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An experimental and numerical study on the inertial focusing of neutrally buoyant spherical particles suspended in laminar circular tube flows was performed at Reynolds numbers (
) ranging from 100 to 1000 for particle-to-tube diameter ratios of
. In the experiments, we measured the cross-sectional distribution of particles in dilute suspensions flowing through circular tubes several hundreds of micrometres in diameter. In the cross-section located at 1000 times the tube diameter from the tube inlet, all particles were highly concentrated on one annulus or two annuli, depending on
. At low
, the particles were focused on the so-called Segré–Silberberg (SS) annulus, in accordance with previous studies (regime (A)). At higher
, two particle focusing annuli appeared, with the outer annulus corresponding to the SS annulus (regime (B)). We call the annulus closer to the tube centre ‘the inner annulus’, although this term was used by Matas et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 515, 2004, pp. 171–195) for a significantly broader annulus which included the transient accumulation of particles observed in regime (A). At even higher
, particles were focused on the inner annulus (regime (C)), indicating that the radial position of the SS annulus is no longer a stable equilibrium position. These experimental results were confirmed by a numerical simulation based on the immersed boundary method. The results of this study also indicate that the critical Reynolds numbers between two neighbouring regimes decrease with the increase of the particle-to-tube diameter ratio.
Children are a vulnerable population in disasters. However, there were few pediatricians, neonatologists, and obstetricians in the Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), so disaster medical headquarters had limited knowledge to solve these problems. Pediatric and perinatal disaster liaison coordinators were trained to improve disaster medical management for children and pregnant women since the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake.
To analyze and report the activity of PPDML during these years in Osaka, Japan.
The records of PPDML in major disasters and disaster drills from 2017 to 2018 were reviewed.
The DMAT had disaster drills twice a year in Osaka, and PPDML participated in the drill for the first time in July 2017. In the drill, PPDML coordinated the pediatric and perinatal issues with DMAT and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) in disaster headquarters. In June 20184. months after the drill, PPDML participated for the second time in February 2018 when the North Osaka Earthquake occurred. PPDML coordinated transport of 22 children and babies with congenital heart disease from the damaged National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Hospital. The operation was finished within 5 hours after requested transportation.
To protect children and pregnant women, cooperation between the disaster medical network and the pediatric and perinatal network is absolutely important for any phase in disaster. Because PPDML had attended in disaster drills before, the experience could make PPDML achieve good performance in a real disaster in North Osaka Earthquake. It can be concluded that cooperation between disaster medical network and PPDML is very useful to manage the disaster issues for children and pregnant women, and the most important thing is to cooperate not only in disaster but also in ordinary days.
Disasters disturb the balance of medical supply and demand. Because normal supply chains break down in the wake of disasters, it is difficult to deliver daily necessities to affected areas. In addition, without a reliable supply of medical equipment and medicines, the number of sick and injured patients increases.
We propose that emergency medical teams should bring medical equipment and daily necessities when responding to disasters.
The Social Emergency Management Alliance (SEMA) was established in 2017. SEMA is a cooperative system between NGOs and the private sector for disaster relief in Japan. Humanitarian Medical Assistance (HuMA) utilized this system to provide emergency medical assistance during the Western Japan Floods in 2018.
After the flooding, increased amounts of dust caused many cases of conjunctivitis. There were also numerous cases of heat stroke and dehydration, especially in the elderly. We requested SEMA to bring eye drops to wash out dust and isotonic drinks to prevent dehydration and heat stroke to Mabi Town, Okayama. SEMA coordinated with the private sector to provide eye drops and isotonic drinks via a forwarding agent, and we were able to distribute them to affected people and prevent worsening disease.
NGOs working within affected areas can assess the exact needs of affected people in order to avoid waste. Such collaboration through SEMA will allow for more effective disaster relief in the future. It is our hope that more private companies join SEMA to reduce the suffering of disaster victims.
Recently, semiconductors have been integrated and densified to much higher levels. Under this circumstance, control of surface impurity on the Si substrate has become more important. We have attempted to increase analytical sensitivity of the transition metals, which have the greatest influence on productivity.
