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We report new U–Pb zircon age data, zircon in situ oxygen isotope, mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopic compositions from the Early Devonian ultrapotassic Gucheng pluton in the North China Craton, and discuss its petrogenesis. The Gucheng pluton is exposed in the northern part of the North China Craton and forms a composite intrusion, consisting of K-feldspar-bearing clinopyroxenite, clinopyroxene-bearing syenite and alkali-feldspar syenite. Mineral phases in these lithologies include clinopyroxene (Wo43–48En19–35Fs18–38), sanidine (An0Ab3–11Or89–97), and subordinate titanite, andradite and Na-feldspar. These rocks show homogeneous Sr but variable Nd isotopic compositions, and have relatively high zircon in situ oxygen isotopes (δ18O = 5.2–6.7). The Gucheng plutonic rocks formed through fractional crystallization and accumulation from ultrapotassic magmas, which were originated from partial melting of metasomatic vein systems in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the North China Craton. These vein networks developed as a result of the reactions of fluids derived from subducted pelitic sediments on the downgoing Palaeo-Asian ocean floor with the enriched, subcontinental lithospheric mantle peridotites. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U–Pb zircon dating has revealed a crystallization age of 415 Ma for the timing of the emplacement of the Gucheng pluton that marks the early stages of alkaline magmatism associated with the Andean-type continental margin evolution along the northern edge of the North China Craton facing the Palaeo-Asian Ocean.
The aim of this study was to examine whether melatonin is involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This study included 29 patients with nasal polyposis and undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. As a control group, 26 patients who had been operated on for a deviated nasal septum and concha bullosa were enrolled. Samples were taken from the nasal polyp tissue and from the resected middle concha bullosa mucosa of the control group. Serum samples were taken from all patients.
It was found that the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the nasal polyp group were significantly lower compared with the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the control group.
In nasal polyposis, the melatonin level in the serum and tissue is lower than in individuals without polyposis. This deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
The Tokoro Belt exposed in NE Hokkaido (Japan) represents part of a Late Cretaceous accretionary complex, which includes variously metamorphosed volcanic rocks that are interbedded with chert, lenticular limestone and some fore-arc sedimentary rocks. The Tokoro Belt is notably different from other Late Cretaceous accretionary complexes around the Pacific Rim because of widespread occurrence of basalts and volcaniclastic rocks in it. The Nikoro Group, characterized by widespread occurrence of volcanic rocks, is divided into western, eastern and southern sections based on the internal structure, geochemical affinities and metamorphic grades of their volcanic lithologies. OIB (ocean island basalt)-type volcanic rocks with low-grade metamorphic overprint predominate in the western and southern sections, whereas MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt)- and OIA (ocean island alkaline basalt)-type rocks in the eastern section with partly high-pressure metamorphism make up the northern part of the eastern section. Trace element patterns display transitional trends from MORB to OIA geochemical affinities. OIB-type rocks display trace element characteristics similar to those of shield volcano lavas on Hawaii, rather than small and mainly alkaline, Polynesian hotspot lavas; furthermore, they show significant HREE (heavy rare earth element) enrichment probably caused by plume–ridge interaction. Widespread OIBs in the Tokoro Belt represents tectonic slices of a large (>80 km wide) Hawaiian-style, seamount shield volcano on the Izanagi oceanic plate that was accreted into the continental margin of Far East Asia in the Late Cretaceous.
This paper presents archaeological and analytical data on metal artefacts from Hüseyindede (Çorum, Turkey), dated to the Old Hittite period (ca 16th century BC). Hüseyindede, which is set in a rural landscape, demonstrates continuity in alloying traditions from the Early Bronze Age III (ca 26th/25th–22nd/21st century BC) and the Assyrian Trading Colonies period (20th–18th century BC) to the emergence of the Hittites. In addition to known alloying practices of the period, the site presents, for the first time, evidence of the existence of copper-nickel alloys, namely cupronickels, which so far have been documented only at the Late Bronze Age capital of the Hittites, Boğazköy/Hattuša. The Hüseyindede cupronickel objects now pinpoint the presence of this technology to regions spreading out from the Halys basin from the Old Kingdom Hittite period.
