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We examined the measurement and mediating role of social support in dietary intake among participants in Texercise Select, an intervention for improving lifestyle behaviours.
Quasi-experimental study. Participants reported their dietary intake, level of social support measured by the new Social Support for Healthy Eating scale, sociodemographics and disease profile. We conducted exploratory factor analysis for scale evaluation and structural equation modelling for mediation analysis to test if changes in dietary-specific social support mediate the relationship between the intervention and changes in dietary intake.
Community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults completed a self-reported survey at baseline and 3-month follow-up (intervention group n 211, comparison group n 175).
The majority of the sample was aged ≥70 years (mean 74·30, sd 8·54), female (82·1 %) and had at least two chronic conditions (63·5 %). The acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the dietary-specific social support scale were confirmed. Compared with the comparison group, the intervention group reported improved intake of fruit/vegetables and water, and improved dietary-specific social support. Improved dietary-specific social support mediated the association between intervention and change in fruit/vegetable intake, controlling for sociodemographics, number of chronic conditions and geographic residence. About 12 % of intervention effect was mediated by social support.
The current study confirms positive intervention effects on healthy eating, and highlights social support relating to dietary behaviours that may be helpful for healthy eating. Future research should investigate additional social support for developing healthy eating behavioural skills.
The Act on medical care and treatment for insane or quasi-insane person who have caused serious incidents in Japan went into effect in July, 2005. It is critical to understand the current situation and the issue concerning medical care in this legal system for revision of the Act five years later. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate and analyze the information comprehensively collected from designated inpatient medical institutions and outpatient medical institutions from a technical standpoint.
The subjects of this research are 50 cases from designated inpatient medical institutions and 4 cases from designated outpatient medical institutions who have been registered as the subject of treatment under the Act. Static information at the time of the treatment starts and dynamic information, such as treatment evaluation usually created periodically in routine work, were the specific documentation for this research. From the information, variables required for analysis of improvement of medical care and operational situation of the Act were collected through the use of a database system.
Results and Conclusion
Since the Act was enacted last year, this one year research remains as a short term monitoring targeting a few cases. In this report, evaluation and progress of treatment of the subject will be presented with the information relevant to the mental illness and the judicial system exposed by collected various kinds of data. From this information, we outline the current situation and issues in this legal system and shows the usability of the result from this monitoring research.
There are no effective programs on return-to-work (RTW) despite an increase of stress related disorders. We developed an original rehabilitation program,’Ultra-short daily briefings care (USDBC)’. USDBC is based on a key concept of European Framework for Psychosocial Risk Management (PRIMA-EF; WHO, 2008) that provides the good practice guidelines at the workplace. We carried out USDBC at the worksite of Panasonic Healthcare Co., Ltd. to determine whether USDBC facilitates RTW.
To develop and establish the appropriate intervention that reduces depressive severity of sick-listed employees.
The aim of the study was to determine whether USDBC strengthen the sense of coherence (SOC; Antonovsky, 1985).
We compared two groups in a cross-sectional study design: 16 depressed RTW employees (USDBC group) vs. 121 healthy employees (control group) (Fig.1). USDBC group was received the instant face-to-face rehabilitation program in every workday (Fig.2). The primary outcome was the ability to cope with stress, measured by self-reported 13-items SOC scale for Japanese (Yamazaki, 1999).
In the USDBC group, significant changes were observed between baseline and measurement point in SOC score (40.3 vs. 54.4; 95% CI (20.6 to (7.5), whereas in the control group, no significant changes were observed (58.3 vs. 57.9; 95% CI (0.1 to 0.9) (Table.1).
The study suggests that USDBC strengthen the depressed employees’ SOC.
Participant now climt
Flow diagram showing the selection of USDBC group and control group
Intervention with USDBC
Depressive employees behave according to this flow in every workday.
Subjects’ characteristics and SOC.
USDBC group (n=l6)
39 (32 - 53)
Control group (n=121)
41 (21 - 59)
-0 1 to 0.9
In the USDBC goroup, significant change was found between baselne and tneasurment point. In the control group, no significant change was found.
Brain amyloid-β protein (Aβ) deposition is a key pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholinergic degeneration, including reductions in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR), is also known as a pathophysiology of AD. Recent imaging studies have shown cognitively normal subjects with Aβ depositions, indicating a missing link between Aβ deposition and cognitive decline.
