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Dual or multiple earnership has been considered an important factor to prevent in-work poverty. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of second earnership on the risk of in-work poverty and the role of the tax-benefit system in moderating this risk. Our analysis refers to 2014 and employs EUROMOD, the tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union and the United Kingdom. In order to assess the role of second earners in preventing in-work poverty we simulate a counterfactual scenario where second earners become unemployed. Our results show that the effect of net replacement rates (i.e. the ratio of household income before and after the transition of second earners to unemployment) on the probability of in-work poverty is negative and statistically significant, but in relative terms it appears to be small compared to the effects of individual labour market characteristics, such as low pay and part-time employment.
Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is one of the specific pollinators on inflorescences of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. This derelomine weevil is native to tropical Africa. During the late 20th century, it was introduced into all tropical regions where E. guineensis is grown, in order to improve its pollination and fruit set. Despite an overall success, a decline in pollination efficiency has been documented in several regions. In this study, we reconstructed a multilocus phylogeography of the world populations of E. kamerunicus, in order to explore its genetic diversity in its native and introduced ranges. Our results showed that African populations of E. kamerunicus are forming two differentiated mitochondrial clusters in West and central Africa, forming a contact zone along the Cameroon Volcanic Line. The existence of this sharp contact zone along this weak altitudinal barrier suggests that other parameters, such as climate, may be driving the distribution of populations. A differential genetic structure between mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and the strong level of genetic structure of the mitochondrial gene, also suggest sex-biased dispersal in this species, with males dispersing more than females. The genetic structure inferred from Asian and South American populations suggests that they originate from populations of both western and central tropical Africa and that a bottleneck has probably been experienced by these populations.
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is a native shrub on the steep slopes of the mountains and on the plains in the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Turkey is the world’s largest hazelnut producer and exporter, followed by Italy, Spain, the United States, and Greece. Within the scope of this project, a number of surveys were conducted in Turkey to understand the impact of a glyphosate ban on hazelnut production and the economy. Sixty farm surveys were conducted within the Black Sea region, and those data were used as primary information sources. Databases of institutions, theses, academic reports, and published articles were used as secondary data sources to determine the possible effects of a glyphosate ban on Turkish hazelnut production and economy. One of the most important findings of the study was that agricultural business and employment sustained by hazelnut production constitute a significant part of the rural economy. Tillage and mechanical strategies remain as the most sustainable alternative methods for controlling weeds. A potential glyphosate restriction may increase the demand for labor due to a higher need for mechanical strategies. The cost of these alternative methods are 80% more compared with glyphosate weed control systems. The benefit–cost model predicted that, in the case of no glyphosate use, total hazelnut production would decrease by 12% to 21% due to inefficient weed control. A glyphosate ban would result in a reduction in Turkish gross domestic product. Yearly, an average of US$2 billion in revenue is obtained from hazelnut exports, and this number corresponds to 1.37% of Turkey’s annual export value. The glyphosate ban would cause a US$240 to US$420 million loss in hazelnut export value and reduce production by 66 to 115 million kg. Global demand for hazelnut is believed to be on the increase, and world production depends largely on Turkey.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
This article presents the concept of contemporary mobility in relation to the writings and actions of the Situationist group, particularly in Guy Debord’s concepts of urban dérive and psychogeography, as reflected in his last film In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni (1978). Connecting different disciplines, the paper examines the concept of mobility in its relation to history, philosophy, art and urbanism.
The Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group has updated its treatment optimization recommendations (TORs) on the optimal use of disease-modifying therapies for patients with all forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recommendations provide guidance on initiating effective treatment early in the course of disease, monitoring response to therapy, and modifying or switching therapies to optimize disease control. The current TORs also address the treatment of pediatric MS, progressive MS and the identification and treatment of aggressive forms of the disease. Newer therapies offer improved efficacy, but also have potential safety concerns that must be adequately balanced, notably when treatment sequencing is considered. There are added discussions regarding the management of pregnancy, the future potential of biomarkers and consideration as to when it may be prudent to stop therapy. These TORs are meant to be used and interpreted by all neurologists with a special interest in the management of MS.