Scholars have recently investigated the efficacy of applying globalisation models to ancient cultures such as the fourth-millennium BC Mesopotamian Uruk system. Embedded within globalisation models is the ‘complex connectivity‘ that brings disparate regions together into a singular world. In the fourth millennium BC, the site of Çadır Höyük on the north-central Anatolian plateau experienced dramatic changes in its material culture and architectural assemblages, which in turn reflect new socio-economic, sociopolitical and ritual patterns at this rural agro-pastoral settlement. This study examines the complex connectivities of the ancient Uruk system, encompassing settlements in more consistent contact with the Uruk system such as Arslantepe in southeastern Anatolia, and how these may have fostered exchange networks that reached far beyond the Uruk ‘global world‘ and onto the Anatolian plateau.
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis. Antibiotics also disrupt the composition of intestinal microbiota. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of a short-term feeding with HFD on oxidative status, enteric microbiota, intestinal motility and the effects of antibiotics and/or melatonin treatments on diet-induced hepato-intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed with either standard chow or HFD (45% fat), and were given tap-water or melatonin (4 mg/kg/day) or melatonin plus antibiotics (ABX; neomycin, ampicillin, metronidazole; each 1 g/L) in drinking water for two weeks. On the 14th day, colonic motility was measured and the next day intestinal transit was assessed using charcoal propagation. Trunk blood, liver and intestine samples were removed for biochemical and histopathological evaluations, and feces were collected for microbiota analysis. A two-week HFD-feeding increased blood glucose level and perirenal fat weight, induced low-level hepatic and intestinal inflammation, delayed intestinal transit, led to deterioration of epithelial tight junctions and to overgrowth of colonic bacteria. Melatonin intake in HFD-fed rats reduced ileal inflammation, colonic motility and perirenal fat accumulation. ABX abolished increases in fat accumulation and blood glucose, reduced ileal oxidative damage, suppressed HFD-induced overgrowth in colonic bacteria, reversed HFD-induced delay in intestinal transit; however hepatic neutrophil accumulation, hepatic injury and dysfunction were further enhanced. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that even a short-term HFD ingestion results in hepato-intestinal inflammatory state and alterations in bacterial populations, which may be worsened with antibiotic intake, but alleviated by melatonin.
This paper is about rings
for which every element is a sum of a tripotent and an element from the Jacobson radical
. These rings are called semi-tripotent rings. Examples include Boolean rings, strongly nil-clean rings, strongly 2-nil-clean rings, and semi-boolean rings. Here, many characterizations of semi-tripotent rings are obtained. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a Morita context (respectively, for a group ring of an abelian group or a locally finite nilpotent group) to be semi-tripotent are proved.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The primary objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization and demographic risk factors associated with maternal GBS colonization in Latin America. Secondary objectives include: To determine if there is an association between maternal colonization with GBS and stillbirth or preterm birth in Latin America. To determine the effect of cesarean section (CS) on the incidence of neonatal sepsis with GBS in mothers colonized with GBS. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Study Population: Pregnant women who received prenatal care at sites that utilize the Perinatal Information System (SIP) from 1989 through 2015, and were screened for GBS between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation. Maternal exclusion criteria included spontaneous abortion, stillbirth before 35 weeks, and lack of screening for GBS. Methods: Estimated prevalence (and 95% confidence interval) of maternal GBS colonization for the entire data set, by region, and by country. The prevalence data for each country further stratified by maternal age, ethnicity, education, civil status and habitation. Descriptive statistics calculated for each clinical prenatal and clinical perinatal health indicator as well as for each clinical history variable for GBS colonized and non-GBS colonized women. Odds ratios will be calculated for each demographic and clinical risk factor. Fisher’s exact tests will be used to test hypotheses about the relationship between maternal GBS colonization and specific perinatal outcomes such as stillbirth or preterm birth. We will use multiple logistic regression models to test the hypotheses about the relationships between demographic variables, maternal GBS colonization and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary results: 712,061 records included in database. 