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Dans le cadre des algorithmes numériques introduits et élaborés par les mathématiciens arabes, à partir du ixe siècle, figure l'algorithme de l'extraction de la racine carrée d'un entier naturel. Cet algorithme a été étudié chez plusieurs d'entre eux et surtout bien expliqué par alBaġdādī (mort vers 1037) dans le chapitre « Comment extraire la racine des nombres entiers » de son livre « La complétion du calcul », Al-takmila fī al-ḥisāb 1. Dans ce chapitre, al-Baġdādī expose son travail pédagogiquement en six sections traitant de plusieurs manières différentes le problème de l'extraction de la racine carrée d'un entier 2. À la même époque, dans un texte isolé intitulé « Sur la cause de la racine, de son doublement et de son déplacement 3 », Ibn al-Hayṯam (mort vers 1040) donne une justification géométrique de l'algorithme en se basant sur des notions algébriques précises.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to COVID-19 with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplemental materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been considered prevalent pathogens in foot infections. However, whether empiric therapy directed against these organisms is necessary, and in whom to consider treatment, is rather unclear. The aim of this study was to develop predictive algorithms for forecasting the probability of isolating these organisms in the infected wounds of patients in a population where the prevalence of resistant pathogens is low. This was a retrospective study of regression model-based risk factor analysis that included 140 patients who presented with infected, culture positive foot ulcers to two urban hospitals. A total of 307 bacteria were identified, most frequently MRSA (11.1%). P. aeruginosa prevalence was 6.5%. In the multivariable analysis, amputation (odds ratio (OR) 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–27.63), renal disease (OR 5.46, 95% CI 1.43–25.16) and gangrene (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.82–9.59) were identified as risk factors associated with higher while diabetes (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.34) and Infectious Diseases Society of America infection severity >3 (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.03–0.65) were associated with lower odds of P. aeruginosa isolation (C statistic 0.81). Similar analysis for MRSA showed that amputation was associated with significantly lower (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.79) risk, while history of MRSA infection (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.56–20.63) and osteomyelitis (OR 2.523, 95% CI 1.00–6.79) was associated with higher odds of isolation (C statistic 0.69). We developed two predictive nomograms with reasonable to strong ability to discriminate between patients who were likely of being infected with P. aeruginosa or MRSA and those who were not. These analyses confirm the association of some, but also question the significance of other frequently described risk factors in predicting the isolation of these organisms.
We examine the flows induced by horizontally modulated, vertically confined (or guided), internal wavepackets in a stratified, Boussinesq fluid. The wavepacket induces both an Eulerian flow and a Stokes drift, which together determine the Lagrangian transport of passive tracers. We derive equations describing the wave-induced flows in arbitrary stable stratification and consider four special cases: a two-layer fluid, symmetric and asymmetric piecewise constant (‘top-hat’) stratification and, more representative of the ocean, exponential stratification. In a two-layer fluid, the Stokes drift is positive everywhere with the peak value at the interface, whereas the Eulerian flow is negative and uniform with depth for long groups. Combined, the net depth-integrated Lagrangian transport is zero. If one layer is shallower than the other, the wave-averaged interface displaces into that layer making the Eulerian flow in that layer more negative and the Eulerian flow in the opposite layer more positive so that the depth-integrated Eulerian transports are offset by the same amount in each layer. By contrast, in continuous stratification the depth-integrated transport due to the Stokes drift and Eulerian flow are each zero, but the Eulerian flow is singular if the horizontal phase speed of the induced flow equals the group velocity of the wavepacket, giving rise to a single resonance in uniform stratification (McIntyre, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 60, 1973, pp. 801–811). In top-hat stratification, this single resonance disappears, being replaced by multiple resonances occurring when the horizontal group velocity of the wavepacket matches the horizontal phase speed of higher-order modes. Furthermore, if the stratification is not vertically symmetric, then the Eulerian induced flow varies as the inverse squared horizontal wavenumber for shallow waves, the same as for the asymmetric two-layer case. This ‘infrared catastrophe’ also occurs in the case of exponential stratification suggesting significant backward near-surface transport by the Eulerian induced flow for modulated oceanic internal modes. Numerical simulations are performed confirming these theoretical predictions.
In the present study a comparison of the otolith morphology of two species of parrotfish, family Scaridae, collected from the Red Sea coast of Egypt, is conducted to identify the most appropriate taxonomic characters that separate these species. Ontogenetic changes in the otoliths of the two scarid fishes become evident. In the otoliths of Chlorurus sordidus, the following characters are comparable in small-sized adult fishes: otolith width, otolith depth, mesial surface shape, lateral surface shape, shape of sulcus acusticus, column, rostrum and size of rostrum. The otoliths of young adults (GI) C. sordidus differ from the adult ones in 14 out of the 22 characteristics studied. In the otoliths of Hipposcarus harid, the following characters are comparable in small and large fish: otolith width, otolith depth, mesial and lateral surface shapes, shape of sulcus acusticus, rostrum and size of rostrum.
