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Turbulent vortex dynamics is investigated in triply periodic turbulent flow with Kida’s high symmetry (Kida, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, vol. 54, 1985, pp. 2132–2136) by means of unstable periodic motion representing both the statistical and dynamical properties of turbulence (van Veen et al., Fluid Dyn. Res., vol. 38, 2006, pp. 19–46). In the periodic motion, the large-scale columnar vortices, the smaller-scale vortices and the large-amplitude axial waves on the large-scale columnar vortices are detected. In terms of mutual dynamical interaction between the large-scale columnar vortices and smaller-scale vortices, we demonstrate a cyclic process of excitation of the axial waves, which leads to large-amplitude fluctuations of the total kinetic energy and enstrophy. This cyclic process is characterised by three distinct phases and is therefore reminiscent of the regeneration cycle of near-wall turbulence structures (Hamilton et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 287, 1995, pp. 317–348). Notably, such oscillatory behaviour is observed even in freely decaying turbulence as a consequence of the instantaneous energy transfer from smaller to larger scales.
A new type of calibration standard has been developed for X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin samples. Each standard consists of a polymer film containing a single calibration element. The film is cast from a homogeneous solution containing known amounts of an organometallic compound and a polymer. Polymers of cellulose acetate-propionate and polystyrene are used because of their low moisture affinity. The films have a low (2-4 mg/cm2) mass per unit area for minimal X-ray attenuation. Standards of V, Co, Hi, and Pb have been successfully made. Typical concentrations of 20 μg/cm2 yield excellent spectra with a low background. The method shows promise for making standards of additional elements.
Sexual differences in behaviours are often affected by the difference in individual interests between the sexes: growth in males and egg production in females. Some hermit crabs show sexual differences in shell use patterns during the reproductive season. In the non-reproductive season, however, when both sexes are focused on increasing growth, this sexual difference is expected to be reduced. In this study, we compared the pattern of shell use in the hermit crab Pagurus minutus between seasons, while focusing on the effects of shell shape on growth or egg production. As we predicted, sexual differences in shell use in P. minutus showed seasonal change. In the non-reproductive season, both sexes appeared to use shells well suited for growth. In the reproductive season, sexual differences became more evident, especially in larger solitary crabs and guarding pairs; males monopolized round-type shells such as those of Umbonium moniliferum, whereas more than 80% of females relied on high-spired Batillaria-type shells such as those of Batillaria zonalis. A lack of advantage for egg number in females using Batillaria-type shells suggests that female shell use is explained by factors other than maximizing clutch size. Both sexes can moult during the reproductive season, and larger body size is advantageous for reproduction. Given that Batillaria-type shells resulted in a lower growth increment and males have an advantage in shell fights in congeneric crabs, our findings suggest the importance of intersexual competition for shells and female compromise in determining the seasonal change of shell use patterns in P. minutus.
In incompressible and periodic statistically stationary turbulence, exchanges of turbulent energy across scales and space are characterised by very intense and intermittent spatio-temporal fluctuations around zero of the time-derivative term, the spatial turbulent transport of fluctuating energy and the pressure–velocity term. These fluctuations are correlated with each other and with the intense intermittent fluctuations of the interscale energy transfer rate. These correlations are caused by the sweeping effect, the link between nonlinearity and non-locality, and also relate to geometrical alignments between the two-point fluctuating pressure force difference and the two-point fluctuating velocity difference in the case of the correlation between the interscale transfer rate and the pressure–velocity term. All these processes are absent from the spatio-temporal-average picture of the turbulence cascade in statistically stationary and homogeneous turbulence.
China's food safety system is in crisis. Egregious scandals, as varied as the sale of liquor laced with Viagra and the distribution of fake eggs, reveal how regulatory practices have been stretched to their limit in the world's largest food production system. On Feeding the Masses focuses on the oft-cited but ultimately overlooked concept of scale to identify the root causes of China's regulatory failures in food safety. The 'politics of scale' framework highlights how regulators disagree on which level of government is best suited to regulate ('the scale of governance'), struggle to address multilevel tensions ('multidimensional scale integration'), and fail to understand how policies at one level of government can affect other levels of government in unexpected and costly ways ('scale externalities'). Drawing from over 200 interviews with food safety regulators and producers, the study provides one of the most comprehensive accounts of China's food safety crisis to date.