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The present study aimed to assess and decompose the socio-economic inequality in unhealthy snacks consumption among adolescent students in Kerman, Iran.
The data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. Principal component analysis was done to measure the socio-economic status (SES) of the adolescents’ families and the normalized concentration index (NCI) was used to measure the inequality in unhealthy snacks consumption among adolescent students of different SES. The contributions of environmental and individual explanatory variables to inequality were assessed by decomposing the concentration index.
Forty secondary schools of Kerman Province in Iran in 2015.
Eighth-grade adolescent students (n 1320).
The data of 1242 adolescent students were completed for the current study. Unhealthy snacks consumption was unequally distributed among adolescent students and was concentrated mainly among the high-SES adolescents (NCI = 0·179; 95 % CI 0·056, 0·119). The decomposition showed that higher SES (62 %) and receiving pocket money allowance (31 %), as environmental variables, had the highest positive contributions to the measured inequality in unhealthy snacks consumption. Taste and sensory perception (7 %) as well as cost sensitivity (5 %), as individual variables, followed them in terms of their contribution importance.
It is highly suggested that both environmental and individual factors should be addressed at different settings including schools, families and suppliers of unhealthy snacks. These findings can help future health promotion strategies in Iran to tackle the observed inequality in unhealthy snacks consumption.
Performance of female Holstein calves (n = 60) were evaluated in three step-down milk feeding programmes: step-down 1 (STP1: 7.5 litres/day milk from days 1 to 21, 6 litres/day milk from days 22 to 42, 4 litres/day milk from days 43 to 63 and 2 litres/day milk from days 64 to 84 of the study); step-down 2 (STP2; 7.5 litres/day milk from days 1 to 21, 6 litres/day milk from days 22 to 42 and 2 litres/day milk from days 43 to 63 of the study); and step-down 3 (STP3; 7.5 litres/day milk from days 1 to 21, 4 litres/day milk from days 22 to 42 and 2 litres/day milk from days 43 to 63 of the study). Intakes of starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and wither height (WH) were measured monthly. Calves in STP3 had lower dry matter intake between 22 and 42 days than STP2 animals, but starter intake was greater in STP2 and STP3 calves than those in the STP1 treatment between 43–63 and 64–84 days. Total ADG was greater in STP2 and STP3 animals than in STP1 calves. No effect of treatment was observed on breeding age, BW, WH or service per conception. In addition, conception rate at first breeding was not influenced by treatment. It was concluded that the STP2 and STP3 milk feeding regimes improved performance in calves and there was no benefit in feeding milk for longer than 63 days in terms of breeding outcomes.
One possible way to reduce urinary nitrogen (N) excretion is reducing the amount of dietary crude protein fed to dairy cows. In fact, decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) concentration from 184 to 151g/kg, linearly decreased urinary N expressed as gram per day or as a percentage of N intake (Broderick, 2003). Balancing diets for limiting amino acids could improve cow responses fed lower protein diets without increasing N losses in urine. High concentrations of methionine and lysine during early lactation may reduce the risk of metabolic disorders (Berthiaume et al., 2006). A number of blood metabolites are useful as monitors for signs of metabolic disorder. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of altering the dietary methionine concentration on some blood metabolite concentrations of early lactating Holstein cows.
Added sulphur (S) in the diet of ruminants has an equivocal effect on the ruminal fermentation. For example, Hegarty et al. (1994) reported an increased total VFA concentration in the rumen of sheep fed a high S diet versus those offered a low S diet (<0.25%, DM basis). Moderated high percentages of S (0.4-0.6%) in the diet of sheep have generally had no effects on ruminal VFA and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations (deOliveira et al., 1996). Working with Angora goats, Qi et al. (1992) noted that total ruminal fluid VFA concentration ranged from 76.7 to 79.1 mM and was not affected by added S (0.16-0.4%). There is limited information related to the influence of supplemental S on the metabolic responses in the rumen of Cashmere goat. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with an Iranian native breed of Cashmere producing goat, Raini, to evaluate the metabolic responses in rumen parameters to S supplementation.
Cotton is one of the main agricultural crops of Iran. The potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) for poultry nutrition is limited by the presence of gossypol, a toxic polyphenolic pigment. Gossypol exists in CSM in two forms, free and bound. Free gossypol, as defined by AOCS official methods, are those gossypol and gossypol derivatives that are soluble in aqueous acetone and are physiologically active. Bound gossypol is insoluble in ether, chloroform or aqueous acetone and for the most part is physiologically inactive (Berardi & Goldblatt, 1980). The objectives of the experiments reported herein were to study of gossypol reduction by dehydrated ferro sulfate( DFS) and lecithin and also the feeding value of a commercially processed CSM in broiler diets.
This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance. Results indicated that birth (P < 0·01), and weaning body weight (P < 0·001) were greater in calves born from multiparous cows. Neither 305 d milk production nor pre-weaning ADG differed significantly between calves born to primiparous or multiparous cows, although milk yield tended to be higher in the former and ADG higher in the latter. Correlations between 305 d milk yield and pre-weaning ADG, dam parity and birth body weight were low and non-significant, although there was a tendency for a positive correlation between ADG and milk yield.
Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis.