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Second language (L2) fluency is an exciting and fast-moving field of research, with clear practical applications in language teaching. This book provides a lively overview of the current advances in the field of L2 fluency, and connects the theory to practice, presenting a hands-on approach to using fluency research across a range of different language-related professions. The authors introduce an innovative multidisciplinary perspective, which brings together research into cognitive and social factors, to understand fluency as a dynamic variable in language performance, connecting learner-internal factors such as speech processing and automaticity, to external factors such as task demands, language testing, and pragmatic interactional demands in communication. Bringing a much-needed multidisciplinary and novel approach to understanding the complex nature of L2 speech fluency, this book provides researchers, students and language professionals with both the theoretical insights and practical tools required to understand and research how fluency in a second language develops.
Hematology is the study of blood and bone marrow disorders. These conditions affect the structure, quantity, and/or function of the cellular and plasma components of blood and include inherited and acquired cytopenias/cytoses, coagulation/hemostatic and immune dysregulation disorders, and malignancies. Significant iatrogenic hematological effects can also result from various drug therapies commonly prescribed in the elderly.
The Hebrew Bible is permeated with depictions of military conflicts that have profoundly shaped the way many think about war. Why does war occupy so much space in the Bible? In this book, Jacob Wright offers a fresh and fascinating response to this question: War pervades the Bible not because ancient Israel was governed by religious factors (such as 'holy war') or because this people, along with its neighbors in the ancient Near East, was especially bellicose. The reason is rather that the Bible is fundamentally a project of constructing a new national identity for Israel, one that can both transcend deep divisions within the population and withstand military conquest by imperial armies. Drawing on the intriguing interdisciplinary research on war commemoration, Wright shows how biblical authors, like the architects of national identities from more recent times, constructed a new and influential notion of peoplehood in direct relation to memories of war, both real and imagined. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This first volume of The Cambridge History of the Gothic provides a rigorous account of the Gothic in Western civilisation, from the Goths' sacking of Rome in 410 AD through to its manifestations in British and European culture of the long eighteenth century. Written by international cast of leading scholars, the chapters explore the interdisciplinary nature of the Gothic in the fields of history, literature, architecture and fine art. As much a cultural history of Gothic as an account of the ways in which the Gothic has participated within a number of formative historical events across time, the volume offers fresh perspectives on familiar themes while also drawing new critical attention to a range of hitherto overlooked concerns. From writers such as Horace Walpole and Ann Radcliffe to eighteenth-century politics and theatre, the volume provides a thorough and engaging overview of early Gothic culture in Britain and beyond.
This second volume of The Cambridge History of the Gothic provides a rigorous account of the Gothic in British, American and Continental European culture, from the Romantic period through to the Victorian fin de siècle. Here, leading scholars in the fields of literature, theatre, architecture and the history of science and popular entertainment explore the Gothic in its numerous interdisciplinary forms and guises, as well as across a range of different international contexts. As much a cultural history of the Gothic in this period as an account of the ways in which the Gothic mode has participated in the formative historical events of modernity, the volume offers fresh perspectives on familiar themes while also drawing new critical attention to a range of hitherto overlooked concerns. From Romanticism, to Penny Bloods, Dickens and even the railway system, the volume provides a compelling and comprehensive study of nineteenth-century Gothic culture.
The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
The influence of the extant plays has been so immense and far-reaching that it is easy to forget that other tragic versions of these characters existed. This is true above all in the case of Euripides’ Medea, whose terrible, tortured act of infanticide is to many modern readers and audiences the single defining aspect of her tragic characterisation. The final chapter destabilises this preconception by drawing together evidence for the full range of tragic Medeas, including a play in which she is not guilty of the act that has come to define her, the killing of her own children. Wright recovers a more accurate picture of Medea on the tragic stage, and suggests that what ‘made Medea Medea’ for the ancient audiences was not her infanticide, but rather the sheer range and malleability of stories in which she featured. This survey offers an important corrective to widespread conceptions of this iconic figure, and powerfully demonstrates how the legacy of a single surviving version has distorted our understanding of the kinds of female characters with which ancient tragic audiences would have been familiar.
