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Three new species of echinoderid kinorhynchs are described from Daidokutsu, a submarine cave in Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Echinoderes gama sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of middorsal acicular spines on segments 4–8; lateroventral acicular spines on segments 7–9; lateroventral tubes on segment 5; sublateral tubes on segment 8; laterodorsal tubes on segment 10; and type-2 gland cell outlets in subdorsal and lateroventral position on segment 2. Echinoderes kajiharai sp. nov. is defined by the presence of middorsal acicular spines on segments 4, 6, 8; lateral accessory acicular spines on segment 9; lateroventral acicular spines on segments 6–8; lateroventral tubes on segments 2 and 5; midlateral tubes on segment 10; and type-2 gland cell outlets in laterodorsal position on segments 2 and 5, and subdorsal position on segments 8 and 9. Echinoderes uozumii sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of middorsal acicular spines on segments 4 and 6; lateroventral acicular spines on segments 6–9; lateroventral tubes on segments 2 and 5; sublateral tubes on segment 8; laterodorsal tubes on segment 10; type-2 gland cell outlets in subdorsal and lateral accessory position on segment 2; and blunt, short pectinate fringe teeth of primary pectinate fringe on segment 1. In addition, the Echinoderes multiporus species group including E. kajiharai sp. nov., and the Echinoderes bispinosus species group including E. uozumii sp. nov. are established. Furthermore, the distribution of the two species groups and the origin of Echinoderes species in Daidokutsu are discussed.
Previous research has demonstrated that individual differences in conflict management predict second-language (L2) reading skill. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that this relation reflects the need to manage conflict from cross-linguistic interactions (CLI). A novel model specifying the relation between L2 reading skill, CLI, and the predictors of such interactions was tested in 253 L2 English speaking adults, using structural equation modeling. In support of the hypothesis, the findings revealed that stronger CLI was related to poorer L2 reading skill. In addition, variability in non-linguistic conflict management, as measured by executive attention tasks, and relative language dominance reliably predicted CLI. Specifically, better conflict management and lower L1 dominance corresponded to fewer interactions. These results fill a crucial gap by demonstrating for the first time that the ability to manage CLI is critical to L2 reading, and that both cognitive skills and language experience contribute to variability in these interactions.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between affect and short-term life satisfaction (LS) taking into account the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the balance of PA and NA.
The study included 398 students (184 men and 214 women) who completed six questionnaires three of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA. Two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale were used to measure deactivated PA and NA, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. Correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to mainly examine the relationships between affect balance (PA-NA and PA/NA) and LS.
The results of correlation analyses showed that LS was positively associated with affect balance in both activated and deactivated dimension. Additionally, the hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction between activated PA and NA, which indicated that the relationship between activated PA and LS in women was strengthened when the level of activated NA was relatively lower.
The findings in this study suggested that students who have stronger PA compared to NA might feel high LS in both activated and deactivated dimension. Moreover, it was suggested that the profitable effect of activated PA on LS in women would be larger when their activated NA was relatively weakened.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS). In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 398 students (184 men and 214 women). The mean ages were 19.15 yrs for men and 19.84 yrs for women. Participants answered six questionnaires two of which were used for another study. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized for assessing activated PA and NA, two subscales of the Multiple Mood Scale to measure deactivated PA and NA, respectively, one subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for gauzing ES, and the Short-term Life Satisfaction Scale for LS. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. The interaction between deactivated NA and ES was significant in men, whose post-hoc tests suggested that deactivated NA was more negatively associated with LS when ES was higher.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction. Moreover, it is likely that the detrimental effect of NA on life satisfaction is larger when the expression of NA is more strongly suppressed.
We examined the effects of affect and emotional suppression (ES) on short-term life satisfaction (LS) and depression. In doing so, we considered the dimension of activation for positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
The final sample included the data collected from 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). Participants answered seven questionnaires for assessing activated PA and NA, ES of PA and NA, short-term LS, and depression, three of which were used for another study. All of them were Japanese versions, answered on the past week.
Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA, but that its positive association was stronger in activated PA than deactivated PA while its negative association was stronger in deactivated NA than activated NA. Similar findings were obtained for depression. The significant interactions suggested:
(1) higher scores of ES of PA weaken the positive association between activated PA and LS in both sexes;
(2) higher scores of ES of NA strengthen the negative association between activated NA and LS in men and weaken the association in women; and
(3) the positive association between activated NA and depression is weakened by higher scores of ES of NA in women.
This study suggested that activated and deactivated affect differ in their relations to life satisfaction and depression. Moreover, it is likely that although ES of PA and NA influences health, its effects would be different between men and women.
We need to consider both suppression of positive and negative emotions (PE and NE) in examining the effects of emotional suppression (ES) on health and adjustment. The purpose of study was to develop a new emotional suppression scale to measure suppression of PE and NE, and to examine the effects of emotional suppression of PE and NE on depression and short-term life satisfaction (LS).
Participants were 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). They completed three questionnaires for assessing ES, depression, and short-term LS, along with a questionnaire to test the validity of the Emotional Suppression Scale for Positive and Negative Emotions (ESS) that was developed in this study.
First, we confirmed two factors in the ESS, named as ‘suppression of PE’ and ‘suppression of NE.’ The alphas were .69 and .73 for men and .69 and .76 for women, respectively. and it was revealed that each subscale of the ESS has concurrent validity. Thereafter, hierarchical regression analyses showed that higher suppression of PE was associated with lower LS and higher depression. Meanwhile, suppression of NE did not show any significant associations with health and adjustment, which was inconsistent with previous findings. Moreover, no significant interactions between suppression of PE and NE were found.
In this study, the ESS was developed with factorial and concurrent validities. Moreover, this study suggests that the effects of emotional suppression on health and adjustment would be different depending on what type of emotions is suppressed.
When we attempt to scrutinize the phenomena relating affect and health, we need to consider the activation dimension of positive and negative affect (PA and NA). In this study, after developing a scale to assess affect, we examined the effects of activated and deactivated PA and NA on depression and short-term life satisfaction (LS).
Participants were 496 undergraduate and graduate students (240 men and 256 women). They completed three questionnaires for assessing affect, depression, and short-term LS, respectively. In order to test the validity of the Activated and Deactivated Affect Questionnaire (ADAQ) that was developed in this study, the other two questionnaires were administered.
In the ADAQ, four factors, activated and deactivated PA and NA, were identified alongside sufficient internal consistency and concurrent validity. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that depression was negatively associated with PA and positively with NA, while LS was positively associated with PA and negatively with NA. These associations were found regardless of the levels of affect activation. Moreover, a number of significant PA x NA interactions revealed: (1) activated PA was negatively associated with depression, but this association was stronger with higher activated NA; and (2) regarding the effects on LS, the positive association between activated PA (or deactivated PA) and activated NA (or deactivated NA) was stronger with lower activated (or deactivated) NA.
This study suggests that the activation level of affect and relations of PA and NA would be differently influential on health and adjustment.
In recent years, affect and emotions are hot research topics in the domains of psychology and brain science. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have started to investigate the effects of implicit affect on health and adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implicit affect on explicit emotional coping with others’ emotions and school adjustment in children.
Participants were 5th- and 6th-grade children in two public elementary schools in Japan. The final samples were fifty-six children (25 boys and 31 girls). Participants completed a battery of three questionnaires just before (T1) and after (T2) an school-based universal prevention program for enhancing emotional coping abilities with others’ emotions, which was implemented in eight classes during one month. The questionnaires were utilized for assessing implicit positive and negative affect (IPA and INA), explicit emotional coping abilities to identify, understand, and regulate others’ emotions, and the adaptive status of children at school.
