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We conducted joint analyses from five randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of online family problem-solving therapy (OFPST) for children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to identify child and parent outcomes most sensitive to OFPST and trajectories of recovery over time.
We examined data from 359 children with complicated mild to severe TBI, aged 5–18, randomized to OFPST or a control condition. Using profile analyses, we examined group differences on parent-reported child (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, executive function behaviors, social competence) and family outcomes (parental depression, psychological distress, family functioning, parent–child conflict).
We found a main effect for measure for both child and family outcomes [F(3, 731) = 7.35, p < .001; F(3, 532) = 4.79, p = .003, respectively], reflecting differing degrees of improvement across measures for both groups. Significant group-by-time interactions indicated that children and families in the OFPST group had fewer problems than controls at both 6 and 18 months post baseline [t(731) = −5.15, p < .001, and t(731) = −3.90, p = .002, respectively, for child outcomes; t(532) = −4.81, p < .001, and t(532) = −3.80, p < .001, respectively, for family outcomes].
The results suggest limited differences in the measures’ responsiveness to treatment while highlighting OFPST’s utility in improving both child behavior problems and parent/family functioning. Group differences were greatest at treatment completion and after extended time post treatment.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in childhood is associated with poor social outcomes. This study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) as a mediator of the relation between TBI and peer rejection/victimization and reciprocated friendships, as well as the moderating effect of parental nurturance on those relationships.
Participants were children of 8–13 years old (M = 10.45, SD = 1.47), including 13 with severe TBI, 39 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 children with orthopedic injuries. Data on peer rejection/victimization and friendship were collected in school classrooms using the Extended Class Play and friendship nominations. Parents rated parental nurturance using the Child-Rearing Practices Report. Finally, ToM was measured based on children’s average performance across three tasks measuring different aspects of ToM.
Severe TBI was associated with poorer ToM, greater peer rejection/victimization, and fewer reciprocated friendships. ToM mediated the relation between severe TBI and peer rejection/victimization (i.e., severe TBI predicted poorer ToM, which in turn predicted greater rejection/victimization). Parental nurturance significantly moderated this relation, such that the mediating effect of ToM was significant only at low and average levels of parental nurturance, for both severe and complicated mild/moderate TBI groups. Neither the mediating effect of ToM nor the moderating effect of parental nurturance was significant for reciprocated friendships.
High parental nurturance may mitigate the negative effects of ToM deficits on risk of peer rejection/victimization among children with TBI. Interventions designed to increase parental nurturance or ToM may promote better social outcomes among children with TBI.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a cognitive screening tool known to accurately measure mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in many different neurological populations. Objective: We aimed to determine whether a sport-related concussion (SRC) history and other concussion modifiers influence global cognitive function in high-performance athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 326 varsity and national team athletes aged 18–36 years was completed at the University of Calgary Sports Medicine Clinic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between the total MoCA score, MoCA subscales, and number of previous SRC, adjusting for age, sex, sport participation (SP), and concussion modifiers. Results: Athletes with a history of three or more SRC were 5.36 times more likely to score less than 26/30 on the MoCA (the cutoff for MCI) compared to athletes with two or less SRC (p = 0.02). Males were 2.23 times more likely to have MCI than females (p = 0.0004). There was a significant relationship between the number of previous concussions and the MoCA subscales of attention (p = 0.05) and abstraction (p = 0.003). Age, SP, and concussion modifiers (migraine, depression, anxiety, and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder) did not influence the relationship between MoCA and previous concussion history. Conclusion: In the appropriate clinical context, cognitive screening with the MoCA may benefit clinical care in athletes with multiple previous SRC, but should not replace a full neuropsychological assessment. Thus, further research is needed to compare the MoCA to full neuropsychological assessments in this population.