To clarify relationships among the Aβ burden, α7-nAChR availability, and cognitive declines in AD.
To measure brain Aβ deposition and α7-nAChR availability in the same patients with AD using positron emission tomography (PET).
Twenty AD patients and age-matched 20 healthy adults were studied. The α7-nAChR availability and Aβ deposition were evaluated using PET with [11C]MeQAA and [11C]PIB, respectively. Levels of specific binding were estimated by a simplified reference tissue method (BPND) for [11C]MeQAA and a tissue ratio method (SUVR) for using [11C]PIB. The values were compared with clinical measures of various cognitive functions using regions of interest (ROIs)-based and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses.
[11C]MeQAA BPND levels were extensively lower in the cholinergic projection regions of AD. There was a significant negative correlation between [11C]PIB SUVR and [11C]MeQAA BPND in the nucleus basalis of Mynert (NBM). The NBM [11C]PIB SUVR was negatively correlated with the [11C]MeQAA BPND level in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, whereas the relation within the same region showed weak correlation. Also we found significant correlation between cognitive decline and [11C]MeQAA BPND levels in the NBM.
Aβ deposition-linked α7-nAChR dysfunction may account for cognitive decline in AD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Studies investigating the relationship between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and psychiatric disorders have thus far focused mainly on analyzing gray matter, rather than white matter, in the postmortem brain. In this study, we investigated whether PUFA levels showed abnormalities in the corpus callosum, the largest area of white matter, in the postmortem brain tissue of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder.
Fatty acids in the phospholipids of the postmortem corpus callosum were evaluated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n = 15), bipolar disorder (n = 15), or major depressive disorder (n = 15) and compared with unaffected controls (n = 15).
In contrast to some previous studies, no significant differences were found in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the corpus callosum between patients and controls. A subanalysis by sex gave the same results. No significant differences were found in any PUFAs between suicide completers and non-suicide cases regardless of psychiatric disorder diagnosis.
Patients with psychiatric disorders did not exhibit n-3 PUFAs deficits in the postmortem corpus callosum relative to the unaffected controls, and the corpus callosum might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism. This area of research is still at an early stage and requires further investigation.
Fungi are one of the most diverse carbon source-assimilating organisms, living as saprobes, parasites and symbionts; they play an important role in carbon cycling in the ecosystem. A lichen thallus provides habitats for many non-lichenized fungi and usually contains large quantities of polyols. However, research has not been undertaken to identify carbon sources of lichen-inhabiting fungi. In this study, we isolated various lichen-inhabiting fungi from surface-sterilized Ramalina spp., Flavoparmelia caperata and Peltigera degenii, and demonstrated their ability to assimilate carbon sources, namely glucose, ribitol and mannitol. Several isolates efficiently assimilated mannitol and ribitol; however, most isolates could assimilate only mannitol or both ribitol and mannitol at low levels. It is suggested that there are different preferences and niche segregation of carbon sources among lichen-inhabiting fungi, and that this assemblage includes fungi with different lifestyles such as saprobes, endophytes and transient visitors.
To investigate the response of the fish community structure to a natural disturbance in their habitat, fish abundance, biomass and species composition were analysed in relation to temporal variability of environmental conditions in a seagrass Zostera marina bed. A total of 3024 fishes belonging to 46 taxa (22 families) were collected by quantitative sampling for 10 years from 2007 to 2016 in the Seto Inland Sea, south-western Japan. Seagrass shoot density decreased to less than 1/20 of its original density after disappearance of vegetation caused by heavy rain in the autumn of 2011 and the area did not recover for the next five years. In order to analyse temporal changes of fish community, the fishes were divided into three groups depending on their habitats or lifestyles: pelagic or migratory species (PM), sand or mud bottom-associated species (SM) and seagrass (Z. marina) – or substrate (rocky bottom including macrophytes) – associated species (ZS). Multiple regression analysis showed seagrass shoot density had the most significant effect on biomass of ZS among the three groups, with higher fish biomass under higher seagrass shoot density. Fish community composition changed after the disappearance of the seagrass vegetation coverage with an increase in abundance of SM during the five years of the post-disturbance period. Seagrass vegetation was concluded to affect temporal change of fish community structure through a stronger influence on fish species that are more dependent on seagrass beds as habitat.