Whole grain wheat, in particular colored varieties, may have health benefits in adults with chronic metabolic disease risk factors. 29 overweight and obese adults with chronic inflammation (high sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) > 1.0 mg/L) replaced four daily servings of refined grain food products with bran-enriched purple or regular whole wheat convenience bars (~ 41-45 g fiber, daily) for 8 weeks in a randomized, single-blind parallel arm study where body weight was maintained. Anthropometrics, blood markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipemia and metabolites of anthocyanins and phenolic acids were compared at Days 1, 29 and 57 using repeated measures analysis of variance within groups and analysis of covariance between groups at Day 57, with Day 1 as a covariate. A significant reduction in interleukin-6 and increase in adiponectin were observed within the purple wheat (PW) group. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was lowered in both groups and ferulic acid concentration increased in the regular wheat (RW) group. Comparing between wheats, only plasma TNF-α and glucose differed significantly (P<0.05), i.e. TNF-α and glucose decreased with RW and PW, respectively. Consumption of PW or RW products showed potential to improve plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in participants with evidence of chronic inflammation, with modest differences observed based on type of wheat.
This paper maps key regulatory, governance and legal challenges associated with the UK's withdrawal from the European Union (EU) in terms of convergent and divergent pressures within the global pharmaceutical sector. These include (i) convergent regulatory pressures associated with the European framework for pre-market licensing; (ii) convergent and divergent industry pressures with regard to drug discovery and manufacturing; and (iii) divergent and convergent market pressures associated with the supply, pricing and assessment of medicines. The UK's sovereign ambitions risk a loss of influence over the licensing and surveillance of pharmaceuticals under convergent regulatory and industry pressures to engage in unilateral participation in the European regime. Further, they also risk a loss of influence over processes for pricing and assessing the effectiveness of new treatment regimens under divergent market pressures from larger pharmaceutical markets outside the EU, notably the United States.
It is not clear to what extent associations between schizophrenia, cannabis use and cigarette use are due to a shared genetic etiology. We, therefore, examined whether schizophrenia genetic risk associates with longitudinal patterns of cigarette and cannabis use in adolescence and mediating pathways for any association to inform potential reduction strategies.
Associations between schizophrenia polygenic scores and longitudinal latent classes of cigarette and cannabis use from ages 14 to 19 years were investigated in up to 3925 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mediation models were estimated to assess the potential mediating effects of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes.
The schizophrenia polygenic score, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms meeting a training-set p threshold of 0.05, was associated with late-onset cannabis use (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08,1.41), but not with cigarette or early-onset cannabis use classes. This association was not mediated through lower IQ, victimization, emotional difficulties, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, or poorer social relationships during childhood. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for genetic liability to cannabis or cigarette use, using polygenic scores excluding the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, or basing scores on a 0.5 training-set p threshold, provided results consistent with our main analyses.
Our study provides evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with patterns of cannabis use during adolescence. Investigation of pathways other than the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes examined here is required to identify modifiable targets to reduce the public health burden of cannabis use in the population.
The Brechin Lagerstätte of southern Ontario contains an exceptionally diverse and well-preserved Late Ordovician (Katian) crinoid fauna. We describe four genera and eight species of camerate crinoids from the Brechin Lagerstätte, including six new species. Consequently, the total diversity of the fauna now stands at 27 genera and 39 nominal species, thereby making it the most taxonomically diverse Ordovician crinoid fauna known. Taxa described include the diplobathrid Pararchaeocrinus kiddi new species and the monobathrids Glyptocrinus ramulosus Billings, 1856, Periglyptocrinus priscus (Billings, 1857a), Periglyptocrinus astricus new species, Periglyptocrinus kevinbretti new species, Periglyptocrinus mcdonaldi new species, Periglyptocrinus silvosus new species, and Abludoglyptocrinus steinheimerae new species. We summarize the taxonomic composition, diversity, and abundance distribution of all known crinoids from the Brechin Lagerstätte to better characterize the paleoecological structure and complexity of the community. We establish that the fauna is dominated by the subclass Pentacrinoidea, both in terms of abundance and species richness. In addition, we analyze species-level abundance data using Relative Abundance Distribution (RAD) models to evaluate the ecological complexity of the paleocommunity. We found that community structure of the Brechin Lagerstätte is best explained by an ecologically ‘complex’ RAD model, which suggests that species partitioned niches along multiple resource axes and/or the presence of multiple ecological ways of life. These results indicate that the Brechin Lagerstätte is significant not only for being the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid assemblage, but also for being an early ecologically complex fauna that developed in the wake of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.