Objective: Concussion in children and adolescents is a prevalent problem with implications for subsequent physical, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological functioning, as well as quality of life. While these consequences warrant attention, most concussed children recover well. This study aimed to determine what pre-injury, demographic, and injury-related factors are associated with optimal outcome (“wellness”) after pediatric concussion. Method: A total of 311 children 6–18 years of age with concussion participated in a longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Pre-morbid conditions and acute injury variables, including post-concussive symptoms (PCS) and cognitive screening (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, SAC), were collected in the emergency department, and a neuropsychological assessment was performed at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury. Wellness, defined by the absence of PCS and cognitive inefficiency and the presence of good quality of life, was the main outcome. Stepwise logistic regression was performed using 19 predictor variables. Results: 41.5% and 52.2% of participants were classified as being well at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury, respectively. The final model indicated that children who were younger, who sustained sports/recreational injuries (vs. other types), who did not have a history of developmental problems, and who had better acute working memory (SAC concentration score) were significantly more likely to be well. Conclusions: Determining the variables associated with wellness after pediatric concussion has the potential to clarify which children are likely to show optimal recovery. Future work focusing on wellness and concussion should include appropriate control groups and document more extensively pre-injury and injury-related factors that could additionally contribute to wellness. (JINS, 2019, 25, 375–389)
Objectives: Examine the mediating effects of anxiety and depressive symptoms on the relationship between psychological resilience and post-concussive symptoms (PCS) in children with poor recovery following concussion. Participants and Methods: Adolescents (N=93), ages 13 to 18 years, were assessed at a neuropsychology screening clinic at a children’s hospital. They sustained concussions more than 1 month before the clinic visit (median time since injury=5.1 months; range=42–473 days) and were seen on the basis of poor recovery (i.e., presence of persistent PCS and complaints of cognitive problems). Self-reported psychological resilience was measured using the 10-item version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; self- and parent-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Behaviour Assessment System for Children – Second Edition; and self- and parent-reported PCS were measured using the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory. All variables were measured concurrently. Regression-based mediation analyses were conducted to examine anxiety and depressive symptoms as mediators of the relationship between psychological resilience and PCS. Results: Psychological resilience significantly predicted self-reported PCS. Self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between resilience and self-reported PCS, and parent-reported child depressive symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between resilience and self- and parent-reported PCS. Conclusions: Psychological resilience plays an important role in recovery from concussion, and this relationship may be mediated by anxiety and depressive symptoms. These results help shed light on the mechanisms of the role of psychological resilience in predicting PCS in children with prolonged symptom recovery. (JINS, 2019, 25, 346–354)
Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common causes of respiratory tract infections and place a burden on health services each winter. Systems to describe the timing and intensity of such activity will improve the public health response and deployment of interventions to these pressures. Here we develop early warning and activity intensity thresholds for monitoring influenza and RSV using two novel data sources: general practitioner out-of-hours consultations (GP OOH) and telehealth calls (NHS 111). Moving Epidemic Method (MEM) thresholds were developed for winter 2017–2018. The NHS 111 cold/flu threshold was breached several weeks in advance of other systems. The NHS 111 RSV epidemic threshold was breached in week 41, in advance of RSV laboratory reporting. Combining the use of MEM thresholds with daily monitoring of NHS 111 and GP OOH syndromic surveillance systems provides the potential to alert to threshold breaches in real-time. An advantage of using thresholds across different health systems is the ability to capture a range of healthcare-seeking behaviour, which may reflect differences in disease severity. This study also provides a quantifiable measure of seasonal RSV activity, which contributes to our understanding of RSV activity in advance of the potential introduction of new RSV vaccines.
Models for astrophysical plasmas often have magnetic field lines that leave the boundary rather than closing within the computational domain. Thus, the relative magnetic helicity is frequently used in place of the usual magnetic helicity, so as to restore gauge invariance. We show how to decompose the relative helicity into a relative field-line helicity that is an ideal-magnetohydrodynamic invariant for each individual magnetic field line, and vanishes along any field line where the original field matches the reference field. Physically, this relative field-line helicity is a magnetic flux, whose specific definition depends on the gauge of the reference vector potential on the boundary. We propose a particular ‘minimal’ gauge that depends only on the reference field and minimises this boundary contribution, so as to reveal topological information about the original magnetic field. We illustrate the effect of different gauge choices using the Low–Lou and Titov–Démoulin models of solar active regions. Our numerical code to compute appropriate vector potentials and relative field-line helicity in Cartesian domains is open source and freely available.