Endoscope-associated infections are reported despite following proper reprocessing methods. Microbiological testing can confirm the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. Multiple controversies related to the method and interpretation of microbiological testing cultures have arisen that make their routine performance a complex target.
We conducted a pilot study using disposable bronchoscopes (DBs) to simulate different reprocessing times and soaking times and to compare high-level disinfection versus ethylene oxide sterilization. We also reviewed the time to reprocessing and duration of the procedures.
Bronchoscopes were chosen because an alternative disposable scope is commercially available and because bronchoscopes are more prone to delays in processing. Disposable bronchoscopes were contaminated using a liquid bacterial suspension and were then incubated for 1–4 hours. Standard processing and high-level disinfection were performed on 36 endoscopes. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed on 21 endoscopes. Endoscope cultures were performed using the standard “brush, flush, brush” technique.
After brushing was performed, a final water-flush culture procedure was the most effective method of detecting bacterial persistence on the disposable scopes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most commonly recovered organism after reprocessing. Ethylene oxide sterilization did not result in total elimination of viable bacteria.
Routine endoscopy cultures may be required to assess the adequacy of endoscopic processing.
To evaluate the efficacy of a new monochloramine generation system for control of Legionella in a hospital hot water distribution system
A 495-bed tertiary care hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The hospital has 12 floors covering approximately 78,000 m2.
The hospital hot water system was monitored for a total of 29 months, including a 5-month baseline sampling period prior to installation of the monochloramine system and 24 months of surveillance after system installation (postdisinfection period). Water samples were collected for microbiological analysis (Legionella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter species, nitrifying bacteria, heterotrophic plate count [HPC] bacteria, and nontuberculous mycobacteria). Chemical parameters monitored during the investigation included monochloramine, chlorine (free and total), nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia, copper, silver, lead, and pH.
A significant reduction in Legionella distal site positivity was observed between the pre- and postdisinfection periods, with positivity decreasing from an average of 53% (baseline) to an average of 9% after monochloramine application (P > .05). Although geometric mean HPC concentrations decreased by approximately 2 log colony-forming units per milliliter during monochloramine treatment, we did not observe significant changes in other microbial populations.
This is the first evaluation in the United States of a commercially available monochloramine system installed on a hospital hot water system for Legionella disinfection, and it demonstrated a significant reduction in Legionella colonization. Significant increases in microbial populations or other negative effects previously associated with monochloramine use in large municipal cold water systems were not observed.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(11):1356–1363
We prove a cohomological property for a class of finite $p$-groups introduced earlier by Xu, which we call semi-abelian $p$-groups. This result implies that a semi-abelian $p$-group has noninner automorphisms of order $p$, which settles a long-standing problem for this class. We answer also, independetly, an old question posed by Xu about the power structure of semi-abelian $p$-groups.
Islam has emerged as the focus of immigration and diversity debates in Europe, especially in relation to the incorporation of Islam within political democracy. Using the least-liked group approach, the present study investigates political tolerance among Sunni and Alevi Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands. A relatively low level of political tolerance was found with higher intolerance of Alevis compared to Sunnis which was due to Alevis' strong rejection of religious fundamentalists. For both Muslim subgroups and in both countries, stronger religious group identification was associated with higher tolerance. Political tolerance was also found to be lower in Germany than in the Netherlands and in the latter country tolerance was positively associated with host national identification. The findings show that Islamic belief, Muslim group identification and the host national context are important for political tolerance.
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legumes in the world. Little is known about the genetic resources of faba bean in Southern Tunisia. In the present study, genetic diversity within Tunisian faba bean germplasms was investigated using 16 simple sequence repeat markers. In total, 50 alleles were detected. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 2 to 6, with an average of 3. Genetic diversity and polymorphism information content values averaged, respectively, 0.43 (range 0.34–0.51) and 0.36 (range 0.28–0.43). The mean heterozygosity value was 0.27. A model-based structure analysis based on neighbour-joining tree and factorial correspondence analysis revealed the presence of two subpopulations, consistent with the clustering based on genetic distance (GD). The overall Fis value was 0.36, indicating the importance of selfing in these populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that the within-population genetic variance component was much higher than the between-population or between-subpopulation variance component. The genetic relationships based on Nei's GD revealed that AGD (Aguadulce) and SAG (Super Aguadulce) and TF1 and TF2 (Tafartassa-Gafsa) were the most closely related populations. Assessment of genetic variation within faba bean populations will be informative for the conservation of germplasms and the implementation of effective breeding programmes in Tunisia.
In the last issue a number of articles were published from a symposium held at University College Dublin on integrating a socio-legal approach to evidence in the international criminal tribunals. The articles focused on specific socio-legal projects carried out in the field of evidence within the international criminal context, and on how such research can enrich our understanding of international criminal law and practice. The articles in this issue focus on certain neglected areas of research and on some of the challenges posed by conducting empirical research in this field.
