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The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different lunchbox messages on parents’ intention to pack a healthy lunchbox.
This study employed an experimental design.
A series of messages were developed to align with the six constructs of the Health Belief Model. Messages were also developed that were (and were not) personalised and varied based on the source of the information provided (university, school, dietitian and health promotion service). During a telephone survey, participants were read the content of each message and asked about their intention to pack a healthy lunchbox.
Parents of primary school-aged children were randomised to receive different messages to encourage the packing of healthy lunchboxes.
The study was completed by 511 parents. Linear mixed regression analyses identified significant differences (P < 0·05) in intention scores between variant messages targeting the same behavioural constructs for ‘susceptibility’, ‘severity’, ‘benefits’ and ‘barriers’ but not ‘cues to action’ or ‘self-efficacy’. The highest mean behavioural intention score was for ‘benefits’, whilst the lowest mean score was for ‘barriers’. There were no significant differences in intention scores of parents receiving messages from a dietitian, university, health promotion team or school (P = 0·37). Intention scores did not differ in which messages were personalised based on child’s name (P = 0·84) or grade level (P = 0·54).
The findings suggest that messages that focus on the benefits of packing healthy lunchboxes may be particularly useful in improving intentions of parents to pack healthy foods for their children to consume at school.
Schools have been recognised as a potential setting for improving young peoples’ food and beverage choices; however, many schools fail to adhere to healthy food and beverage policy standards. The current study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to effective implementation of and compliance with school-based food and beverage policies.
Systematic review and meta-synthesis. Eight electronic databases were searched for articles in June 2019. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported on implementation and/or compliance of school-based food and/or beverage policies with outcomes relating to enablers and/or barriers. This review had no restrictions on study design, year of publication or language. Seventy-two full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, of which twenty-eight were included in this review.
Studies conducted globally that focused on schools.
School-based healthy food and beverage policies.
Financial (cost of policy-compliant foods, decreased profit and revenue), physical (availability of policy-compliant foods, close geographical proximity to unhealthy food outlets) and social (poor knowledge, understanding, and negative stakeholders’ attitudes towards policy) factors were the most frequently reported barriers for policy implementation. Sufficient funding, effective policy communication and management, and positive stakeholders’ attitudes were the most frequently reported enablers for policy implementation.
There is a need for better communication strategies, financial and social support prior to school-based food policy implementation. Findings of this review contribute to a thorough understanding of factors that underpin best practice recommendations for the implementation of school-based food policy, and inform those responsible for improving public health nutrition.
The present study describes the energy content of primary-school children’s lunchboxes and the proportion of lunchbox foods considered discretionary. Subgroup analyses by sex, socio-economic status, age and weight status were undertaken.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. Mean kilojoule content, number of items and categorisation of foods and drinks in lunchboxes as ‘everyday’ (healthy) or discretionary (sometimes) foods were assessed via a valid and reliable lunchbox observational audit.
Twelve Catholic primary schools (Kindergarten–Grade 6) located in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia.
Kindergarten to Grade 6 primary-school students.
In total, 2143 children (57 %) had parental consent to have their lunchboxes observed. School lunchboxes contained a mean of 2748 kJ, of which 61·2 % of energy was from foods consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and 38·8 % of energy was discretionary foods. The proportion of lunchboxes containing only healthy foods was 12 %. Children in Kindergarten–Grade 2 packed more servings of ‘everyday’ foods (3·32 v. 2·98, P < 0·01) compared with children in Grades 3–6. Children in Grades 3–6 had a higher percentage of energy from discretionary foods (39·1 v. 33·8 %, P < 0·01) compared with children in Kindergarten–Grade 2 and children from the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas had significantly higher total kilojoules in the school lunchbox compared with the least disadvantaged students (2842 v. 2544 kJ, P = 0·03).
Foods packed within school lunchboxes may contribute to energy imbalance. The development of school policies and population-based strategies to support parents overcome barriers to packing healthy lunchboxes are warranted.
To assess the nutritional quality of student canteen purchases at recess and lunch, including: (i) the mean energy (kilojoules), saturated fat (grams), total sugar (grams) and Na (milligrams) and percentage of energy from saturated fat and total sugar; and (ii) the proportion and types of foods purchased that are healthier (green) and less healthy (amber/red) according to a state school canteen policy.
A cross-sectional study of student canteen food and beverage recess and lunch purchases.
Twenty-six randomly selected government primary schools that were non-compliant with a state school canteen policy from a region of New South Wales, Australia, were approached to participate.
Students (aged 5–12 years) of participating schools.
