocated to improve the services of methadone maintenance therapy.
The first generations of stars are thought to have been more massive than Pop I stars and therefore some of these are thought to have produced pair creation supernovae (PCSNe) at the end of their life. However, the chemical signature of PCSNe is not observed in extremely metal poor stars (e.g. Umeda and Nomoto 2002) and it raises the following questions: Were stars born less (or more massive) than the mass range expected to lead to the PCSNe? Or was mass loss too strong during the evolution of these stars and prevented them from retaining enough mass to produce PCSNe? The discovery of very massive stars (VMS, M > 100 M⊙) in the Milky Way and LMC (Crowther et al. 2010) shows that VMS can form and exist. The observations of PCSN candidates (2006gy & 2007bi) also seems to indicate that such SNe may occur. Mass loss plays a crucial role in the life of VMS since the star will only die as a PCSN if the star retains a high mass throughout its life. In this paper, we shall describe the dependence of VMS evolution on metallicity and present stellar evolution models at various metallicities, including the effects of mass loss and rotation. Based on our models, we will give our predictions concerning the fate of these VMS, either a PCSN or SNIc (possibly GRBs in some cases) as a function of metallicity.
Liberalization of Malaysia's financial markets, tackled in earnest in the early 1980s, has been gradual and cautious. It has been a process of structural deregulation and prudential reregulation, with the authorities willing to change course when borrower net worth (and the banks) have come under pressure. The result appears to be a financial system that is more stable and competitive, with a wider public choice of financial instruments, as well as institutions, and more effective conduct of monetary policy by the Central Bank.
Malaysia began the reform process with a relatively deep financial sector, compared with the simple structure of the mid-1950s. It also had a relatively open economy, with little financial repression and negative real interest rates only at the time of the first oil shock in 1973. Yet there were many structural weaknesses in the economy and the financial system, which came to the fore only during the recession of the early 1980s. Malaysia's experience suggests that in financially repressed countries contemplating liberalization, governments should first administratively raise interest rates, sort out the health of banks, and at the same time build a strong central bank on both the regulatory and monetary side.
Malaysia's Central Bank was a key player in its financial reform. By keeping inflation down, the Bank helped the spread of long-term financial markets and facilitated the growth of money markets. The introduction of repos and swaps has broadened the range of monetary instruments, while the reforms in government securities' markets have made it easier for the Central Bank to conduct open-market operations, although these are still small.