This paper draws on some of the preliminary findings of a small pilot study which aimed to discover what evidentiary challenges a range of practitioners with experience of different international trials faced in the cases they were involved in, and what practices were developed to deal with these challenges. The findings in this study are based on the data collected from The Hague-based institutions, the ICC, the ICTY, the ICTY and ICTR Appeals Chamber, and the Special Tribunal for the Lebanon (STL). It is argued that professionals moving from institution to institution are engaged in a process of cross-pollination which itself influences the practices that develop, although a common understanding of certain evidentiary issues in international trials remains fragmented and at times elusive.
Many advances in nanomaterials synthesis have been recorded during the last 30 years. Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, and Sarcina is acquiring major importance as one of many eco-friendly materials with great potential in the biomedical field. The shape of BC bulk is sensitive to the container shape and incubation conditions such as agitation, carbon source, rate of oxygenation, electromagnetic radiation, temperature, and pH. The challenge is to control the dimension and the final shape of biosynthesized cellulose, by the optimization of culture conditions. The production of 3D structures based on BC is important for many industrial and biomedical applications such as paper and textile industries, biological implants, burn dressing material, and scaffolds for tissue regeneration. In our work, wild strains of Acetobacter spp. were isolated from homemade vinegar then purified and used for cellulose production. Four media of different initial viscosity were used. Cultures were performed under static conditions at 29°C, in darkness. The dimensions and texture of obtained bacterial cellulose nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the biosynthesized material has a cellulose I crystalline phase characterized by three crystal planes. fourrier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data confirmed the chemical nature of the fibers. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that BC preserves a relatively superior non-degradable fraction compared to microcrystalline cellulose.
Climate change is now unequivocal, particularly in terms of increasing temperature, increasing CO2 concentration, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level, while the increase in the frequency of drought is very probable but not as certain.
However, climate changes are not new and some of them have had dramatic impacts, such as the appearance of leaves about 400 million years ago as a response to a drastic decrease in CO2 concentration, the birth of agriculture due to the end of the last ice age about 11 000 years ago and the collapse of civilizations due to the late Holocene droughts between 5000 and 1000 years ago.
The climate changes that are occurring at present will have – and are already having – an adverse effect on food production and food quality with the poorest farmers and the poorest countries most at risk. The adverse effect is a consequence of the expected or probable increased frequency of some abiotic stresses such as heat and drought, and of the increased frequency of biotic stresses (pests and diseases). In addition, climate change is also expected to cause losses of biodiversity, mainly in more marginal environments.
Plant breeding has addressed both abiotic and biotic stresses. Strategies of adaptation to climate changes may include a more accurate matching of phenology to moisture availability using photoperiod-temperature response, increased access to a suite of varieties with different duration to escape or avoid predictable occurrences of stress at critical periods in crop life cycles, improved water use efficiency and a re-emphasis on population breeding in the form of evolutionary participatory plant breeding to provide a buffer against increasing unpredictability. ICARDA, in collaboration with scientists in Iran, Algeria, Jordan, Eritrea and Morocco, has recently started evolutionary participatory programmes for barley and durum wheat. These measures will go hand in hand with breeding for resistance to biotic stresses and with an efficient system of variety delivery to farmers.
During recent decades, Lebanon has experienced demographic and social changes which, coupled with political instability, have led to waves of youth migration and a higher proportion of older adults living alone. This paper uses the 2004 data of the ‘Pan Arab Project for Family Health’ to assess the levels of various living arrangements and to examine the correlates of living alone, with a focus on economic resources. The findings reveal that 12 per cent of older adults in Lebanon lived alone (17.3 per cent of women and 6.2 per cent of men). Financially better-off older adults and those who reported being satisfied with their income were, respectively, 4.4 and 1.7 times significantly more likely to live alone than their counterparts. The incomes of Lebanese older adults were mainly provided by their children (74.8%) and a relatively small share derived from pension schemes. Contrary to findings from other Arab countries, variations in living arrangements among Lebanese older adults seem to follow the western model whereby wealthier older individuals are more likely to live alone and to be residentially independent. Further studies are warranted to examine to what extent this trend is the result of past migration of adult children who are now established elsewhere and sending remittances home.
Influenza A viruses are enveloped viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae that encompasses four more genera: Influenza B, Influenza C, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. Type A viruses belong to the only genus that is highly infectious to a variety of mammalian and avian species. They are divided into subtypes based on two surface glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). So far, 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes have been identified worldwide, making a possible combination of 144 subtypes between both proteins. Generally, individual viruses are host-specific, however, interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses is not uncommon. All of the HA and NA subtypes have been isolated from wild birds; however, infections in humans and other mammalian species are limited to a few subtypes. The replication of individual influenza A virus in a specific host is dependent on many factors including, viral proteins, host system and environmental conditions. In this review, the key findings that contribute to the transmission of influenza A viruses amongst different species are summarized.