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New evidence from the rockshelter site of Aru Manara, on the island of Morotai, in the northern Moluccas, East Indonesia, suggests an earlier than previously assumed date for extensive interactions between this area of Southeast Asia and the wider Pacific. Shared mortuary customs and associated ceramic grave goods, along with other practices such as megalithic traditions, appear to start in the Late Neolithic, but become more widespread and consolidated in the Early Metal Age. Excavations at Aru Manara show that the northern Moluccas may have figured prominently in the newly established network of interaction evidenced at this time, making it an important location in the spread and dispersal of people and culture throughout Island Southeast Asia and into Oceania.
Chlorite (C)-corrensite (Co)-smectite (S) seriesminerals occur as vein constituents in the two epithermal ore veins, the Chuetsu and Shuetsu veins of the Todoroki Au-Ag deposit. The characteristics of the C–Co–S seriesminerals indicate that the clays may be products of direct precipitation from hydrothermal fluids and subsequent mineralogical transformations during and/or after vein formation. The minerals from the Chuetsu vein are characterized by ‘monomineralic’ corrensite showing an extensive distribution throughout the vein, and trioctahedral smectite occurring locally. The Shuetsu vein minerals are characterized by C-Co series minerals which can be divided into three different types: a I type including discrete chlorite with minor amounts of S layers, a II type comprising interstratified C/Co and discrete chlorite, and a III type characterized by segregation structures of C and Co layers. The C-Co series minerals show slightly different spatial distributions in the Shuetsu vein. Different epithermal environments during the vein formations and possible kinetic effects may have played a role in the formation and conversion of Co-C series at the Shuetsu vein and S-Co series at the Chuetsu vein.
The relative contribution of marine-derived carbon in the ancient diet is essential for correcting the marine reservoir effect on the radiocarbon age of archaeological human remains. In this study, we evaluated the marine protein consumption of 3 human populations from the Okhotsk culture (about AD 550–1200) in Hokkaido, Japan, based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in bulk bone collagen as well as the nitrogen isotopic composition of glutamic acid and phenylalanine. Despite the similarity of carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of bulk collagens, nitrogen isotopic composition of their constituent amino acids suggests differences in fur seal contributions among northern Hokkaido (0–24% for Kafukai 1, 0–10% for Hamanaka 2) and eastern Hokkaido (78–80% for Moyoro) populations. It suggests that nitrogen composition of glutamic acid and phenylalanine could provide a detailed picture of ancient human subsistence.
A surface-water Δ14C record of AD 1948–1999 in the tropical South China Sea (SCS) has been reconstructed from accelerator mass spectrometric radiocarbon measurements of annual bands of a Pontes coral collected from Con Dao Island, Vietnam. Results gave the following Δ14C time series: a steady state of −47.8 ± 2.8‰ (mean ± SD, n = 8) during 1948–1955 (i.e. in the pre-bomb period); a sharp increase during 1956–1966; a gradual increase during 1967–1973; a relatively high maximum value of ∼174‰ in 1973; and a gradual decrease for the following period to ∼86‰ in 1999. This Δ14C record having a sharp increase and a relatively high peak is similar to the records of subtropical corals (latitudes 21–27°) and is distinctly different from the records of equatorial/tropical corals (latitudes <10°), although our coral sample was collected from an equatorial/tropical region (8°39′N, 106°33′E). This can be explained by the geographic, oceanographic, and climatic setting of our study site. The SCS is a semi-enclosed marginal sea in the far western tropical Pacific and is little influenced by equatorial upwelling or related ocean currents. Our study site is located in the southwestern SCS, where an enormous submerged plain (the Sunda Shelf) spreads out with very shallow waters (mean depth <100 m). Furthermore, in the SCS, the East Asian monsoon (a strong, seasonally reversing wind system) enhances air-sea gas exchange especially in the mainland coastal waters, including our study site. Such semi-enclosed shallow waters with enhanced ventilation were probably very sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear explosions in the late 1950s and early 1960s and caused the sharp increase and high peak in the coral Δ14C record. Our coral Δ14C values in the southwestern SCS are significantly higher than the values in the northwestern SCS (Xisha Islands), which seems to suggest that meridional mixing of surface waters is not active in the SCS and that the open-ocean water intruding into the northern SCS (i.e. the Kuroshio intrusion) has only a limited influence on the southern SCS.
