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To investigate the response of the fish community structure to a natural disturbance in their habitat, fish abundance, biomass and species composition were analysed in relation to temporal variability of environmental conditions in a seagrass Zostera marina bed. A total of 3024 fishes belonging to 46 taxa (22 families) were collected by quantitative sampling for 10 years from 2007 to 2016 in the Seto Inland Sea, south-western Japan. Seagrass shoot density decreased to less than 1/20 of its original density after disappearance of vegetation caused by heavy rain in the autumn of 2011 and the area did not recover for the next five years. In order to analyse temporal changes of fish community, the fishes were divided into three groups depending on their habitats or lifestyles: pelagic or migratory species (PM), sand or mud bottom-associated species (SM) and seagrass (Z. marina) – or substrate (rocky bottom including macrophytes) – associated species (ZS). Multiple regression analysis showed seagrass shoot density had the most significant effect on biomass of ZS among the three groups, with higher fish biomass under higher seagrass shoot density. Fish community composition changed after the disappearance of the seagrass vegetation coverage with an increase in abundance of SM during the five years of the post-disturbance period. Seagrass vegetation was concluded to affect temporal change of fish community structure through a stronger influence on fish species that are more dependent on seagrass beds as habitat.
The enrichment of meat with selenium is important to improve the intake of selenium by humans. The effects of supranutritional doses of sodium selenite or selenium-enriched yeast on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated using 63 Nellore cattle in a completely randomized design with two sources (sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast), three levels (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 mg Se/kg DM) and control treatment (without addition of selenium). Final body weight (BW), average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain to feed ratio (G : F) at the end of 84 days of supplementation were not influenced by treatments (P>0.05). Values of pH, ribeye area, back fat thickness and marbling score were also not influenced by treatments (
P>0.05). Dressing percentage was greater (P=0.02) in Nellore cattle supplemented with organic Se (58.70%) compared to animals supplemented with inorganic Se (57.94%). Hot carcass weight increased (
P=0.05) with the increasing of Se levels in the diet. Colour, shear force (SF), cooking and drip loss remained unchanged (
P>0.05); however thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was 15.51% higher with inorganic Se compared with organic Se. The selenium concentration in the meat of animals receiving organic selenium was higher (
P<0.001) than that of animals receiving sodium selenite, at all levels (0.3; 0.9 and 2.7 mg/kg DM). The meat of animals receiving 2.7 mg of organic Se/kg of DM presented concentration of 372.7 μg Se/kg in the L.dorsi muscle, and the intake of 150 g of this meat by humans provides approximately 100% of the recommended Se intake (55 μg Se/day for adults). Therefore, the use of supranutritional doses of 2.7 mg Se/kg of DM, regardless of source, is a way of naturally producing selenium-enriched meat without compromising performance, carcass characteristics and quality of Nellore bovine meat.
Recently, the risk of flood disasters due to concentrated heavy rains has been increasing in Japan. While some cases of hospital evacuation have been reported, standards for hospital evacuation have not been established and regional administrative evacuation plans do not include medical facilities.
To clarify the timeline for in-hospital vertical evacuation during a flood disaster.
A timeline was set for vertical evacuation as criteria of the hospital’s emergency response based on the Arakawa River Downstream Timeline, which is an estimate of the time until river flooding based on the water level of the Arakawa River located near the facility. The timeline was calculated backward from 0 hours to when the river floods. A drill was held for verification.
The timeline was based on the water level of the Arakawa River and objective evidence of risky transfer of critical patients; therefore, the decision to evacuate was made when the water level reached a dangerous level (-3 hours). However, this did not provide enough time to evacuate patients in all hospital departments simultaneously, resulting in a shortage of human resources. There was a planned shutdown of the electronic clinical record system at 0 hours to avoid water damage and evacuation of its server, but three hours were not enough to prepare patient clinical summaries.
There is a need for greater and earlier preparation for evacuation to reduce or discharge patients who can leave the hospital when a flood disaster is predicted. Only in-hospital vertical evacuation was considered because it is very risky to transfer critical patients without an evacuation order from government or municipal officials. In fact, over 10,000 patients would need to be evacuated in the region if the Arakawa River floods. Therefore, a regional plan is indispensable for such large scale and simultaneous hospital evacuations.
To critically evaluate the relevance of social exchange theory (SET) to the contemporary workplace, Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu (2018) point out a number of factors that reshape work relationships and suggest how to apply and extend social exchange theory to understand the new era work relationships. However, in their discussion, they focus mainly on reciprocal exchange (RE) in dyadic relationships. The discussion completely overlooks another important form of social exchange, namely, generalized exchange (GE), which is increasingly relevant to contemporary organizations exactly because of the changes indicated by Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu. In this commentary, we briefly review prior investigations into GE across various social science disciplines and then point out its increasing relevance to organizations. Finally, we will discuss implications for future research in the industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology literature.
