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The aim of this study is to provide a balanced distribution of air traffic controller workload (ATCW) across airspace sectors taking into account the complexity of airspace sectors and the factors affecting ATCW, both objective and perceived. Almost all the studies focusing on the airspace sectorisation problem use heuristic or metaheuristic algorithms in dynamic simulation environments instead of a mathematical modelling approach. The paper proposes a multi-objective mixed integer mathematical model for airspace sectorisation. The model is applied to the upper, en-route level of Turkish airspace. Geographical information systems (GIS) are used to advantage for airspace analysis. The multi-objective model developed in this paper is scalarised by using the conic scalarisation method. For solving the scalarised problem, the CPLEX and DICOPT solvers of GAMS software are implemented. Finally, the optimal sector boundaries of Turkish airspace are defined.
Septum primum malposition defect is an extremely rare CHD and is often found in patients with visceral heterotaxy, particularly of the polysplenia type. We describe a unique patient with dextrocardia, situs inversus totalis, and bilateral superior vena caval veins without heterotaxy syndrome who was diagnosed with an interatrial defect and partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage due to malposition of the septum primum.
I read with great interest the study of Petrazzuoli et al. (2017) on exploring dementia management attitudes in primary care. The authors made a laudable effort to evaluate this important issue, which certainly needs timely attention. The high response rate from 25 member countries of the European General Practice Research Network is astonishing.
We developed a multiplex PCR DNA marker for quick and easy identification of the AAGG-genome timopheevii lineage, including Triticum timopheevii, Triticum araraticum and hexaploid Triticum zhukovskyi (AAAmAmGG), and the AABB-genome emmer wheat lineage, including Triticum durum, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum dicoccoides. Distinguishing between tetraploid AAGG- and AABB-genome wheat species based on morphology is known to be difficult. This multiplex PCR system is based on the simultaneous PCR amplification of two chloroplast regions, matK and rbcL. The matK region molecularly distinguishes the two lineages, whereas the rbcL region is a positive control amplicon. We also examined whether the simple sequence repeat is a fixed mutation within species, using genetic resources in the collection of KOMUGI, Kyoto University, which comprises accessioned species collected across diverse geographical areas. The multiplex PCR marker distinguished AAGG from AABB species with complete accuracy.
This study applied compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) to a 186-m-long sediment core (U1357A) taken from Adélie Basin located on the continental shelf off Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. The CSRA targeted C16 fatty acid as well as C16., fatty acid and cyclopheophorbide-a-enol isolated from the sediment. Due to their high degradation rate, these compounds are expected to occur in low abundances in relict organic matter deposited at this site. Twelve compound-specific (CS) 14C ages were obtained that are mostly consistent with their stratigraphic order. The CS 14C results of all samples are Holocene in age (9800 to 440 cal BP). These results suggest that significant sedimentation started ∼10,000 cal BP. Moreover, the data suggest that 14C measurements of C16:1 fatty acid and cyclopheophorbide-a-enol are useful for dating sediments from the Southern Ocean.
Radiocarbon natural abundances (Δ14C) are being increasingly used to trace carbon cycling in stream ecosystems. To understand the ultimate sources of carbon, we determined the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and Δ14C values of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC, respectively) and of particulate organic carbon (POC) in two small streams in central Japan, one of which flows over limestone bedrock (Seri) and the other does not (Fudoji). Investigations over four seasons revealed that the Δ14C values of the DIC (from −238‰ to −174‰ for Seri and −23‰ to +10‰ for Fudoji) were less variable than those of the other carbon fractions (DOC: from −400‰ to −138‰ for Seri and −2‰ to +103‰ for Fudoji; POC: from −164‰ to −60‰ for Seri and −55‰ to +37‰ for Fudoji). Based on mass balance calculations using the δ13C and Δ14C values, the proportions of carbon in the DIC originated from (1) atmospheric CO2 were 47% to 57% for Seri and 74% to 90% for Fudoji, (2) organic matter degradation were 29% to 35% for Seri and 4% to 21% for Fudoji, and (3) carbonate rock were 14% to 22% for Seri and 4% to 6% for Fudoji. We compared the results with previous studies that had been conducted in larger rivers and showed that in small streams, the dissolution of atmospheric CO2 and weathering of carbonate rock are more important factors in the carbon cycling than the biological degradation of organic matter.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have emerged as a new class of renewable material for various applications due to their remarkable properties and commercialization prospect. The relative low density, expected low cost, non-toxic character, uniform nanosize distribution, high aspect ratios, high surface area, thermal properties and high modulus of elasticity make CNCs attractive nanomaterials that recently prompted the industrial production of CNCs in North America. Surface functionalization of CNCs continues to be an exciting area of research for the design of novel CNC-based materials. In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of novel cationic surface modified CNC derivatives. The negative surface of CNC was rendered positive after grafting with cationic polymers via surface-initiated living radical polymerization method. The modified CNCs were characterized by both spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Their cytotoxicity effects were evaluated using MTT assay in two cell lines such as mouse macrophages (J774.A1) and human breast cancer (MCF7). Preliminary studies indicated that only one of the modified CNCs caused significant decrease in J774.A1 cell viability (50%), at the highest concentration tested (100 µg/mL). However this concentration is well above of what would be applicable for biomedical purposes. MCF7 cells were not affected by any of the cationic CNCs at any concentration. A detailed cytotoxicity study is currently underway to fully understand the interaction of these cationic CNCs with the biological systems for possible bio-inspired applications.
