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Coherence is important in the design of products, because it makes them easier to understand for their users. Designers can use different representation modes to express ideas about coherence. However, perception of a representation can be influenced by its mode. Therefore, designers must be aware of the influences that different representation modes can have on perception of coherence.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of experienced modality on perception of conceptual coherence. In the study, participants were divided into two conditions for two representation modes: written word and physical object, both representing the same concepts. Each participant was presented with the concepts as words or objects and asked to list the properties of each concept. The results showed that between the two conditions, frequencies of responses were similar while frequencies of response contents were dissimilar and sometimes contrary. The main findings suggest that the effects of the modalities, written word and physical object, do not differ significantly for mental activity, but do differ considerably for semantic processing in ways that has implications for design.
In this contribution, we devoted ourselves to fabricating aggregation-induced emission (AIE) activity copolymers via one-pot combination of RAFT polymerization and Biginelli reaction for the first time. When the feeding ratio of TPB was 33.5%, the molar fraction of TPB was, respectively, about 14.2 and 22.5% in PEG-PTE1 copolymers by two-step strategy and PEG-PTE2 copolymers by one-pot strategy with the similar structure. The Mn of PEG-PTE1 increased to 59,300 from 52,800 of PEG-AE presoma with narrow PDI, which was more than Mn of PEG-PTE2 with 52,300. As compared with PEG-PTE2, when the feeding ratio of TPB was 48.6%, the molar fraction of TPB increased to 32.6% in PEG-PTE3. In aqueous solution, the as-obtained PEG-PTE2 copolymers can self-assemble into fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) with 100–180 nm spherical morphology, the maximal emission peak of which presented at 460 nm with the obvious AIE phenomenon. Moreover, due to the low toxicity and excellent cell dyeing behavior, the as-prepared PEG-PTE2 copolymers displayed great potential for biomedical applications.
Consumption of certain berries appears to slow postprandial glucose absorption, attributable to polyphenols, which may benefit exercise and cognition, reduce appetite and/or oxidative stress. This randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study determined whether polyphenol-rich fruits added to carbohydrate-based foods produce a dose-dependent moderation of postprandial glycaemic, glucoregulatory hormone, appetite and ex vivo oxidative stress responses. Twenty participants (eighteen males/two females; 24 (sd 5) years; BMI: 27 (sd 3) kg/m2) consumed one of five cereal bars (approximately 88 % carbohydrate) containing no fruit ingredients (reference), freeze-dried black raspberries (10 or 20 % total weight; LOW-Rasp and HIGH-Rasp, respectively) and cranberry extract (0·5 or 1 % total weight; LOW-Cran and HIGH-Cran), on trials separated by ≥5 d. Postprandial peak/nadir from baseline (Δmax) and incremental postprandial AUC over 60 and 180 min for glucose and other biochemistries were measured to examine the dose-dependent effects. Glucose AUC0–180 min trended towards being higher (43 %) after HIGH-Rasp v. LOW-Rasp (P=0·06), with no glucose differences between the raspberry and reference bars. Relative to reference, HIGH-Rasp resulted in a 17 % lower Δmax insulin, 3 % lower C-peptide (AUC0–60 min and 3 % lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (AUC0–180 min) P<0·05. No treatment effects were observed for the cranberry bars regarding glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, nor were there any treatment effects for either berry type regarding ex vivo oxidation, appetite-mediating hormones or appetite. Fortification with freeze-dried black raspberries (approximately 25 g, containing 1·2 g of polyphenols) seems to slightly improve the glucoregulatory hormone and glycaemic responses to a high-carbohydrate food item in young adults but did not affect appetite or oxidative stress responses at doses or with methods studied herein.
Whereas genetic susceptibility increases the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), non-genetic protective factors may mitigate this risk. In a large-scale prospective study of US Army soldiers, we examined whether trait resilience and/or unit cohesion could protect against the onset of MDD following combat deployment, even in soldiers at high polygenic risk.
Data were analyzed from 3079 soldiers of European ancestry assessed before and after their deployment to Afghanistan. Incident MDD was defined as no MDD episode at pre-deployment, followed by a MDD episode following deployment. Polygenic risk scores were constructed from a large-scale genome-wide association study of major depression. We first examined the main effects of the MDD PRS and each protective factor on incident MDD. We then tested the effects of each protective factor on incident MDD across strata of polygenic risk.
Polygenic risk showed a dose–response relationship to depression, such that soldiers at high polygenic risk had greatest odds for incident MDD. Both unit cohesion and trait resilience were prospectively associated with reduced risk for incident MDD. Notably, the protective effect of unit cohesion persisted even in soldiers at highest polygenic risk.
Polygenic risk was associated with new-onset MDD in deployed soldiers. However, unit cohesion – an index of perceived support and morale – was protective against incident MDD even among those at highest genetic risk, and may represent a potent target for promoting resilience in vulnerable soldiers. Findings illustrate the value of combining genomic and environmental data in a prospective design to identify robust protective factors for mental health.