invariant is an arithmetic graph invariant defined by Schnetz. It is useful for understanding Feynman periods. Brown and Schnetz conjectured that the
invariant has a particular symmetry known as completion invariance. This paper will prove completion invariance of the
invariant in the case where we are over the field with 2 elements and the completed graph has an odd number of vertices. The methods involve enumerating certain edge bipartitions of graphs; two different constructions are needed.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of psychological resilience to persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) in children with a history of single or multiple concussions, as well as orthopedic injury (OI). Methods: Participants (N=75) were children, ages 8–18 years, who sustained a single concussion (n=24), multiple concussions (n=25), or an OI (n=26), recruited from a tertiary care children’s hospital. All participants sustained injuries at least 6 months before recruitment, with an average time since injury of 32.9 months. Self-reported psychological resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and both self- and parent-reported PCS were measured using the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory. Hierarchical regression analyses examined psychological resilience as a predictor of PCS, both as a main effect and as a moderator of group differences. Results: Multiple concussions and low psychological resilience were both significant predictors of persistent PCS. Resilience was not a significant moderator of group differences in PCS. Conclusions: Sustaining multiple concussions may increase a child’s risk of persistent PCS; however, high psychological resilience may serve as a protective factor, regardless of the number or type of injuries sustained. These findings provide support for developing and testing interventions aimed at increasing psychological resilience as a potential means of improving outcomes for children suffering from persistent PCS after concussion. (JINS, 2018, 24, 759–768)
Understanding the burden of respiratory pathogens on health care is key to improving public health emergency response and interventions. In temperate regions, there is a large seasonal rise in influenza and other respiratory pathogens. We have examined the associations between individual pathogens and reported respiratory tract infections to estimate attributable burden. We used multiple linear regression to model the relationship between doctor consultation data and laboratory samples from week 3 2011 until week 37 2015. We fitted separate models for consultation data with in-hours and out-of-hours doctor services, stratified by different age bands. The best fitting all ages models (R2 > 80%) for consultation data resulted in the greatest burden being associated with influenza followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). For models of adult age bands, there were significant associations between consultation data and invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae. There were also smaller numbers of consultations significantly associated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza, and human metapneumovirus. We estimate that a general practice with 10 000 patients would have seen an additional 18 respiratory tract infection consultations per winter week of which six had influenza and four had RSV. Our results are important for the planning of health care services to minimise the impact of winter pressures.
•Respiratory pathogen incidence explains over 80% of seasonal variation in respiratory consultation data.
•Influenza and RSV are associated with the biggest seasonal rises in respiratory consultation counts.
•A third of consultation counts associated with respiratory pathogens were due to influenza.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Objectives: Individual differences in long-term psychosocial functioning after concussions in children and adolescents are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate potential predictors of long-term psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life in youth after prior concussion. Methods: Participants (N=75; mean age=14.3 years old; 52% girls) with one prior concussion (n=24), multiple prior concussions (n=24), or a prior orthopedic injury and no concussion (n=27) were seen on average 2.7 years after their most recent injury. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the self-report versions of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2; Anxiety and Depression scales only), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory TM 4.0. Pre-existing conditions (attention problems, learning difficulties, mood concerns, anxiety concerns, and migraines) were reported by parents using a checklist and examined as predictors of long-term functioning. Other potential predictors included age at testing, sex, time between most recent injury and testing, and number of prior concussions. Results: The groups did not differ significantly on long-term psychosocial functioning. Moreover, only pre-existing mood concerns or attention problems significantly predicted psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions: Children’s functioning before a concussion is critical to understanding outcome. Pre-injury attention and mood concerns should be assessed in clinical settings to prevent and treat long-term psychosocial problems after concussion. (JINS, 2018, 24, 540–548)
Analysis of short-term feeding behaviour may improve our understanding of food intake regulation and diet choice. Feeding behaviour of animals consists of feeding events separated by non-feeding intervals. Feeding events are often observed to be clustered into bouts that may be called meals. Determining a meal criterion (the longest non-feeding interval which is accepted as part of a meal) allows feeding events to be grouped into meals. Tolkamp & Kyriazakis (1999) presented a model that described three populations of loge-transformed intervals in the form of three normal distributions (Gaussians). These populations represent intervals within meals, with or without drinking, and intervals between meals. This model predicted that the probability of a meal starting, first increased, then decreased, with time since the last meal. This is in contrast to the satiety concept, which predicts that the probability of an animal starting a meal will increase with time since the last meal. This study aims at developing a model that best describes, biologically and statistically, the distribution of non-feeding intervals, thus leading to a more accurate meal criteria.
When cows are offered a choice of foods they are able to select a consistent combination of these foods over long periods of time. Consistent long-term diet choice (DC) is the result of feeding behaviour, which may be regulated in the short-term. The shortest unit of feeding that can be measured is often a visit to a feeder supplying one food type only. These visits are usually clustered into meals, which are the shortest biological unit in which DC can be expressed. Previous work led us to hypothesise that animals may select a consistent diet within meals, thus ensuring nutrient synchronisation in the short-term. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term average DC was a direct result of cows selecting a consistent diet within meals.
The analysis of short-term feeding behaviour may give insights into how food intake is regulated in farm animals. Food intake is often recorded in terms of feeding events, e.g. visits to feeders, which can be clustered into meals. This enables calculation of the probability of cows starting a meal in relation to time since the last meal, which is thought to give insight into intake regulation. Starting probabilities are often calculated after data have been pooled, e.g. across day and night or across individuals. Recent work suggested that such pooling might have strongly affected previously published conclusions. We therefore constructed simulation models to investigate how such pooling affects interpretation of feeding behaviour and consequently the biological significance attached to results.