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This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans, mainly in the so-called developed countries, such as Europe and North America. Although large carnivore populations have generally increased in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks. Of the eight bear species inhabiting the world, two (i.e. the Andean bear and the giant panda) have never been reported to attack humans, whereas the other six species have: sun bears Helarctos malayanus, sloth bears Melursus ursinus, Asiatic black bears Ursus thibetanus, American black bears Ursus americanus, brown bears Ursus arctos, and polar bears Ursus maritimus. This chapter provides insights into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of bear attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behavior when sharing the landscape with bears are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human–bear encounters and their consequences to bear conservation.
Although marine phylogeographers have accumulated knowledge of the evolutionary history of various invertebrates, there is a large bias among the taxa regarding genetic data. The order Polycladida is a typical example for which little genetic information at population level is available. Here, we focused on the polyclad flatworm Stylochoplana pusilla, distributed in the Japanese Pacific coastal area. Stylochoplana pusilla is known to have commensal relationships with certain intertidal snails, using snails (mainly Monodonta confusa) as a refugee house. During low tide, S. pusilla hides in the mantle cavity of snails to protect themselves from desiccation and predation. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of S. pusilla using a mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I marker and the species diversity of snails used by it. We found that S. pusilla has high genetic diversity of its populations. While S. pusilla showed a significant genetic differentiation among populations, it was relatively low. In addition, we also showed that S. pusilla used several intertidal snail species which inhabit various coastal environments. The present study suggests S. pusilla has sufficient dispersal ability to connect among its local populations. Also, the range of available snails for S. pusilla may help the connectivity among local populations. We provide important knowledge about this invertebrate taxon with a unique ecology, which has been insufficiently studied.
High-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation are essential for patients with paediatric haematologic diseases, although cardiotoxicity remains a concern. Heart rate variability analysis can evaluate autonomic nervous function interactions with cardiac function.
This study aimed to characterise heart rate variability differences between patients undergoing chemotherapy and controls, and the effects of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation on the autonomic nervous system in patients with haematological malignancies.
Nineteen patients (11 male, median age: 11.6 years) who received conventional chemotherapy followed by transplantation and 19 non-transplant patients (10 male, median age: 11.5 years) receiving chemotherapy only between 2006 and 2018 for haematological malignancies were retrospectively enrolled. Data from 24-hour Holter monitoring were recorded after chemotherapy and before and after transplantation. Heart rate variability was analysed in patients and 32 matched normal controls.
There were significant differences between patients and normal controls in all heart rate variability analysis parameters apart from coefficient of variation of RR interval and standard deviation of the average normal RR interval for all 5-minute segments during sleeping. There was a significant difference in the cumulative anthracycline dose and heart rate variability during sleep between the non-transplant and pre-transplant groups. We observed no remarkable differences in time-domain analysis parameters between before and after transplantation, although the low-frequency component of power-spectrum analysis during awake hours was significantly decreased after transplantation.
Conventional chemotherapy for paediatric haematologic diseases may be a risk factor for autonomic dysfunction. Further declines in heart rate variability after transplantation appear minor.
The occurrence of anorectal malformations (ARM) is thought to be reduced with sufficient folate intake. However, there is no apparent evidence. We focused on enzyme cofactors for one-carbon metabolism, including folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, and explored the association between maternal combined intake of these B vitamins and the risk of ARM. Using baseline data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study between 2011 and 2014, we analysed data of 89 235 women (mean age at delivery = 31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Information on dietary intake was obtained via a FFQ focused on early pregnancy and used to estimate B vitamin intake. We also collected information on the frequency of folic acid supplement use. ARM occurrence was ascertained from medical records. We identified forty-three cases of ARM diagnosed up to the first month after birth (4·8 per 10 000 live births). In terms of individual intake of the respective B vitamins, high vitamin B6 intake was non-significantly associated with reduced odds of ARM. Compared with women in the low combined B vitamin intake group, the OR of having an infant with ARM was 0·4 (95 % CI 0·2, 1·0) in the high intake group (folate ≥400 μg/d, and upper half of vitamin B6 and/or vitamin B12). In conclusion, our cohort analysis suggested an inverse association between the combined intake of one-carbon metabolism-related B vitamins in early pregnancy and ARM occurrence.