The current transient was studied on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for RF power amplifiers under different temperatures. The current transient measurements include two different approaches. One is to measure the current transient from off-state (without bias) to a quiescent point (Q-point). Different transient behaviors were observed while switching to different Q-points. Another one is to measure the current transient from different currents to the Q-point of VDS = 28 V and ID = 100 mA/mm. The different currents before switching to Q-point of VDS = 28 V and ID = 100 mA/mm show the different transient characteristics. Most of the current transient demonstrates temperature independence in this study.
Population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs that use a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are often faced with a noncompliance issue and its subsequent waiting time (WT) for those FIT positives complying with confirmatory diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with both of the correlated problems in the same model.
A total of 294,469 subjects, either with positive FIT test results or having a family history, collected from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled for analysis. We applied a hurdle Poisson regression model to accommodate the hurdle of compliance and also its related WT for undergoing colonoscopy while assessing factors responsible for the mixture of the two outcomes.
The effect on compliance and WT varied with contextual factors, such as geographic areas, type of screening units, and level of urbanization. The hurdle score, representing the risk score in association with noncompliance, and the WT score, reflecting the rate of taking colonoscopy, were used to classify subjects into each of three groups representing the degree of compliance and the level of health awareness.
Our model was not only successfully applied to evaluating factors associated with the compliance and the WT distribution, but also developed into a useful assessment model for stratifying the risk and predicting whether and when screenees comply with the procedure of receiving confirmatory diagnosis given contextual factors and individual characteristics.
In 2007, Taiwan began conducting health technology assessments (HTA) to support the National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA) in its reimbursement decisions for drugs, medical devices, and medical services.
In this study, the development, missions, and procedures of the implementation of HTA in Taiwan are briefly introduced. Moreover, the value of HTA is examined by reviewing the outcomes and impacts of recent HTA-related research projects, which are classified into five categories: (i) pharmaceutical products, (ii) medical procedures, (iii) medical devices, (iv) health policy, and (v) social care.
Overall, the 10-year implementation of HTA has not only supported the government's decision making but also enhanced patient care. Furthermore, patient evidence has been highlighted, and patient care pathways have been transformed through patient involvement in HTA.
In conclusion, HTA's value has been determined by both government and social aspects in Taiwan.
This study presents an optimal design procedure including topology optimization and size–shape optimization methods to maximize mechanical advantage (which is defined as the ratio of output force to input force) of the synthesized compliant mechanism. The formulation of the topology optimization method to design compliant mechanisms with multiple output ports is presented. The topology-optimized result is used as the initial design domain for subsequent size–shape optimization process. The proposed optimal design procedure is used to synthesize an adaptive compliant gripper with high mechanical advantage. The proposed gripper is a monolithic two-finger design and is prototyped using silicon rubber. Experimental studies including mechanical advantage test, object grasping test, and payload test are carried out to evaluate the design. The results show that the proposed adaptive complaint gripper assembly can effectively grasp irregular objects up to 2.7 kg.
Let A be a simple ring with minimum condition, and B1, B2, and C be regular subrings of A such that Bi > C, i = 1, 2. A pair of isomorphisms σi of Bi into A such that σi|C is the identity, and that Biσi are regular subrings of A (i = 1, 2), is called compatible if σ1|B1 ∩ B2 = σ2|B1 ∩ B2. Here σ|X means the restriction of σ to X. Bialynicki-Birula has proved some necessary and sufficient conditions that every compatible pair (σ1, σ2) has a common extention to an automorphism σ of A (1 ). When A is a division ring, he shows that the linear disjointness of the division subrings B1 and B2 is necessary and almost sufficient for the existence of a common extension of any compatible pair.
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Taiwan. PLWHA were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System between 2000 and 2014. To examine the effect of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CVD incidence, incidence densities and standardised incidence rates (SIRs) of CVD were calculated after stratifying PLWHA by HAART. Of 26 272 PLWHA (mean age, 32.3 years) identified, 73.4% received HAART. Compared with general population, SIRs (95% confidence interval) were higher for incident coronary artery disease (1.11 (1.04–1.19)), percutaneous coronary intervention (1.32 (1.18–1.47)), coronary artery bypass surgery (1.47 (1.29–1.66)), sudden cardiac death (3.01 (2.39–3.73)), heart failure (1.50 (1.31–1.70)) and chronic kidney disease (1.95 (1.81–2.10)), but was lower for incident atrial fibrillation (0.53 (0.37–0.73)). Considering the effect of HAART on incident CVD, the SIRs for all-cause, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke were higher in PLWHA who did not receive HAART, but were lower in PLWHA who received HAART. PLWHA had higher risks of incident coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass surgery, sudden cardiac death, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. HAART reduces risks of incident CVD in PLWHA.