For the last few years, x-ray fluorescence analysis, using total reflection as a non-destructive and speedy method, has been applied for surface impurity analysis of Si wafers. However, this method is insufficiently sensitive (to the level required for surface impurity analysis) and the lower detection limit is still 1011 to 1012 atoms/cm2 order because the continuous x-ray excitation causes lots of scattering which makes the background higher.
The XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectra of copper(II) ions in solid state and in solution of the square-planar copper(II) complexes with tetraaza macrocycles were measured. The peaks in the measured XANES spectra shifted to lower energy side with increasing the electron density of central copper(II) ions. The molecular orbital calculations for the complexes were carried out by the DV-Xα method, and the theoretical XANES spectra were estimated. The clear chemical shift obtained by this XANES study is evaluated and leads to a new concept of π-back donation between the copper(II) complexes and counter anion in aqueous solution.
The tachinid fly Drino inconspicuoides (Diptera: Tachinidae) is an ovolarviparous endoparasitoid whose larvae develop in the host haemocoel and avoids the host immune system. In this study, we investigated the immune evasion mechanisms of this species during infestation in the host Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We discovered a unique ‘cloak’ that surrounded D. inconspicuoides larvae that penetrated into the host and determined through genomic polymerase chain reaction analysis that this structure originated from the host rather than the tachinid. The ‘cloak’ contained both haemocytes and fat body cells from the host, with the haemocytes assembling around the larvae first and the fat body cells then covering the haemocyte layer, following which the two mixed. Living D. inconspicuoides larvae that were wrapped in the ‘cloak’ were not melanized whereas encapsulated dead larvae were melanized, suggesting that this structure contributes to the avoidance of host immune reactions.
Effects of nitrogen impurity on ZnO crystal growth on Si substrates have been investigated. The quantitative analysis on the surface morphology deriving height-height correlation function indicates that adsorbed nitrogen atoms suppress the secondary nucleation and enhance adatom migration. The resultant films have smooth surface as well as large grain size up to 24 nm even for small thickness of 10 nm. ZnO films fabricated by using such films as buffer layers possess high crystal quality, where the full width at half maximum of (002) rocking curve is 0.68°, one-fourth of that for films fabricated without nitrogen.
Procyanidins have been reported to possess potential for the prevention of hyperglycaemia. However, there are very few data for procyanidins about the difference the degree of polymerisation (DP) has on anti-hyperglycaemic effects. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which procyanidins suppress hyperglycaemia are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we prepared procyanidin fractions with different DP, namely low-DP (DP≤3) and high-DP (DP≥4) fractions, from a cacao liquor procyanidin-rich extract (CLPr). These fractions were administered orally to Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice and their anti-hyperglycaemic effects were examined. We found that CLPr and its fractions prevent postprandial hyperglycaemia accompanied by an increase in the plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level with or without glucose load. In the absence of glucose load, both fractions increased the plasma insulin level and activated its downstream signalling pathway in skeletal muscle, resulting in promotion of the translocation of GLUT4. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was also involved in the promotion of GLUT4 translocation. High- and low-DP fractions showed a similar activation of insulin and AMPK pathways. In conclusion, cacao liquor procyanidins prevent hyperglycaemia by promoting GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle, and both the GLP-1-activated insulin pathway and the AMPK pathway are involved in the underlying molecular mechanism.
We have recently developed a novel semiconductor, (ZnO)x(InN)1-x (abbreviated to ZION). In this study, we have succeeded in direct epitaxial growth of ZION films on 19–21%-lattice-mismatched c-plane sapphire by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that there is no epitaxial relationship between ZION films fabricated at room-temperature (RT) and the sapphire substrates, while the films fabricated at 450oC grow epitaxially on the sapphire substrates. From the analysis of time evolution of the surface morphology, the process for the epitaxial growth of ZION on sapphire is found to consist of three stages. They are (i) initial nucleation of ZION crystallites with crystal axis aligned to the sapphire substrate, (ii) island growth from the initially formed nuclei and subsequent nucleation (secondary nucleation) of ZION crystallites, and (iii) lateral growth of ZION islands originated from initially formed nuclei. On the other hand, non-epitaxial ZION films fabricated at RT just grow in 3D mode. From these results, we conclude that the substrate temperature is the key to control of nucleation and subsequent epitaxial growth of ZION films on the lattice-mismatched substrate.