CaTi1−xSnxO3 (x = 0.0–1.0) solid solutions were prepared by solid-state reaction at 1450 °C. Rietveld refinement of their powder X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that all the solid solutions crystallized in orthorhombic cells with the perovskite-type structure, the space group Pbnm. The refined unit-cell parameters linearly increased with nominal tin contents x.
Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually ‘pure T. asiatica’ but instead originated from the hybridization of ‘pure T. saginata’ and ‘pure T. asiatica’.
Although vitrification is a useful technique for preservation of bovine oocytes, the yield of blastocysts derived from the vitrified oocytes is still low. We have recently reported a new type of cryoinjury, multiple aster formation, by which pronuclear migration and development of vitrified–warmed and in vitro-fertilized bovine oocytes are impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutathione (GSH) content of vitrified bovine oocytes on multiple aster formation and subsequent in vitro development. Treatment of bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes with β-mercaptoethanol (βME) and l-cysteine (Cys) during in vitro maturation resulted in 2.5-fold higher GSH content not only in fresh control but also in vitrified–warmed oocytes. The percentage of normally fertilized zygotes exhibiting sperm aster(s) was >95% in all four groups (with or without βME/Cys × fresh control or vitrified). The frequency of multiple aster formation in vitrified oocytes (three-fold higher than that in fresh control oocytes) was not affected by the increased level of intracellular GSH with βME/Cys. Consequently, the migration and development of pronuclei as well as the yield of blastocysts from vitrified–warmed oocytes (17 versus 41%) were not improved. In addition, there was no effect of increased GSH level on the yield of blastocysts in fresh control groups.
We report an extremely rare case of the oropharyngeal form of tularaemia, causing a parapharyngeal abscess.
A 48-year-old woman presented with fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty and a right-sided neck swelling. This mass had previously been treated with penicillin without response, and had already been surgically drained once in another hospital. On physical examination, the tonsils were exudative and hypertrophic and the pharynx was hyperaemic. A fluctuant, 4 × 4 cm mass was seen on endoscopic examination, originating from the left parapharyngeal area and protruding towards the pyriform sinus, and partly obstructing the airway. Microagglutination test antibody titres for Francisella tularensis were positive (1/1280). The patient healed completely after definitive drainage of the abscess and antimicrobial therapy for 14 days (streptomycin, 2 × 1 g intramuscularly).
Tularaemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tonsillopharyngitis, cervical lymphadenitis and parapharyngeal abscess who do not respond to treatment with penicillin, even if they do not live in an endemic region.
Recent studies on the acquisition of semantics have argued that knowledge of the universal quantifier is adult-like throughout development. However, there are domains where children still exhibit non-adult-like universal quantification, and arguments for the early mastery of relevant semantic knowledge do not explain what causes such non-adult-like interpretations. The present study investigates Japanese four- and five-year-old children's atypical universal quantification in light of the development of cognitive control. We hypothesized that children's still-developing cognitive control contributes to their atypical universal quantification. Using a combined eye-tracking and interpretation task together with a non-linguistic measure of cognitive control, we revealed a link between the achievement of adult-like universal quantification and the development of flexible perspective-switch. We argue that the development of cognitive control is one of the factors that contribute to children's processing of semantics.
We demonstrate low-resistivity Ohmic contacts for n-Ge with ultra-shallow junction. Using the impurity δ-doping techniques with Ge homoepitaxy on Ge(111) below 400 ºC, we can achieve a very abrupt doping profile within a nanometer-scale width. By introducing the δ-doping to atomically controlled metal/Ge contacts, the current-voltage characteristics clearly show Ohmic conductions owing to the effective tunneling through the Schottky barrier. This approach is promising for a formation technology of ultra-shallow source/drain contacts for scaled Ge devices.
We present secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) study results on interfaces of LiNbO3 based optoelectronic devices, which have been performed in order to examine the cause of device failures. The devices are widely used in current high-speed optical fiber communication systems, and such investigation from a materials-viewpoint is important to improve the device quality. Especially, the device long-term stability is strongly affected by alkali-contaminants diffused into the SiO2 buffer layer of device, and here we confirmed that an adoption of common Si3N4 passivation is effective in preventing the process-induced contamination without any influence to device performance.
In this paper, firstly, the results of deformation experiments which have been made on Al3Ti and Al3Ti-base alloys are reviewed. Secondly, the possibility of the improvement of ductility of Al3Ti by alloying processes is discussed, and then possible alloying elements for this purpose are suggested. Thirdly, the oxidation resistance of Al3Ti is described and then possible future technological applications of Al3Ti are briefly discussed.