This study presents the results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of six human skeletons excavated from the Tochibara rockshelter (Nagano, Japan). The human skeletons were reported to be accompanied by “Oshigata-mon” type pottery dating to the Earliest Jomon period (8900 BP ≃ 6600 BP). A radiocarbon determination from charcoal associated with the human remains was reported to be 8650 ± 180 BP (GaK-1056). However, the depositional context of human skeletons was uncertain because they were recovered by excavations that were dug by prescribed levels. Our results indicated that these skeletons date to the Earliest Jomon period; the 14C determinations place these remains between 8260 ± 100 BP (TERRA-b030799ab38) and 8580 ± 100 BP (TERRA-b011300a35). This coincides with the archaeological evidence that these specimens are some of the oldest Jomon skeletal materials. Furthermore, δ13C and δ15N values provide evidence for the first reconstruction of the diet of an inland Earliest Jomon population. Although the distribution of data indicated a possibility that they had exploited small amounts of seafood, the isotopic data point to this group having relied heavily on a terrestrial ecosystem based on C3 plants.
We measured radiocarbon ages of planktic foraminifera in 4 sediment cores from the northwestern Pacific region off northern Japan in order to estimate marine reservoir ages during the B⊘lling-Aller⊘d period. The ages of deglacial tephra markers from 2 Japanese source volcanoes identified in these sediment cores had been previously estimated from 14C ages of terrestrial charcoal and buried forests. By comparing the foraminiferal and tephra ages, we estimated the surface water reservoir age during the B⊘lling-Aller⊘d period to be ∼1000 yr or more in the region off northern Japan. The deglacial reservoir ages were more than 200 yr higher than the Holocene values of ∼800 yr. The older deglacial ages may have been caused by active upwelling of deep water during the last deglaciation and the consequent mixing of “older” deep water with “younger” surface waters.
In this study, molluscan shells housed at the University Museum, the University of Tokyo, provided a new set of region-specific correction values (ΔR) for the western Pacific, in particular for the central part of the main islands in the Japanese Archipelago and the southwest islands of Japan. The values of 40 total samples were calculated from 11 regions. North of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands, the mean ΔR values showed comparatively small values, 5–40 14C yr; in the central part of the main islands, these values were 60–90 14C yr.
To investigate the sources and cycling of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a lacustrine environment, isotopic measurements of 14C and 13C in DOC were carried out for Lake Kasumigaura—which is famous as a very eutrophic and shallow (mean depth 4.0 m) lake in central Japan—and its tributary rivers. Lake and river samples were collected in the spring and autumn (May and September) of 2003. The Δ14C measurements of DOC were performed using the accelerator mass spectrometer at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA), Japan. In September, the 14C values of DOC were light (around −200%) and did not differ significantly between lake and river water samples, indicating that DOC in Lake Kasumigaura and its tributary rivers yields older 14C ages than the age expected from the lake-water residence time (average 200 days). This result suggests that terrestrial sources are important contributors to DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. Nevertheless, δ13C values indicated that during spring, DOC in the lake is mainly autochthonous. Thus, sources and cycling of DOC in Lake Kasumigaura may vary seasonally.
Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of five fatty-acid biomarkers was conducted for marine sediments collected from the western North Pacific. The fatty acids (C12 to C34) showed a typical bimodal distribution pattern with two maxima at C16 and C26. Their carbon isotopic compositions ranged from −25.1‰ (C16) to −31.8‰ (C28), suggesting that they derived from terrestrial higher plants and marine organisms. A large variations of 14C ages were found among the fatty acids detected in the same sedimentary horizon of the core, ranging from 530 BP (C18) to 3250 BP (C28). The results of 14C analysis of fatty acids could be divided into two groups, i.e., lower molecular weight (LMW) fatty acids (C16, C18) derived from marine organisms and higher molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids (C24, C26, C28) derived from terrestrial higher plants. The HMW fatty acids showed older ages, ranging from 2550 BP (C24) to 3250 BP (C28), than LMW fatty acids (530 BP [C18] to 1,820 years BP [C16]). On the other hand, bulk-phase total organic matter (TOM) showed the age of 2260 BP that is between those two groups, suggesting that it was likely a mixture of organic matter derived from marine and terrestrial sources. The compound specific 14C ages and δ13C data of sedimentary fatty acids presented here could provide useful information to decipher the fate and transport process of terrestrial organic matter to marine sediments.