The enrichment of meat with selenium is important to improve the intake of selenium by humans. The effects of supranutritional doses of sodium selenite or selenium-enriched yeast on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated using 63 Nellore cattle in a completely randomized design with two sources (sodium selenite and selenium-enriched yeast), three levels (0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 mg Se/kg DM) and control treatment (without addition of selenium). Final body weight (BW), average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain to feed ratio (G : F) at the end of 84 days of supplementation were not influenced by treatments (P>0.05). Values of pH, ribeye area, back fat thickness and marbling score were also not influenced by treatments (
P>0.05). Dressing percentage was greater (P=0.02) in Nellore cattle supplemented with organic Se (58.70%) compared to animals supplemented with inorganic Se (57.94%). Hot carcass weight increased (
P=0.05) with the increasing of Se levels in the diet. Colour, shear force (SF), cooking and drip loss remained unchanged (
P>0.05); however thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was 15.51% higher with inorganic Se compared with organic Se. The selenium concentration in the meat of animals receiving organic selenium was higher (
P<0.001) than that of animals receiving sodium selenite, at all levels (0.3; 0.9 and 2.7 mg/kg DM). The meat of animals receiving 2.7 mg of organic Se/kg of DM presented concentration of 372.7 μg Se/kg in the L.dorsi muscle, and the intake of 150 g of this meat by humans provides approximately 100% of the recommended Se intake (55 μg Se/day for adults). Therefore, the use of supranutritional doses of 2.7 mg Se/kg of DM, regardless of source, is a way of naturally producing selenium-enriched meat without compromising performance, carcass characteristics and quality of Nellore bovine meat.
“The Pura Principle” was first published in the March 22, 2010, issue of The New Yorker. It was collected and is currently most readily available in This Is How You Lose Her (Riverhead, 2013).
How do we read and teach an amazing story that's been written by an author whose behavior seems reprehensible? Can a work of art be separated from the person who created it, and even more vitally, should it? Is it possible—isn't it possible—for an author who is demonstrably guilty of sexist behavior to produce a story that's interesting and even edifying about sexism? These are the questions that confront me when I think about Junot Díaz now.
Before Zinzi Clemmons stood up and spoke out against Díaz, I'd heard rumblings from colleagues about him. How misogynistic his work is, how toxic. How the students reading him need to be cautioned: don't write like him; stories should do more than celebrate predators and put down women. These were comments I blanched at and, at times, spoke out against, especially those directed at the writing students: I believe that writing should reveal the different prisms, even or especially those that are flawed and skewed, through which people see the world; many young writers already seem to be labouring under a heavy burden of cultural sensitivity. But for the most part I managed to ignore the rumblings, to treat them as so much background noise.
This was possible because I teach at a school where the students are famously edgy, and because my classes are made up of aspiring young writers—writers who are hungry, as I am, for different voices and new ways of telling stories. With these students, I've had the immense pleasure of reliving my own joy at discovering Díaz's work, the shock and thrill I felt when I picked up Drown in the late 1990s, an era in which writers everywhere were emulating Raymond Carver's restraint and repressed style, my amazement at encountering a voice that was profane, intimate, lyrical, moving and oh-so-funny, a voice that effortlessly, irresistibly combined Spanish with English and erudite references with geek pop culture.
Recently, the risk of flood disasters due to concentrated heavy rains has been increasing in Japan. While some cases of hospital evacuation have been reported, standards for hospital evacuation have not been established and regional administrative evacuation plans do not include medical facilities.
To clarify the timeline for in-hospital vertical evacuation during a flood disaster.
A timeline was set for vertical evacuation as criteria of the hospital’s emergency response based on the Arakawa River Downstream Timeline, which is an estimate of the time until river flooding based on the water level of the Arakawa River located near the facility. The timeline was calculated backward from 0 hours to when the river floods. A drill was held for verification.
The timeline was based on the water level of the Arakawa River and objective evidence of risky transfer of critical patients; therefore, the decision to evacuate was made when the water level reached a dangerous level (-3 hours). However, this did not provide enough time to evacuate patients in all hospital departments simultaneously, resulting in a shortage of human resources. There was a planned shutdown of the electronic clinical record system at 0 hours to avoid water damage and evacuation of its server, but three hours were not enough to prepare patient clinical summaries.