Hierarchical regression analyses showed that higher IPA at T1 was associated with higher explicit emotional coping and motivation for learning at T2. Also, higher INA at T1 was related to better peer relationship at T2. Moreover, higher IPA and INA at T1 were concerned with higher scores of classroom climate and approval at T2.
This study suggested that higher IPA leads to higher explicit emotional coping with others’ emotions. Also, it suggested that higher implicit affectivity (i.e., both higher IPA and INA) causes more adaptive status of children at school.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We have developed a group of school-based universal prevention programs for children's health and adjustment. The programs are characterized by new theories such as the somatic-marker hypothesis and enjoyable methods that utilize animated stories and games. This study adopted one of the programs for the development of self-confidence.
The aim was to examine the effectiveness of the program. In addition to the direct purposes of the program, children's adjustments at school and homeroom class were evaluated as extended effects.
Participants were third grade children in six public elementary schools in Japan. The final sample included 442 children (219 boys and 223 girls). The program was implemented weekly in one regular 45-minute class over 8 weeks. Participants completed a battery of three questionnaires three times, 1 month before the start of the program (T1), 1 week before the start of the program (T2), and during 1 week after the last class of the program (T3).
Results showed that all of the main endpoints of the program significantly improved in the intervention condition (i.e., changes from T2 to T3), compared to the control condition (i.e., changes from T1 to T2). Moreover, children's adjustment at school and homeroom class increased in the intervention condition, compared to the control condition. However, implicit affect was unchanged.
This study suggests that the program is effective for enhancing self-confidence, along with adjustments at school and in class. Future research that examines the sustainability of the effectiveness of the program is planned.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In Japan, after an earthquake, or when there is a heavy downpour, transportation is affected and guardians of children may not be able to reach home in time from the office. In elementary schools, because the guardian is unable to come and pick up the child, the teacher needs to ensure that the children are protected, and therefore, bears enormous responsibility. Since commuting times to work are long, guardians need to instate measures for the safety of their children.
This study aims to clarify guardians’ recognition of children’s safety in the event of a disaster, and examine the corresponding challenge they face in terms of commuting distance.
The subjects are 2,181 guardians of children in four elementary schools near places where landslides had occurred in Hiroshima city in 2014. The questionnaires distributed throughout the school produced 1,027 valid responses. Guardians were divided based on commuting distance into two groups; one of whom were within 3-km commuting distance and the other of more than 3 km. The two groups were compared for their recognition of children’s safety using a chi-square test.
Children’s safety in school was a concern for 73.9% of guardians. The safety of school buildings in case of a disaster was a cause of concern for 80% of guardians who are close commuters, and 73.9% of guardians whose commute distance is longer (P = 0.015). The fact that children cannot return home was a cause of worry for 33.9% of guardians whose workplace is nearby, and for 29.9% whose workplace was distant (P=0.044).
Most parents, especially guardians going to work far away, do not recognize that they cannot reach home, and therefore, need to think about providing safety measures for their children in the disaster.
Japan is known worldwide as an earthquake-prone country, and large-scale landslide disasters have occurred frequently in recent years. Early preparation is essential for taking precise action in case of an emergency. People with disaster experience are often discussed in the importance of evacuation drills. However, most people have no disaster experience, so awareness of disaster countermeasures is desirable for non-experienced people.
To clarify the concerns of non-experienced people and consider how to strengthen disaster measures as an evacuation drill host or educator.
From February to March 2018, we enrolled teachers and parents whose children attend Hiroshima City Elementary School. Based on disaster experiences, we divided them into two groups, non-experienced and experienced, and a comparison of measures was performed between them. We used SPSS ver.22 and did a chi-square test.
There were 1,702 valid responses (145 teachers and 1,557 parents); 1,406 were non-experienced, and 289 were experienced. The issues both groups were most concerned about were “children’s safety at school” (non-experienced 61.7%, experienced 57.3%), “securing food and drink at school” (39.0%, 3.3.9%), “acceptance and distribution of relief supplies” (28.1%, 2.6.6%), and “resident evacuation” (25.4%, 2.4.0%). The experienced were most concerned with “children’s mental care” (60.2%), and the non-experienced were most concerned with “children’s safety at school” (61.7%).