98,852 records with data for GBS screening. o90.6% White, 7.4% Mixed, 0.6% Black, 0.3% Native Indian, 0.1% Other. GBS prevalence among screened women, 17.5% There was a significant association between maternal GBS colonization and ethnicity (X2 (4, N=97006)=569.901, p<0.01) o Prevalence rates by ethnicity: 20.5% Black, 18.4% White, 15.2% Native Indian, 8.8% Mixed, 3.3% Other. There was a significant association between maternal GBS colonization and age (X2 (4, N=98655)=119.901, p<0.01) o Prevalence rates by age group:. Age ≤ 20 - 15.2%. Age 21-34 – 17.8%. Age ≥ 35 – 19.6% Anticipated results:. GBS positive mothers will have an increased burden of stillbirth and preterm birth compared to GBS negative mothers. Neonates born to GBS colonized mothers who deliver via cesarean section will have a decreased incidence of sepsis compared to neonates born to GBS colonized mothers who deliver vaginally DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There have been no comprehensive studies to date that use the CLAP data to characterize the epidemiology of maternal GBS colonization and GBS disease and the burden of neonatal GBS disease in Latin America. Taking advantage of this unique database, this is the first region-wide study using systematically collected data. Our preliminary analysis indicates that GBS colonization status among pregnant women in Latin America is 17.5%, which is greater than previously reported. While there is evidence that maternal carriage of GBS is associated with stillbirth, this will be the first study to quantify the burden of GBS-associated stillbirth in Latin America. Additionally, previous work has been inconclusive in regards to maternal colonization with GBS and its association with preterm birth. This will be the largest study to evaluate the association of maternal GBS carriage with preterm birth. Findings from this study have the potential to inform public health policy and interventions by identifying the prevalence and risk factors.
Obesity is a global health issue in both children and adults. Besides its comorbidities, cardiac structure and functions may be impaired from childhood if obesity is not controlled in the growing years. The effects of diet and exercise on the cardiovascular functions and biochemical parameters of obese children were evaluated in this study.
In a tertiary hospital, 6–16-year-old of mean age 10.8±2.3 years, non-random voluntarily selected 34 obese children with body mass index above 95th percentile and no syndromic or systemic illnesses were enrolled in this prospective study. Weights, heights, and blood pressures were recorded. Cardiac functions were evaluated by M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, liver enzyme, and thyroid hormone levels were analysed. These measurements were repeated after a 6-month diet and exercise programme. The results were compared statistically.
Echocardiography of the obese children after diet and exercise showed significantly increased ejection fraction, fractional shortening, mitral annular plane systolic excursion and mitral systolic velocity values, associated with the systolic ventricular functions, and decreased tissue Doppler mitral and tricuspid early diastolic velocities, related with the early diastolic ventricular functions, compared with before diet and exercise (p<0.05). Moreover, the body mass index, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels significantly decreased after diet and exercise (p<0.05).
The systolic and early diastolic cardiac functions are impaired and the biochemical parameters are distorted starting from the childhood because of the obesity. Regular diet and exercise provide significant improvement. Cardiac evaluation should be routinely performed in all obese children and they should be encouraged for a regular diet and exercise for better cardiovascular health.
