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Entamoeba histolytica infection causes amoebiasis, which is a global public health problem. The major route of infection is oral ingestion of E. histolytica cysts, cysts being the sole form responsible for host-to-host transmission. Cysts are produced by cell differentiation from proliferative trophozoites in a process termed ‘encystation’. Therefore, encystation is an important process from a medical as well as a biological perspective. Previous electron microscopy studies have shown the ultrastructure of precysts and mature cysts; however, the dynamics of ultrastructural changes during encystation were ambiguous. Here, we analysed a series of Entamoeba invadens encysting cells by transmission electron microscopy. Entamoeba invadens is a model for encystation and the cells were prepared by short interval time course sampling from in vitro encystation-inducing cultures. We related sampled cells to stage conversion, which was monitored in the overall population by flow cytometry. The present approach revealed the dynamics of ultrastructure changes during E. invadens encystation. Importantly, the results indicate a functional linkage of processes that are crucial in encystation, such as glycogen accumulation and cyst wall formation. Hence, this study provides a reference for studying sequential molecular events during Entamoeba encystation.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) affect up to 10% of women during pregnancy and influence child neurodevelopment, including mental and motor function. We assessed whether HDP, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, superimposed preeclampsia, and eclampsia, correlate with motor and mental developmental abnormalities in 3-year-old children, using data obtained between April 2004 and March 2013 through a mandatory population-based health checkup of mothers and children in Kobe city, Japan. The primary outcome was motor and mental developmental abnormalities at 3 years of age; parental-reported questionnaires and physician’s medical examinations were evaluated. The association between maternal HDP and child neurodevelopmental abnormality was evaluated using a logistic regression model. Of the 43,854 participating children, 1120 were born to women with HDP and 42,734 were born to women without HDP. The prevalence of motor developmental abnormality was 1.7% in the exposed group and 0.95% in the control group; the prevalence of mental developmental abnormality was 2.41% in the exposed group and 1.22% in the control group. Children born to mothers with HDP did not have an increased risk of motor developmental abnormality at the age of 3 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.72–1.91], but had an increased risk of mental developmental abnormality (adjusted OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21–2.69). Maternal HDP were associated with mental development abnormality in 3-year-old children. These findings may be clinically relevant; mental abnormality in children born to women with HDP could be detected during early stages, which would facilitate early intervention.
In the midst of a global pandemic, hospitals around the world are working to meet the demand for patients ill with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China. As the crisis unfolds, several countries have reported lower numbers as well as less morbidity and mortality for pediatric patients. Thus, pediatric centers find themselves pivoting from preparing for a patient surge to finding ways to support the regional response for adults. This study describes the response from 2 West Coast freestanding academic children’s hospitals that were among the first cities in the United States impacted during this pandemic.
The authors examined the effect of tandospirone on tardive dyskinesia (TD) and parkinsonian symptoms in an open study. Tandospirone did not bring about any favourable effect on TD, but it had a good effect on the parkinsonian symptoms.
We have reported a blood flow increase in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version TMT. Although TMT-A was first performed and followed by TMT-B in the previous study, the order was reversed in the present study,i.e., TMT-B was first performed and then followed by TMT-A, and differences in the change of blood flow were compared between the two modes of TMT.
Nine healthy student volunteers (20.7 ± 1.6 yr) performed two different sets of TMT-B. After a resting period of 30 sec, they performed four different sets of TMT-A. Changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb were monitored by 22-channel NIRS from 30 sec before the start of TMT-B through 30 sec after the end of TMT-A. The mean changes of blood flow over a period of 10 sec just before the start of TMT-B and TMT-A, and over a period of 100 sec after the start of TMT-B and TMT-A were determined.
The increase of oxyHb was prominent in the right lateral prefrontal cortex.
The results suggest that the blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the start of either TMT-A or TMT-B. The location of blood flow increase did not change whether TMT-B was performed first or after TMT-A. Therefore, the blood flow increase observed only in the right prefrontal cortex in the previous study could not be due to familiarization of the test. In contrast, TMT-A apparently exhibits a familiarization effect, since blood flow increase was not observed when TMT-A was performed after TMT-B.
We measured concentration changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version Trail Making Test(TMT) by multichannel NIRS using near infrared light pairs which are more sensitive for detecting changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb.
Sixteen healthy student volunteers performed four different TMT-A sets, and following 30 a sec resting period, two different TMT-B sets. Changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb were monitored by 22 channel NIRS from 30 sec before the start of TMT-A through 30 sec after the end of TMT-B. The mean changes in subjects over a period of 10 sec just before the start of TMT-A and TMT-B, and a period of 50 to 60 sec after the start of TMT-A and TMT-B were determined. OxyHb increased while deoxyHb decreased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices during the performance of TMT. The increase of oxyHb was prominent in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, especially during TMT-A.