Although dietary Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K are nutritional factors associated with osteoporosis, little is known about their effects on incident osteoporotic fractures in East Asian populations. This study aimed to determine whether intakes of these nutrients predict incident osteoporotic fractures. We adopted a cohort study design with a 5-year follow-up. Subjects were 12 794 community-dwelling individuals (6301 men and 6493 women) aged 40–74 years. Dietary intakes of Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K were assessed with a validated FFQ. Covariates were demographic and lifestyle factors. All incident cases of major osteoporotic limb fractures, including those of the distal forearm, neck of humerus, neck or trochanter of femur and lumbar or thoracic spine were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) for energy-adjusted Ca, vitamin D and vitamin K were calculated with the residual method. Mean age was 58·8 (sd 9·3) years. Lower energy-adjusted intakes of Ca and vitamin K in women were associated with higher adjusted HR of total fractures (Pfor trend = 0·005 and 0·08, respectively). When vertebral fracture was the outcome, Pfor trend values for Ca and vitamin K were 0·03 and 0·006, respectively, and HR of the lowest and highest (reference) intake groups were 2·03 (95 % CI 1·08, 3·82) and 2·26 (95 % CI 1·19, 4·26), respectively. In men, there were null associations between incident fractures and each of the three nutrient intakes. Lower intakes of dietary Ca and vitamin K were independent lifestyle-related risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in women but not men. These associations were robust for vertebral fractures, but not for limb fractures.
We define a notion of mixed Hodge structure with modulus that generalizes the classical notion of mixed Hodge structure introduced by Deligne and the level one Hodge structures with additive parts introduced by Kato and Russell in their description of Albanese varieties with modulus. With modulus triples of any dimension, we attach mixed Hodge structures with modulus. We combine this construction with an equivalence between the category of level one mixed Hodge structures with modulus and the category of Laumon 1-motives to generalize Kato–Russell’s Albanese varieties with modulus to 1-motives.
MoS2(1-x)Te2x, the alloy of MoS2 and MoTe2 was fabricated with just co-sputtering and the combination of co-sputtering with following thermal treatment in chalcogen ambient. Phase separation, where MoTe2 was segregated rather than S and Te being uniformly distributed, was observed for some samples. From the physical structure evaluation using XRD, it was shown that the samples that was sulfurized after unintentional oxidation during shelf time exhibited no phase separation. It was suggested that oxidation of Mo or amorphous nature of the film at the chalcogenization stage may prevent the phase separation. In addition, some samples were stored in desiccator for stability evaluation. It was revealed that the samples undergo oxidation to different extent depending on the carrier gas used in tellurization. Finally, the bandgap and band structure was evaluated for samples with different Te concentration. The bandgap showed bowing behavior for different Te concentration with the bowing parameter b = -1.21 eV. Combined with the bandgap evaluation, the valence analysis with XPS showed that the band structure shifted according to the Te concentration. The shift in bandgap allows flexible band alignment which is expected to expand the materials applicability.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is expected to be applied for devices in various fields owing to its unique characteristics. Establishing a high-productivity manufacturing method which yields high quality films is an important and unresolved issue for the practical applications of MoS2. Among different techniques conducted by researchers all over the world, our approach is cold-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and we previously reported the deposition of MoS2 with i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3, a novel Mo precursor [S. Ishihara, et al., MRS Advances 3, 379-384 (2018).]. In this study, with the aim of further improving the quality of the MoS2 film using this new Mo precursor, various film formation conditions were controlled and the influence on the film quality was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used as evaluation techniques of the samples. As a result, mm-scale uniform film was formed with the deposition time less than 30 min. at temperature as low as 400 °C to 500 °C. It was revealed that maintaining low Mo/S supply ratio (SRMo/S) is crucial in fabricating high quality films.
The Palaeolithic–Neolithic transition in East Asia is characterised by the transformation of mobile hunter-gatherer groups into sedentary communities. The existence of ‘ice-age’ pottery in the Japanese archipelago, however, is inconsistent with claims that directly link climatic warming with sedentism and the development of ceramics. Here, the authors reconsider the chronology and palaeoenvironment of the Maedakochi site in Tokyo. New AMS dating and environmental data suggest that intensified inland fishing in cold environments, immediately prior to the Late Glacial warm period, created conditions conducive to sedentism and the development of subsistence-related pottery.
The pathogenesis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is largely unknown; however, vitamin A seems to play a role in diaphragmatic development. Previous case–control studies reported that maternal dietary vitamin A intake was inversely associated with the risk of CDH. To our knowledge, however, there is no prospective evidence regarding this association. Our aim was to examine whether maternal intake of vitamin A was associated with CDH occurrence. Baseline data, from the Japan nationwide birth cohort study (2011–2014) of 89 658 mothers (mean age at delivery = 31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births, were analysed. We assessed dietary habits using an FFQ focused on the first trimester and estimated the daily intake of total vitamin A (retinol activity equivalents), retinol, provitamin A carotenoids and vegetables. The occurrence of CDH was ascertained from medical records. A total of forty cases of CDH were documented. The adjusted OR of CDH occurrence for the high total vitamin A intake category (median = 468 μg/d) was 0·6 (95 % CI 0·3, 1·2) with reference to the low intake category (230 μg/d). When we restricted to mothers with a prepregnancy BMI of 18·5–24·9 kg/m2, vitamin A intake was inversely associated with the risk of their children being born with CDH (OR 0·5, 95 % CI 0·2, 1·0). Even given the limited number of cases in the study, our findings provide additional evidence to link vitamin A with CDH.
