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The increasing environmental requirements in the air transport sector pose great challenges to the aviation industry and are key drivers for innovation. Besides various approaches for increasing the efficiency of conventional gas turbine engines, electric propulsion systems have moved into the focus of aviation research. The first electric concepts are already in service in general aviation. This study analyses the potentials of electric and turbo hybrid propulsion systems for commercial aviation. Its purpose is to compare various architectures of electrical powertrains with a conventional turboprop on a regional aircraft, similar to the ATR 72, on engine and flight mission levels. The considered architectures include a turbo-electric (power controlled and direct driven), hybrid-electric (serial and parallel) and a pure electric concept. Their system weights are determined using today’s technology assumptions. With the help of performance models and flight mission calculations the impact on fuel consumption, CO
emissions and aircraft performance is evaluated.
Our concern is the completeness problem for spi-logics, that is, sets of implications between strictly positive formulas built from propositional variables, conjunction and modal diamond operators. Originated in logic, algebra and computer science, spi-logics have two natural semantics: meet-semilattices with monotone operators providing Birkhoff-style calculi and first-order relational structures (aka Kripke frames) often used as the intended structures in applications. Here we lay foundations for a completeness theory that aims to answer the question whether the two semantics define the same consequence relations for a given spi-logic.
Nonparametric identification of the Mixed Hazard model is shown. The setup allows for covariates that are random, time-varying, satisfy a rich path structure and are censored by events. For each set of model parameters, an observed process is constructed. The process corresponding to the true model parameters is a martingale, the ones corresponding to incorrect model parameters are not. The unique martingale structure yields a family of moment conditions that only the true parameters can satisfy. These moments identify the model and suggest a GMM estimation approach. The moments do not require use of the hazard function.
Although the Renaissance poet and humanist Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494) is generally considered a member of Ficino's Platonic Academy, and himself lectured extensively on the Organon of Aristotle at the Florentine Studio, he repeatedly disclaimed any pretension to being a philosopher. It is no great surprise, consequently, to find that the Index to Angeli Politiani Opera, published in Basel in 1553, contains only one reference under the name of Plotinus, the great and difficult philosopher whom Ficino introduced to the Latin West.
Despite the weight of his work and his prominence in Arabic public debate, the Egyptian public intellectual ʿAbd al-Wahhab Elmessiri (1938–2008) has not been the subject of much serious study. In this article, I show that Elmessiri's oeuvre offers a rich and creative perspective on both Judaism and Zionism. Studying Elmessiri from the perspective of identity/alterity studies, I argue that his representation of Judaism qualifies as what Gerd Baumann and André Gingrich call “encompassment by hierarchical subsumption.” The article offers an analysis of the discursive logic behind this image of Judaism and its connection to Elmessiri's anti-Zionist agenda, rejection of anti-Semitism, and critique of Western modernity.
In this article it is argued that in Rom 11.25–32 Paul starts from the situation of Israel that he has described in Rom 11.1–10: Israel is torn into two parts – a Christian minority and a non-Christian majority which has rejected the Gospel because it has been hardened. In these verses Paul develops an expectation according to which it is God himself who will take away the hardening of the non-Christian majority of Israel by leading them to faith in Christ. It is God himself whom Paul identifies as the ‘deliverer who comes from Zion’ (v. 26), although he does not expect a theophany but uses the quotations from Isa 59.20–1 and 27.9 as metaphorical circumscriptions for God's intervention in favour of the non-Christian part of his people. Although Paul is fully convinced that God will intervene in favour of the non-Christian Jews, he has no idea how this could happen. This discrepancy between Paul's assurance of the ‘that’ and his cluelessness regarding the ‘how’ is the reason why he presents his solution of the Israel problem in an apocalyptic mode as a revelation of a ‘mystery’ (v. 25).
Presenting new approaches to studying food webs, this book uses practical management and policy examples to demonstrate the theory behind ecosystem management decisions and the broader issue of sustainability. All the information that readers need to use food web analyses as a tool for understanding and quantifying transition processes is provided. Advancing the idea of food webs as complex adaptive systems, readers are challenged to rethink how changes in environmental conditions affect these systems. Beginning with the current state of thinking about community organisation, complexity and stability, the book moves on to focus on the traits of organisms, the adaptive nature of communities and their impacts on ecosystem function. The final section of the book addresses the applications to management and sustainability. By helping to understand the complexities of multispecies networks, this book provides insights into the evolution of organisms and the fate of ecosystems in a changing world.
At weaning, piglets must adapt to considerable changes in their environmental, immunological, and nutritional status. This period of adaptation is accompanied by a reduction in piglet growth rate that has been associated with the shift from sow’s milk to a solid dry diet. Consequently, feeding management strategies that result in increased feed intake may increase piglet growth rate postweaning. This study evaluated the effects of providing feed as a gruel and feeding on floor mats on piglet performance for three weeks after weaning
When emptying finishing barns, it is common practice on U.S. operations to dispatch pigs over a two- to three-week period with the heaviest animals being selected first. However, there has been little research carried out under commercial conditions on the effect of removing pigs from a pen at slaughter weight on the performance of the remaining animals. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of removing the heaviest 30% of animals from a pen on the subsequent growth performance of the remaining pigs.