On the other hand, deoxyHb significantly decreased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices especially during TMT-A.
The results suggest that blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version TMT.
We herein report a case of new-onset epileptic seizures induced by carbamazepine in an individual with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We clinicians should bear in mind the possibility that epileptic seizures may possibly be either precipitated or exacerbated by carbamazepine especially in individuals with ASD.
Electro- and diffusio-phoresis of particles correspond respectively to the transport of particles under electric field and solute concentration gradients. Such interfacial transport phenomena take their origin in a diffuse layer close to the particle surface, and the motion of the particle is force free. In the case of electrophoresis, it is further expected that the stress acting on the moving particle vanishes locally as a consequence of local electroneutrality. But the argument does not apply to diffusiophoresis, which takes its origin in solute concentration gradients. In this paper we investigate further the local and global force balance on a particle undergoing diffusiophoresis. We calculate the local tension applied on the particle surface and show that, counter-intuitively, the local force on the particle does not vanish for diffusiophoresis, in spite of the global force being zero, as expected. Incidentally, our description allows us to clarify the osmotic balance in diffusiophoresis, which has been a source of debate in recent years. We explore various cases, including hard and soft interactions, as well as porous particles, and provide analytic predictions for the local force balance in these various systems. The existence of local stresses may induce deformation of soft particles undergoing diffusiophoresis, hence suggesting applications in terms of particle separation based on capillary diffusiophoresis.
The chapter examines violence and the Japanese empire from the beginning of the empire’s existence in the late nineteenth century to its collapse in 1945. The chapter analyzes not only the war crimes initiated by the Japanese empire, but also the various individual recipients and perpetrators of violence from 1937 to 1945. Both the second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45) and the Pacific War (1941-45) tore apart the lives of millions of individuals. All involved were exposed to extreme violence, and every individual had to endure such periods of violence in one way or another. Chinese and Korean forced laborers, women forced into sexual servitude, Japanese leftists killed in the prison, American and European prisoners of wars, and Japanese and Korean suicide pilots are among those who addressed in this chapter. My essay attempts to illuminate complicated aspects of the wars that Japan experienced and provide a better understanding of these wars and their effects on various individuals in Asia and the Pacific.
Copper is a candidate for use as an overpack material in deep underground nuclear waste disposal. Copper, however, is susceptible to corrosion following closure of the repository and migration of the corrosion products through the buffer material may affect the migration of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Electromigration experiments were performed whereby a copper coupon, which was in contact with compacted bentonite, served as the working electrode and was held at a constant potential of between +100 to +400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl electrode for up to 48 h. The amounts of copper that migrated into the bentonite specimens were found to be in good agreement with the calculated values based on the corrosion current flow for the assumption that copper underwent anodic dissolution as Cu(II). A model based on dispersion and electromigration was able to explain the measured copper profiles in the bentonite specimens. The fitted values of the dispersion coefficient did not depend on the applied potential and were about 10-12 m2/s.
This article forms part of ‘The Microtonal Piano – and the tuned-in interpreter’, an ongoing artistic research project at the Norwegian Academy of Music that seeks to demonstrate how microtonality can increase the expressive possibilities of the acoustic piano. Many different modes of playing can result in microtonal sounds, and this article presents a preliminary overview of these possibilities. For the project, new works have been commissioned from several composers, and different aspects of microtonal modes of playing are integrated into these works. Multiphonics is obviously one of these modes of playing, as it most often results in microtonality. At the end of the article, different ways that multiphonics can be modified when used in combination with some of the other microtonal modes of playing are suggested.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
We calculate the spectral energy distribution of the first galaxies which contain pre-main-sequence stars by using the stellar evolution code Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics, the spectra model BT-Settl, and the stellar population synthesis code PEGASE. We calculate the galaxy spectral energy distribution for Salpeter Initial Mass Function. We find that very young first galaxies are bright also in mid-infrared, and the contribution of pre-main-sequence stars can be significant over 0.1 Myr after a star-formation episode.
We identified a waterborne pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera in our stem cell transplantation center, which likely resulted from biofilm on the aerators of the handwashing machines in each patient’s room. Regular replacement of faucet parts can prevent biofilm formation and pseudo-outbreaks of M. chimaera through aerators.
The present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children's attention. Participants were ten parent–child dyads; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups: (a) frequency of parent's gesture use; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child's face; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children's faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children's visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children's early learning, including for children with ASD.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.