There is a need for greater and earlier preparation for evacuation to reduce or discharge patients who can leave the hospital when a flood disaster is predicted. Only in-hospital vertical evacuation was considered because it is very risky to transfer critical patients without an evacuation order from government or municipal officials. In fact, over 10,000 patients would need to be evacuated in the region if the Arakawa River floods. Therefore, a regional plan is indispensable for such large scale and simultaneous hospital evacuations.
To critically evaluate the relevance of social exchange theory (SET) to the contemporary workplace, Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu (2018) point out a number of factors that reshape work relationships and suggest how to apply and extend social exchange theory to understand the new era work relationships. However, in their discussion, they focus mainly on reciprocal exchange (RE) in dyadic relationships. The discussion completely overlooks another important form of social exchange, namely, generalized exchange (GE), which is increasingly relevant to contemporary organizations exactly because of the changes indicated by Chernyak-Hai and Rabenu. In this commentary, we briefly review prior investigations into GE across various social science disciplines and then point out its increasing relevance to organizations. Finally, we will discuss implications for future research in the industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology literature.
To understand gender inequality in STEM, Miner et al. (2018) illustrate how an individual lens and a social-structural lens provide complementary perspectives. They indicate that gender inequality in STEM should not be simply understood from an individual lens concerning individual choices and responsibilities but also a social-structural lens concerning societal structures, processes, and meanings associated with gender. In this commentary, we would like to bring a cultural perspective to the consideration of the STEM field. Specifically, we focus on gender inequity in STEM in Japan and elaborate how Japanese culture, which emphasizes masculinity, collectivism, and a tight culture, imposes a stronger social-structural influence on gender inequality in STEM and at the same time strengthens the use of the individual lens to explain the phenomena, making the issue of gender inequality more prominent.
This Element aims to achieve three objectives. First, it explores some key institutional characteristics of several Asian economies that are relevant to corporate governance practices. Second, it reviews corporate governance codes or rules in those economies and examines levels of requirements in terms of formal rules. Third, this Element looks at recent trends related to corporate governance such as executive compensation and a proportion of independent directors on boards of large listed firms.
Wetting of a planar solid substrate is investigated in the presence of a macroscopic particle in the complete wetting regime. A drop of silicone oil spreads on the substrate and its macroscopic edge is incident on the particle at the late stage of spreading. The drop–particle interaction is observed in detail by shadowgraph and interferometry. Although the spreading drop edge is pinned by the particle for a short time, a sharp acceleration occurs when the liquid starts wetting the extra surface area offered by the particle and forming a meniscus. This process yields a net gain in spreading speed. A theoretical model based on the classical wetting dynamics dictated by Cox’s law is developed. It predicts that the capillary energy of the meniscus gives rise to a rapid motion of the liquid edge, showing good agreement with the dynamics observed in the experiments.
The Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) is a narrow band of electrons flowing from east to west at daytime at low latitudes. The electron current produces a magnetic field variation that can be measured at different latitudes. In this work, we have used the data analysis in order to quantify the solar and lunar contributions to those variations and study the morphology of the EEJ current.
An aqueous two phase system (ATPS) is composed of binary hydrophilic polymers, for example, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran, under an immiscible condition, and can also exhibit micro-segregation to produce cell-sized microcompartments like water-in-water microdroplets. Without membranes, interestingly, the microdroplet can serve as a micro-vessel (reactor) that contains various biochemical macromolecules like DNAs and proteins. We here present that PEG/dextran ATPS micro-segregation can provide an effective soft boundary to separate these biochemical macromolecules from the external environment. Trapped DNAs and proteins were concentrated inside such small spaces, and therefore, their interaction could be highly promoted to cause passive aggregation and controlled cross-linking if a certain cross-linker was added. We believe that the ATPS microdroplets might be associated with complicated structures and functions of living cells.
We are a group of researchers and clinicians with collective experience in child survival, nutrition, cognitive and social development, and treatment of common mental conditions. We join together to welcome an expanded definition of child development to guide global approaches to child health and overall social development. We call for resolve to integrate maternal and child mental health with child health, nutrition, and development services and policies, and see this as fundamental to the health and sustainable development of societies. We suggest specific steps toward achieving this objective, with associated global organizational and resource commitments. In particular, we call for a Global Planning Summit to establish a much needed Global Alliance for Child Development and Mental Health in all Policies.