To understand gender inequality in STEM, Miner et al. (2018) illustrate how an individual lens and a social-structural lens provide complementary perspectives. They indicate that gender inequality in STEM should not be simply understood from an individual lens concerning individual choices and responsibilities but also a social-structural lens concerning societal structures, processes, and meanings associated with gender. In this commentary, we would like to bring a cultural perspective to the consideration of the STEM field. Specifically, we focus on gender inequity in STEM in Japan and elaborate how Japanese culture, which emphasizes masculinity, collectivism, and a tight culture, imposes a stronger social-structural influence on gender inequality in STEM and at the same time strengthens the use of the individual lens to explain the phenomena, making the issue of gender inequality more prominent.
This Element aims to achieve three objectives. First, it explores some key institutional characteristics of several Asian economies that are relevant to corporate governance practices. Second, it reviews corporate governance codes or rules in those economies and examines levels of requirements in terms of formal rules. Third, this Element looks at recent trends related to corporate governance such as executive compensation and a proportion of independent directors on boards of large listed firms.
We are a group of researchers and clinicians with collective experience in child survival, nutrition, cognitive and social development, and treatment of common mental conditions. We join together to welcome an expanded definition of child development to guide global approaches to child health and overall social development. We call for resolve to integrate maternal and child mental health with child health, nutrition, and development services and policies, and see this as fundamental to the health and sustainable development of societies. We suggest specific steps toward achieving this objective, with associated global organizational and resource commitments. In particular, we call for a Global Planning Summit to establish a much needed Global Alliance for Child Development and Mental Health in all Policies.
Wetting of a planar solid substrate is investigated in the presence of a macroscopic particle in the complete wetting regime. A drop of silicone oil spreads on the substrate and its macroscopic edge is incident on the particle at the late stage of spreading. The drop–particle interaction is observed in detail by shadowgraph and interferometry. Although the spreading drop edge is pinned by the particle for a short time, a sharp acceleration occurs when the liquid starts wetting the extra surface area offered by the particle and forming a meniscus. This process yields a net gain in spreading speed. A theoretical model based on the classical wetting dynamics dictated by Cox’s law is developed. It predicts that the capillary energy of the meniscus gives rise to a rapid motion of the liquid edge, showing good agreement with the dynamics observed in the experiments.
The air–sea-ice CO2 flux was measured in the ice-covered Saroma-ko, a lagoon on the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, using a chamber technique. The air–sea-ice CO2 flux ranged from −1.8 to +0.5 mg C m−2 h−1 (where negative values indicate a sink for atmospheric CO2). The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the brine of sea ice was substantially lower than that of the atmosphere, primarily because of the influence of the under-ice plume from the Saromabetsu river located in the southeastern part of the lagoon. This suggests that the brine had the ability to take up atmospheric CO2 into the sea ice. However, the snow deposited over the sea ice and the superimposed ice that formed from snowmelting and refreezing partially blocked CO2 diffusion, acting as an impermeable medium for CO2 transfer. Our results suggest that the air–sea-ice CO2 flux was dependent not only on the difference in pCO2 between the brine and the overlying air, but also on the status of the ice surface. These results provide the necessary evidence for evaluation of the gas exchange processes in ice-covered seas.
The Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) is a narrow band of electrons flowing from east to west at daytime at low latitudes. The electron current produces a magnetic field variation that can be measured at different latitudes. In this work, we have used the data analysis in order to quantify the solar and lunar contributions to those variations and study the morphology of the EEJ current.
An aqueous two phase system (ATPS) is composed of binary hydrophilic polymers, for example, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran, under an immiscible condition, and can also exhibit micro-segregation to produce cell-sized microcompartments like water-in-water microdroplets. Without membranes, interestingly, the microdroplet can serve as a micro-vessel (reactor) that contains various biochemical macromolecules like DNAs and proteins. We here present that PEG/dextran ATPS micro-segregation can provide an effective soft boundary to separate these biochemical macromolecules from the external environment. Trapped DNAs and proteins were concentrated inside such small spaces, and therefore, their interaction could be highly promoted to cause passive aggregation and controlled cross-linking if a certain cross-linker was added. We believe that the ATPS microdroplets might be associated with complicated structures and functions of living cells.
Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a water-soluble dietary fibre produced by the controlled partial enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum beans, has various physiological roles. This study aimed to elucidate the beneficial effects of PHGG on colonic mucosal damage in a murine 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice with TNBS after 2 weeks of pre-feeding with PHGG (5 %). The colonic mucosal inflammation was evaluated using macroscopic damage scores, and neutrophil infiltration was assessed by measuring tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the colonic mucosa. TNF-α expression in the colonic mucosa was measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota and production of SCFA were assessed by real-time PCR and HPLC, respectively. Colonic damage due to TNBS administration was significantly ameliorated by PHGG treatment. Furthermore, PHGG significantly inhibited increases in MPO activity and TNF-α protein and mRNA expression in the colonic mucosa in TNBS-induced colitis. On analysis of intestinal microbiota, we found that the concentration of the Clostridium coccoides group (Clostridium cluster XIVa), the Clostridium leptum subgroup (Clostridium cluster IV) and the Bacteroides fragilis group had significantly increased in PHGG-fed mice. On analysis of SCFA, we found that the caecal content of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid had significantly increased in PHGG-fed mice. Together, these results suggest that chronic ingestion of PHGG prevents the development of TNBS-induced colitis in mice by modulating the intestinal microbiota and SCFA, which may be significant in the development of therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease.
Radioactive nuclides such as radiocarbon can be good tracers for investigating the circulation of underground carbon and water. Volcanic gas can be sampled reliably for 14C analysis and prepared for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). In this paper, we establish a method for the measurement of 14C in volcanic gas, and measure the amounts of 14C in various volcanic gases. Samples of fumarolic gas from some Japanese volcanoes were found to contain 0.5 to 4.2 pMC, while those from White Island in New Zealand contained 2.6 pMC. Dissolved gas from Lake Nyos, Cameroon, contained 0.4 to 4.8 pMC. The data indicate a mixing process between surface carbon and deep carbon.
We calculate some indicators, which are closely related with galaxy clusters' substructure, for each cluster obtained in numerical simulations in OCDM and ΓCDM, and make a statistical comparison between two models. In ΓCDM the indicators, multipole moment power ratios and center shifts, are larger than those in OCDM. This result is consistent with the analytical prediction; galaxy clusters' formation epoch in ΓCDM is later than in OCDM and then clusters in OCDM are more relaxed than those in ΓCDM. We show that these indicators for X-ray surface brightness are useful tools to distinguish between OCDM and ΓCDM.
We perform an extensive analysis of nonlinear and stochastic biasing of galaxies and dark halos in spatially flat low-density CDM universe using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We identify galaxies by linking cold and dense gas particles which satisfy the Jeans criterion. We compare their biasing properties with the predictions of an analytic halo biasing model. Dark halos in our simulations exhibit reasonable agreement with the predictions only on scales larger than 10Mpc/h, and on smaller scales the volume exclusion effect of halos due to their finite size becomes substantial. Interestingly the biasing properties of galaxies are better described by extrapolating the halo biasing model predictions.
We studied the statistical methods for the estimation of the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies by Monte Carlo simulations. After examining the performance of these methods, we analyzed the photometric redshift data of the Hubble Deep Field prepared by Fernández-Soto et al. (1999). We also derived luminosity density ρL at B- and I-band. Our B-band estimation is roughly consistent with that of Sawicki, Lin, & Yee (1997), but a few times lower at 2.0 < z < 3.0. The evolution of ρL(I) is found to be less prominent.
Recently reported infrared galaxy number counts and cosmic infrared background (CIRB) measures all suggest that galaxies have experienced a strong evolutionary phase. We statistically estimated the galaxy evolution history from these data. We treated the evolution of galaxy luminosity as a stepwise nonparametric form, in order to explore the most suitable evolutionary history which satisfies the constraint from the CIRB. We found that an order of magnitude increase of the far infrared luminosity at redshift z = 0.75 - 1.0 was necessary to reproduce the very high CIRB intensity at ~ 150 μm reported by Hauser et al. (1998). We note that too large an evolutionary factor at high z overpredicts the CIRB intensity around 1 mm. The evolutionary history also satisfies the constraints from galaxy number counts obtained by IRAS, ISO and SCUBA. The rapid evolution of the IR luminosity density required from the CIRB well reproduces the very steep slope of galaxy number counts obtained by ISO. Based on this result and the evolution of optical luminosity density, we quantitatively discuss the contribution of starburst galaxies. In addition, we present the performance of the Japanese IRIS galaxy survey.
There are three wide-field telescopes at the Bisei Spaceguard Center operated by the Japan Spaceguard Association. These telescopes are dedicated to detect near-earth asteroids and produce several tera-byte data per month. Since these data contain many main-belt asteroids, we will use them for an education program that will allow school pupils and the general public to find new main-belt asteroids. We are now developing a new software for its purpose.