Faunal remains originating from terrestrial and marine mammals, and belonging to the same archaeological deposits were compared to evaluate the marine radiocarbon reservoir ages around the Hokkaido island, Japan. From five shell middens of different ages from the Jomon period (4900 BP) to the Ainu cultural period (800 BP), 107 animal bone samples were selected for radiocarbon measurements. The apparent age differences between Japanese deer and northern fur seal showed the clear effect of deep-water upwelling in this region. Our data showed relatively stable age differences from 4500 BP to 800 BP, with an estimated ΔR values around 380 14C yr. Results are consistent with previous estimation based on simulation models and oceanographic properties.
The temporal radiocarbon variation (in terms of percent Modern Carbon: pMC) of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter (APM) collected in Tokyo between April 2002 and February 2003 was analyzed in order to get an insight into the sources of carbonaceous particles. Results indicated significant biogenic origins (approximately 40 pMC on average). In general, the seasonal and particle size variations in pMC were relatively small, with 2 exceptions: elevated pMC in coarse particles in April and October 2002, and relatively low pMC in the finest particle size fraction collected in August 2002. The former finding could be tentatively attributed to the abundance of coarse particles of biological origins, such as pollen; the latter might be due to an increased fraction of anthropogenic secondary particles.
We propose an X-ray all sky monitor for Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the space station. Considering practical circumstances, we show as a case study that the all sky monitor with slit hole cameras is most promising for monitoring the short-term and long-term X-ray transients. We call this all sky monitor as MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image). Position determination of gamma-ray bursts could be achieved with accuracy less than one degree observing the X-ray component of the burst. Weak X-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei could be also monitored with time resolution less than one day. The X-ray all sky monitor will work to discover X-ray novae and transient phenomena and give us the alarm for further detailed observations. The obtained data will be also used for archival study.
Tornadoes are one type of violent flow phenomenon and occur in many places in the world. There are many research methods that aim to reduce the loss of human lives and material damage caused by tornadoes. One effective method is numerical simulation such as that in Ishihara et al. (J. Wind Engng Ind. Aerodyn., vol. 99, 2011, pp. 239–248). The swirling structure of the Navier–Stokes flow is significant for both the mathematical analysis and numerical simulations of tornadoes. In this paper, we try to clarify the swirling structure. More precisely, we performed numerical computations on axisymmetric Navier–Stokes flows with a no-slip flat boundary. We compared a hyperbolic flow with swirl and one without swirl, and observed that the following phenomenon occurs only in the swirl case: the distance between the point with the maximum magnitude of velocity
-axis changed drastically at a specific time (which we call the turning point). Besides, an ‘increasing velocity phenomenon’ occurred near the boundary, and the maximum value of
was obtained near the axis of symmetry and the boundary when the time was close to the turning point in the swirl case.
Temperature is one of the most influential factors for the sexual maturation of fishes, but understanding of the extent to which temperature affects the maturational schedules is limited in multiple-spawning fishes over a protracted season. This study examined the effect of temperature on sexual maturation of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus siblings under high and low temperature regimes on different birthdates. The maturation probability differed between the two temperature regimes. Specimens in high temperature regimes matured at much smaller size and younger age than their counterparts. Also, a significant difference in the maturation probability between sexes was found at low temperatures, but not at high temperatures. Our findings show that temperature affects the maturational schedules of siblings of Japanese anchovy, suggesting that the size and age at sexual maturation could differ among cohorts, even in a given sampling location and/or year.