Regardless of experience, parents tend to be deeply concerned about all things pertaining to their children. Physical safety, as well as psychological needs, were of high importance. For non-experienced, we should develop interest by focusing on children’s needs when writing manuals for disaster measures and evacuation drills. Therefore, future projects to strengthen awareness of disaster prevention for the non-experienced should focus on three key issues: “step-by-step approaches for children,” “physiological needs,” and “safety of schools and shelters.”
Autonomy is a key factor in the reduction of inequitable physical healthcare among people with severe mental illness compared with the general population.
To clarify the critical mechanism underlying autonomy in physical health promotion based on the perspectives of people with severe mental illness.
We employed a conventional content analysis of narrative data from the Healthy Active Lives in Japan (HeAL Japan) workshop meetings.
‘Inhibited autonomy’ was extracted as a central component and shaped by the users’ experiences, both in a healthcare setting and in real life. This component emerged based on the lack of an empowerment mechanism in psychiatric services.
A barrier to the encouragement of autonomy in physical health promotion was found in current psychiatric services. An effective strategy should be explored to foster an empowerment mechanism in psychiatric and mental health services.
We propose a new dynamic flow imaging using 320-detector row CT, and investigate the assessment of coronary flow in aneurysms of Kawasaki disease in adulthood.
Six patients with Kawasaki disease and coronary aneurysms associated (26.7 years old) and six controls were enrolled. Dynamic coronary CT angiography with 320-row CT was continuously performed at mid-diastole throughout 15–25 cardiac cycles with prospective Electrocardiogram gating after injection of contrast media. Dynamic data sets of 15–25 cycles were computed into 90–100 data sets by motion coherence image processing. Next, time–density curves for coronary arteries were calculated for all the phases. On the basis of the maximum slope method, coronary flow index was defined as the ratio of the maximum upslope of the attenuation of coronary arteries to the upslope of the attenuation of ascending aorta on the time–density curves. Coronary flow indexes for the proximal and distal sites of coronary arteries and intra-aneurysm were measured.
Emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, have become serious problems worldwide. Recent studies conducted in Vietnam revealed that ESBL-producing E. coli are widely distributed in food animals and people. CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-1 are the most prevalent β-lactamases among the identified ESBLs. Furthermore, most of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were multi-drug resistant. Residual antimicrobials such as sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, sulfadimidine, cephalexin, and sulfadiazine were also detected at a high level in both animal meats and environmental water collected from several cities, including Ho Chi Minh city and Can Tho city. These recent studies indicated that improper use of antimicrobials in animal-originated food production might contribute to the emergence and high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Vietnam. Although clonal ESBL-producing E. coli was not identified, CTX-M-55 gene-carrying plasmids with similar sizes (105–139 kb) have been commonly detected in the ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from various food animals and human beings. This finding strongly suggests that horizontal transfer of the CTX-M plasmid among various E. coli strains played a critical role in the emergence and high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Vietnam.
Practical use of Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) depends on thorough understanding of the resistive switching (RS) mechanism in polycrystalline metal oxide films. Based on experimental and theoretical results of NiO based ReRAM, we have proposed a grain surface tiling model, in which grain surfaces (i.e. grain boundaries) are composed by insulating and conductive micro surface structures. This paper reports the adequacy of our model to the NiO based ReRAM and universality of surface electronic properties in metal oxides of NiO, CoO and MgO. Experimental results of RS operating modes suggest that the resistance changes in the grain boundaries, supporting our model. First-principles calculation results suggest that our model can be adopted to other metal oxide materials and the RS from a low resistance to a high resistance can be caused at 1000 K, which agrees with previous experimental reports.