We have developed Anti- Sievert® concrete, which is a concrete reinforced shielding function as a building material that shields the influence from radioactive materials and its radiation. Cement, water, aggregate, sand material, Anti- Sievert® # 210, Anti- Sievert® # 216 formulation was optimized as those materials constituting Anti- Sievert® concrete. As a result, we realized shielding concrete with high fluidity to realize construction suitability by concrete pump. Anti- Sievert® concrete has a shielding function of about 3 times as compared with ordinary concrete with respect to X ray (100 kV), and shows strength of more than 50 N/mm2. The durability characteristics against nuclear explosion using Anti-Sievert® concrete were simulated and reported in this paper.
We prove two results on the tube algebras of rigid C*-tensor categories. The first is that the tube algebra of the representation category of a compact quantum group G is a full corner of the Drinfeld double of G. As an application, we obtain some information on the structure of the tube algebras of the Temperley–Lieb categories 𝒯ℒ(d) for d > 2. The second result is that the tube algebras of weakly Morita equivalent C*-tensor categories are strongly Morita equivalent. The corresponding linking algebra is described as the tube algebra of the 2-category defining the Morita context.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
This study investigated the effects of word frequency, collocational frequency, L1 congruency, and L2 proficiency, on L2 collocational processing. Two groups of L1 Japanese speakers of English (intermediate and advanced) and one group of English native speakers (NSs) performed an online acceptability judgment task on four types of adjective-noun constructions: (1) congruent collocations, (2) English-only collocations, (3) Japanese-only collocations, and (4) baseline items. Response times were analyzed using mixed-effects modeling and correlations. In contrast to NSs, nonnative speakers (NNSs) processed congruent collocations significantly faster than English-only collocations. As for frequency, all three groups demonstrated sensitivity to both word-level and collocation-level frequency. However, the distributions differed across the three groups. We concluded that age/order of acquisition effects (Carroll & White, 1973) provided the best explanation for the congruency results. Regarding the frequency results, we concluded that the findings conflict with claims that NNSs may process formulaic sequences differently than NSs (e.g., Wray, 2002, 2008).
Extensive reflection nebulae have been discovered around GGD27 IRS and around W75N IRS by mapping the infrared polarization in the K band.
It was found that the infrared radiation from both objects is extended at λ = 2.2 μm, by using the Agematsu 1-m, the UH 2.2-m, and the UKIR 3.8-m telescopes. We have carried out polarization mapping with the Kyoto polarimeter on the UKIRT in August 1985.
In this paper, we apply aeration with oxygen microbubbles to tap water; the intent is to quantitatively evaluate whether nitrogen gas originally dissolved in the water under the atmosphere is purged by the aeration with oxygen microbubbles. Oxygen microbubbles are continuously injected into the circulation system of tap water open to the atmosphere. While the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) can be detected by a commercial DO meter, that of dissolved nitrogen (DN) is unavailable. To detect the DN level, we observe the growth of millimetre-sized gas bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water and compare it with the multi-species theory of Epstein and Plesset where the (unknown) DN concentration is treated as a fitting parameter. In the theory, we solve binary diffusion of each gas species (oxygen or nitrogen) in the water independently, under the assumption that the dissolved gases are sufficiently dilute. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest that the DN in the water is effectively purged by the oxygen aeration. The supplemental experiment of aeration with nitrogen microbubbles is also documented to show that the DO can be effectively purged as well.
We perform simulations of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections relating to the magnetic storm on 17 March 2015. A hierarchical mesh structure is used, which is controlled by an adaptive mesh refinement technique, with fine-scale cells where it matters, the structure of the running shock waves of the coronal mass ejections and co-rotating interactive regions. The initial and the inner-boundary conditions are derived from another simulation, which uses a split dodecahedron grid. The resulting shock-wave with the models adjusted to the observed ejection speed on the sky plane show delays by 20% in the arrival time at the Earth from the observed data. By contrast, the model adjusted to the observed arrival time at the Earth needs the ejection speed 30% higher than that in the above models.