Over 30 funerary bundles were excavated in 2005 from a large chamber tomb at the prehispanic religious center of Pachacamac on the central coast of Peru. The largest and most elaborate bundle was found in the innermost part of the tomb, tightly surrounded by other bundles. We hypothesized that this bundle contained the deceased leader of a social group whose members collectively cared for their ancestor's bundle (for example, by rewrapping it) and continued to use the tomb to inter deceased individuals from subsequent generations. We tested this hypothesis by dating samples from different layers of the wrapping materials and soft tissue from the bodies and conducting a Bayesian analysis of the resultant dates. We determined carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the diet of the interred individuals to correct for marine reservoir effects. Our findings suggest that (1) rewrapping did not occur; (2) the tomb was used for over 500 years starting at cal A.D. 1000; and (3) existing bundles were reshuffled each time new bundles were introduced. Overall, diverse lines of evidence indicate that the tomb had a complex use history and contained individuals with diverse geographical and social origins. This challenges conventional thinking about the social and chronological significance of coexisting bundles in large tombs.
We propose to use Purcell effect emerged at slow light regions in photonic crystal waveguide (PC-WG) modes for controlling the relaxation time of excited carriers in QDs. Straight GaAs PC-WGs including InAs-QDs with various lattice constants of PC were prepared in order to control the wavelength of the slow light in the PC-WG modes. PL measurements of the PC-WGs indicated enhancements of emission from QDs at the localized wavelength of slow light regions due to the Purcell effect. The enhanced emission peak wavelength was continuously shifted with the PC lattice constant. These results suggest that the PC-WG can be utilized to modify the spontaneous emission rate and carrier relaxation time of the embedded QD. This modification can be applied and useful for various QD-based optical devices as well as our proposed all-optical switching device based on PC-WG/QD.
This chapter speaks about an 82-year-old woman who was admitted with apparently sudden-onset neurological symptoms. On examination, this patient appeared well and comfortable. The patient's clinical evolution was characterized by a relentlessly progressive course over several weeks. The visual field defect expanded into a right homonymous hemianopia, and optic ataxia also developed on the left. Dysarthria and dysphagia worsened until she was dependent on tube feeding. The human prion diseases are a comparatively rare cause of dementia, with an estimated incidence of 1 case per million people per year, although some uncorroborated reports would place the true incidence much higher. Therapeutic options for all the human prion diseases are currently limited to palliation, as there are no agents capable of reliably causing a sustained improvement in clinical course. A large and diverse selection of drugs have been tried with limited success, including antivirals, antifungals, antibiotics, antimalarials, antidepressants, antioxidants, and analgesics.
(Ba,Sr)TiO3 [BST] films were deposited by the flash vaporization CVD method with a unique liquid delivery system. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry [ICP-MS] analysis revealed the decline of (Ba+Sr)/Ti molar ratio of the initial BST-layer on Ru. By readjusting the flow ratio of liquid sources and using a two-step deposition method, we obtained 30-nm-thick BST films with uniform composition profile, exhibiting good electrical properties. The leakage property, however, was severely deteriorated in BST films less than 24 nm thick. A SEM observation showed the presence of micro-roughness or micro-hillocks in these films, which were confirmed to be caused by Ru oxidation. Therefore, an annealing process of the Ru electrode was added for its planarization, and the CVD process was also improved. As a result, we obtained smooth and finely crystallized ∼ 20-nm-thick BST films with good electrical properties of equivalent SiO2 thickness (teq) ∼ 0.45 nm and leakage current < 1 × 10−7 A/cm2. We also measured properties of BST films deposited on the 3-D Ru electrode. The results are briefly discussed.
Critical current densities and upper critical fields were measured for a single crystal of the high Tc oxide superconductor, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d, within the ab basal plane and along the c axis. The anisotropy in critical current densities was observed to be Jc⊥/Jc//=10 in agreement with the anisotropy in resistivity for the normal state. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current densities can be interpreted by the anisotropy in the upper critical fields. The scaling of the critical current density with the magnetic field was found. The critical current density scaled to zero at fields Bc2 in the ab plane and along the c axis which were in good agreement with the upper critical fields measured by transport.
The anisotropy in flux pinning force density along the b axis, Fp//b, and along the a axis, Fp//a, was found to be Fp//b/Fp//a=3. The data provided strong evidence for flux pinning by the modulated structure in this system.