We consider de Finetti’s problem for spectrally one-sided Lévy risk models with control strategies that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Furthermore, we consider the version with a constraint on the time of ruin. To characterize the solution to the aforementioned models, we first solve the optimal dividend problem with a terminal value at ruin and show the optimality of threshold strategies. Next, we introduce the dual Lagrangian problem and show that the complementary slackness conditions are satisfied, characterizing the optimal Lagrange multiplier. Finally, we illustrate our findings with a series of numerical examples.
In 2006, Japan DMORT was established by physicians, nurses, forensic pathologists, social workers, and a journalist (inspired by a major train crash in the previous year) to provide mental support to disaster victims’ families who had not received care. However, disaster victims’ identification and care of the families were monopolized by police in Japan. Also, our ‘study group’ status confused people who were affected by disasters.
To describe the development and future challenges of our association.
We developed our policy to focus on mental support through various activities such as the 11 closed seminars with disaster victims’ families, 21 training courses for disaster responders, and several workshops in medical or nursing conferences. In the Christchurch Earthquake, NZ (2011), with young Japanese casualties in a collapsed building, our core member reported the needs of families’ mental support, which showed the validity of our policy.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), we distributed mental health care manuals for disaster responders. In the landslides in Izu Oshima Island (2013), 3 members supported victims’ families through the town office. In the Kumamoto Earthquake (2016), two members made grief work on families of 17 victims at the prefectural police academy. These activities convinced the police of the need for medical/mental support and ourselves of the necessity for legal status. In 2017, we reorganized our association into an incorporated society. We also became official members of crime/disaster victims support liaison councils of two prefectures among 47 in Japan. In 2018, official agreements were made with the Hyogo prefectural police. But in the Heavy Rains and Flooding of July and in the Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake of September, the local police did not agree to accept us.
Official collaboration with police is essential nationwide in Japan. Further relief activities are expected.
De Finetti’s optimal dividend problem has recently been extended to the case when dividend payments can be made only at Poisson arrival times. In this paper we consider the version with bail-outs where the surplus must be nonnegative uniformly in time. For a general spectrally negative Lévy model, we show the optimality of a Parisian-classical reflection strategy that pays the excess above a given barrier at each Poisson arrival time and also reflects from below at 0 in the classical sense.
Current evidence suggests that the aetiology of congenital gastrointestinal (GI) tract atresia is multifactorial, and not based solely on genetic factors. However, there are no established modifiable risk factors for congenital GI tract atresia. We used data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study launched in 2011, and examined whether fish consumption in early pregnancy was associated with congenital GI tract atresia. We analysed data of 89 495 women (mean age at delivery=31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Based on the results of the FFQ, we estimated the daily intake of fish and n-3 PUFA consumption in early pregnancy. We defined a composite outcome (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunoileal atresia and/or anorectal malformation) as congenital GI tract atresia. In this population, median fish intake was 31·9 g/d, and seventy-four cases of congenital GI tract atresia were identified. Fish consumption in early pregnancy was inversely associated with the composite outcome (multivariable-adjusted OR for the high v. low consumption category=0·5, 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0). For all the specific types of atresia, decreased OR were observed in the high consumption category, although not statistically significant. Reduced atresia occurrence was observed even beyond the US Food and Drug Administration’s recommended consumption of no more than 340 g/week. Also, n-3 PUFA-rich fish and n-3 PUFA consumptions tended to be inversely associated with atresia. Fish consumption in early pregnancy may be a preventive factor for congenital GI tract atresia.
Single photon sources (SPS) are an important building block for realizing quantum technologies for computing, communication, and sensing. For industrialization, electrically controllable color centers acting as SPS are required. We have demonstrated the creation of electrically controllable silicon vacancies (VSis) in the SiC pn junction diode fabricated by proton beam writing (PBW). PBW was successfully used to introduce electrically controllable VSi without degradation of the diode performance. The dependence of the electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) intensities from VSi on H+ fluence revealed that the emission efficiency of EL is less than that of PL. For EL, the supply of carriers (electrons and/or holes) was restricted due to the resistive region around each VSi introduced by PBW. The results suggest that further improvement in the VSi creation process without defects acting as majority carrier removal centers (highly resistive region) and nonradiative centers by optimization of PBW conditions are key points to realize highly sensitive quantum sensors using VSi.
be a number field. We describe the category of Laumon 1-isomotives over
as the universal category in the sense of M. Nori associated with a quiver representation built out of smooth proper
-curves with two disjoint effective divisors and a notion of
for such “curves with modulus”. This result extends and relies on a theorem of J. Ayoub and L. Barbieri-Viale that describes Deligne's category of 1-isomotives in terms of Nori's Abelian category of motives.