The central idea of Philippa Foot’s Natural Goodness is that moral judgments belong to the same logical kind of judgments as those that attribute natural goodness and defect to plants and animals. But moral judgments focus on a subset of human powers that play a special role in our lives as rational animals, namely, reason, will, and desire. These powers play a central role in properly human actions: those actions in which we go for something that we see and understand as good. Many readers of Foot resolutely ignore what she says about the human good being sui generis and obstinately continue to read her as advocating a version of naturalism grounded in empirical study of human nature. One might wonder how else it could count as a naturalistic view unless we could square the view with nature as studied by the empirical sciences. In this paper, I propose a metaphysical response to this question: help can come from turning to recent defenses of Aristotelian essentialism. Foot’s naturalism can square with nature as interpreted through the lens of Aristotelian essentialism. On such a view, the virtues are perfections of human powers including reason, will, and desire.
In their chapter, Bach and Presnall-Shvorin (this volume) introduce guidelines for incorporating empirically-driven trait models of personality pathology, codified in the DSM-5 and ICD-11, into therapeutic practice. Though the authors of this commentary are supportive of the effort to bridge research with clinical practice, they suggest that a mechanistic model which accounts for personality processes underlying descriptive traits could offer greater precision than traits alone. Furthermore, they argue that clinical dysfunction can only be meaningfully defined and treated with an understanding of dynamic, contextualized aspects of personality. To illustrate how a mechanistic model could complement and extend Bach and Presnall’s recommendations, the authors present a case conceptualization using cybernetic theory. Finally, they review how idiographic data gleaned from ambulatory assessment methods provide insight into pathological processes ideal for therapeutic intervention. To achieve a generalizable approach flexible enough to adapt to the individual, they encourage the development of treatment models that go beyond traits to mechanistically link stable and dynamic personality features into a unified framework.
This chapter considers the effect of paternal age on semen analysis, sperm function and DNA damage, as well as age-related impact on male fertility, both natural conception (time to conception (TTC)) and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The effects of advanced paternal age (APA) on health of offspring, including congenital birth defects, paternal age effect (PAE) disorders, and psychiatric spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, autism and dyslexia) are also discussed. Increasing male age results in a steady decline in semen quality, reduced sperm function, including acrosome reaction, proteomic and genomic expression and increase in sperm nuclear DNA damage. However, lack of a clear definition of advanced paternal age, and a variable impact on relevant endpoints (conception, miscarriage, live birth, child health) make discussions challenging for healthcare professionals when counselling patients regarding specific male age-related risks.
Maintaining physical, psychological and social wellbeing is integral to older adults being able to age well in their community. Therefore, an environment that facilitates and supports ageing well is imperative. The aim of this study was to explore the views of older people about their preparation for ageing well in a rural community. Forty-nine community-dwelling older people aged between 65 and 93 years participated in a semi-structured and digitally recorded interview. The resulting qualitative data were analysed using a thematic approach. Three main themes were identified: (a) ‘sensible planning: the right place and the right people’; (b) ‘remaining independent: “it's up to me”’; and (c) ‘facing challenges: “accepting my lot”’. Findings from this study identify that across all age groups, these older people were actively and realistically preparing for ageing well. All valued their independence, believing individually they were responsible for being independent and planning for their future. Consequently, environmental planners, policy makers and practitioners need to understand that older people are a heterogeneous group and ageing policies should be geared towards older people's individual abilities and circumstances. Consideration of diversity enables inclusion of older people with a wide range of abilities and needs to achieve the perceived goals of ageing well.
To test the psychometric properties of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC), refine the toolkit and compare results with service user experiences.
Following the initial development of the toolkit, it was translated into the languages of the partner countries and piloted. It was then refined to maximize a) its inter-rater reliability, b) its usability and c) its ability to deliver assessments relevant to each country's established systems of change at local, regional and national level. Managers of participating units were re-interviewed using the refined tool. QuIRC scores were compared against service users’ quality of life, autonomy, experiences of care and markers of recovery to assess whether the QuIRc could provide a proxy-assessment of the unit's promotion of service users’ autonomy and Recovery.
The tool was piloted in 20 units in each country (a total of 200 units). Inter-rater reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations and Cohen's Kappa coefficients. Factors with low reliability or extreme response biases were dropped. Remaining items were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to test domain allocation and improve internal consistency. QuIRC domain ratings were compared by country and facility type and with service user assessments. The QuIRC was found to have high reliability, to be easy to use and there was high correlation between domain ratings and service users’ ratings.