The Zhangguangcai Range in the Xing’an Mongolian Orogenic Belt, NE China, contains Early Jurassic (c. 188 Ma) Dabaizigou (DBZG) porphyritic dolerite. Compared with other island-arc mafic rocks, the DBZG dolerite is characterized by high trace-element contents, relatively weak Nb and Ta enrichments, and no Zr, Hf or Ti depletions, similar to OIB-type rocks. Analysed rocks have (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7033–0.7044, relatively uniform positive ɛNd(t) values of 2.3–3.2 and positive ɛHf(t) values of 8.5–17.1. Trace-element and isotopic modelling indicates that the DBZG mafic rocks were generated by partial melting of asthenospheric mantle under garnet- to spinel-facies conditions. The occurrence of OIB-like mafic intrusion suggests significant upwelling of the asthenosphere in response to lithospheric attenuation caused by continental rifting. These processes occurred in an incipient continental back-arc environment in the upper plate of a palaeo-Pacific slab subducting W–NW beneath East Asia.
Lightning strike is an infrequent natural phenomenon with serious medical complications, like multiple organ damage, and it is associated with increased risk of mortality. Cardiovascular complications are among the most hazardous complications of lightning strike. Lightning strike can cause various serious consequences ranging from electrocardiographic changes to death. We reported a 21-year-old patient with no cardiovascular risk factors struck by lightning and presented by inferior ST elevated myocardial infarction (MI). The patient was followed up in the intensive care unit and MI complication did not develop during follow-up. The patient was lost due to multi-organ failure after 20 hours.
The fire-retardant and water-repellent bio-structural panels (BISPs) were successfully developed using cellulose nanofibrils, corn starch, boric acid, and n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride with adhesive-free character. Its performance properties were evaluated and compared with other well-known products on the market. The BISP's density (0.1 g/cm3) and permeance value [41.81 g/day/m2 with 5.76% coefficient of variation (CV)] were found higher than compared competitor products. The BISPs' contact angle was found 132.13° (1.59% CV) for BISP. The BISP was the only fire-retardant product, and the only one developed almost no smoke 2.20%.
This paper introduces a rigorous framework for function modeling of complex multidisciplinary systems based on the system state flow diagram (SSFD). The work addresses the need for a consistent methodology to support solution-neutral function-based system decomposition analysis, facilitating the design, modeling, and analysis of complex systems architectures. A rigorous basis for the SSFD is established by defining conventions for states and function definitions and a representation scheme, underpinned by a critical review of existing literature. A set of heuristics are introduced to support the function decomposition analysis and to facilitate the deployment of the methodology with strong practitioner guidelines. The SSFD heuristics extend the existing framework of Otto and Wood (2001) by introducing a conditional fork node heuristic, to facilitate analysis and aggregation of function models across multiple modes of operation of the system. The empirical validation of the SSFD function modeling framework is discussed in relation to its application to two case studies: a benchmark problem (glue gun) set for the engineering design community; and an industrial case study of an electric vehicle powertrain. Based on the evidence from the two case studies presented in the paper, a critical evaluation of the SSFD function modeling methodology is discussed based on the function benchmarking framework established by Summers et al. (2013), considering the representation, modeling, cognitive, and reasoning characteristics. The significance of this paper is that it establishes a rigorous reference framework for the SSFD function representation and a consistent methodology to guide the practitioner with its deployment, facilitating its impact to industrial practice.
This article aims to account for the variation in the time it takes for WTO Members to bring compliance following adverse panel rulings. It seeks to answer the question: under what conditions do defendants swiftly implement adverse rulings of WTO panels? I demonstrate that defendants are more likely to comply without delay when the targeted measures involve firms that are integrated into regional and global value chains. When a dispute touches upon the interests of these firms and targets import-restricting measures, they are triggered to mobilize and press for compliance because they rely on foreign imports. In effect, the mobilization of these firms changes the domestic political conditions in favor of timely implementation. I show the plausibility of my argument in a comparative design with four case studies in which the US and Canada acted as defendants in WTO disputes. I control for a number of political factors and also consider legal sources of variation – i.e. the complexity of the form of implementation – that may impact WTO Members’ record of compliance.