High-temperature scanning electron microscopy allows the direct study of the temperature behavior of materials. Using a newly developed heating stage, tilted images series were recorded at high temperature and 3D images of the sample surface were reconstructed. By combining 3D images recorded at different temperatures, the variations of material roughness can be accurately described and associated with local changes in the topography of the sample surface.
Mass attenuation coefficients (MACs) of Th, U, Np, and Pu for oxygen X-rays have been experimentally determined using an electron microprobe. The MACs were obtained by measuring relative X-ray intensities emitted from ThO2, UO2, NpO2, and PuO2 targets, for incident electron energies from 5 to 30 keV, and processing them with the help of the computer program XMAC. The accuracy of the measured MACs is estimated to be better than 5%. Results are compared with MAC tabulations commonly used in electron probe microanalysis as well as with theoretical photoionization calculations. It is concluded that the MACs implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation program PENELOPE which are based on the photoionization cross-section calculations of Sabbatucci & Salvat [(2016). Theory and calculation of the atomic photoeffect. Rad Phys Chem121, 122–140], provide the best agreement with our measurements. The use of different MAC schemes for the analysis of mixed actinide oxide materials is discussed.
Our knowledge and understanding of the structure and function of complex host-associated communities has grown exponentially in the last decade through improvements in sequencing technologies. Despite this, there are still many outstanding research questions, which will undoubtably lead to many more. Concerted effort is required to elucidate the composition and function of taxonomic groups other than bacteria that constitute host microbiomes, and to extend our current cataloguing efforts to non-model and field-based host organisms. Further to this, we need to continue to move beyond the 'who?' question provided by relatively cheap amplicon sequencing to gain a better understanding of 'what?' the microbiome is doing, using metatranscriptomics approaches. Critically, we need to understand how members of the microbiome interact to confer function. Given the current unprecedented environmental change, microbiome plasticity may prove vital to host resilience and fitness. Furthermore, there is considerable potential for microbial biotechnology to improve numerous aspects of humanity, although care must be taken to ensure environmental and social justice prevail.
Two major outstanding questions in microbiome research ask what microbes are present in a community and how they interact with each other and their hosts. Recent, rapid improvements in nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) sequencing allow us to study the composition and function of microbiomes in unprecedented detail, leading to a step change in our understanding of host–microbe interactions. This chapter gives a broad overview of the basic toolkit available to modern microbiologists and microbial ecologists, exploring their application to key questions about microbiome structure and function. We cover tools based on nucleic acid sequencing (e.g. amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics) as well as approaches targeting larger molecules such as metabolomics and proteomics. We discuss the use of microbial culture as a means of measuring functional capacity of individual microbes, or building artificial communities to understand emergent properties of consortia. We emphasise the advantages of combining multiple techniques alongside robust experimental design to garner powerful quantitative estimates of microbiome structure, and how this relates to host–microbe interactions.
A classic example of microbiome function is its role in nutrient assimilation in both plants and animals, but other less obvious roles are becoming more apparent, particularly in terms of driving infectious and non-infectious disease outcomes and influencing host behaviour. However, numerous biotic and abiotic factors influence the composition of these communities, and host microbiomes can be susceptible to environmental change. How microbial communities will be altered by, and mitigate, the rapid environmental change we can expect in the next few decades remain to be seen. That said, given the enormous range of functional diversity conferred by microbes, there is currently something of a revolution in microbial bioengineering and biotechnology in order to address real-world problems including human and wildlife disease and crop and biofuel production. All of these concepts are explored in further detail throughout the book.
Through a long history of co-evolution, multicellular organisms form a complex of host cells plus many associated microorganism species. Consisting of algae, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses, and collectively referred to as the microbiome, these microorganisms contribute to a range of important functions in their hosts, from nutrition, to behaviour and disease susceptibility. In this book, a diverse and international group of active researchers outline how multicellular organisms have become reliant on their microbiomes to function, and explore this vital interdependence across the breadth of soil, plant, animal and human hosts. They draw parallels and contrasts across hosts in different environments, and discuss how this invisible microbial ecosystem influences everything from the food we eat, to our health, to the correct functioning of ecosystems we depend on. This insightful read also pertinently encourages students and researchers in microbial ecology, ecology, and microbiology to consider how this interdependence may be key to mitigating environmental changes and developing microbial biotechnology to improve life on Earth.