Eighteen schools (69 %) consented to participate. On average students’ recess purchases contained 571·2 kJ energy, 1·6 g saturated fat, 11·6 g total sugar and 132·4 mg Na with 10·0 % of energy from saturated fat and 37·8 % of energy from total sugar. Students’ lunch purchases contained 685·4 kJ energy, 1·8 g saturated fat, 12·7 g total sugar and 151·4 mg Na with 9·5 % of energy from saturated fat and 31·8 % of energy from total sugar. Less healthy items represented 72 and 76 % of all items purchased at recess and lunch, respectively, with ‘savoury snacks’ and ‘sugar-sweetened ice blocks and slushies’ being the most common recess and lunch purchases, respectively.
There is considerable scope to improve the nutritional quality of student purchases from primary-school canteens, with a high percentage of energy from total sugar. Future research is required to identify effective strategies to enhance compliance with canteen policies and support the purchase of healthier foods from school canteens.
To (i) describe the proportion of foods and beverages available on school canteen menus classified as having high (‘green’), moderate (‘amber’) or low (‘red’) nutritional value; (ii) describe the proportion of these items purchased by students; and (iii) examine the association between food and beverage availability on school canteen menus and food and beverage purchasing by students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a larger randomised controlled trial (RCT).
A nested sample of fifty randomly selected government schools from the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, who had participated in an RCT of an intervention to improve the availability of healthy foods sold from school canteens, was approached to participate.
School principals, canteen managers and students.
The average proportion of green, amber and red items available on menus was 47·9, 47·4 and 4·7 %, respectively. The average proportion of green, amber and red items purchased by students was 30·1, 61·8 and 8·1 %, respectively. There was a significant positive relationship between the availability and purchasing of green (R2=0·66), amber (R2=0·57) and red menu items (R2=0·61). In each case, a 1 % increase in the availability of items in these categories was associated with a 1·21, 1·35 and 1·67 % increase in purchasing of items of high, moderate and low nutritional value, respectively.
The findings provide support for school-based policies to improve the relative availability of healthy foods for sale in these settings.
Evidence suggests that improvements to the childcare nutrition environment can have a positive impact on child dietary intake. The primary aim of the present study was to assess, relative to usual care, the effectiveness of a multi-strategy implementation intervention in improving childcare compliance with nutrition guidelines. As a secondary aim, the impact on child dietary intake was assessed.
Parallel-group, randomised controlled trial design. The 6-month intervention was designed to overcome barriers to implementation of the nutrition guidelines that had been identified by applying the theoretical domains framework.
Hunter New England region, New South Wales, Australia.
Forty-five centre-based childcare services.
There were no differences between groups in the proportion of services providing food servings (per child) compliant with nutrition guideline recommendations for all five (5/5) food groups at follow-up (i.e. full compliance). Relative to control services, intervention services were more likely to be compliant with guidelines (OR; 95 % CI) in provision of fruit (10·84; 1·19, 551·20; P=0·0024), meat and meat alternatives (8·83; 1·55, –; P=0·023), dairy (8·41; 1·60, 63·62; P=0·006) and discretionary foods (17·83; 2·15, 853·73; P=0·002). Children in intervention services consumed greater servings (adjusted difference; 95 % CI) of fruit (0·41; 0·09, 0·73; P=0·014) and vegetables (0·70; 0·33, 1·08; P<0·001).
Findings indicate that service-level changes to menus in line with dietary guidelines can result in improvements to children’s dietary intake. The study provides evidence to advance implementation research in the setting as a means of enhancing child public health nutrition.
To determine the impact of an implementation intervention designed to introduce policies and practices supportive of healthy eating in centre-based child-care services. Intervention strategies included staff training, resources, incentives, follow-up support, and performance monitoring and feedback.
A quasi-experimental design was used to assess change over 20 months in healthy eating policy and practice in intervention and comparison child-care services.
The Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia.
All centre-based child-care services (n 287) in the intervention region (HNE) were invited and 240 (91 % response rate) participated. Two hundred and ninety-six services in the rest of NSW were randomly selected as a comparison region and 191 participated (76 % response rate). A sub-analysis was conducted on those services that provided children food (n 196 at baseline and n 190 at follow-up). Ninety-six provided menus for analysis at baseline (HNE, n 36; NSW, n 50) and 102 provided menus at follow-up (HNE, n 50; NSW, n 52).
Services in the intervention region were significantly more likely to provide only plain milk and water for children (P = 0·018) and to engage parents in nutrition policy or programmes (P = 0·002). They were also more likely (P = 0·056) to have nutrition policy on home packed food. In addition, menus of services that provided lunch were significantly more likely to comply with healthy eating guidelines for sweetened drinks (P < 0·001), fruit (P < 0·001) and vegetables (P = 0·01).
An implementation intervention was able to modify policy and practice in a large number of child-care services so that they were more supportive of healthy eating.
The aim of the present study was to review the methodological literature regarding evaluation methods for complex public health interventions broadly and, based on such methods, to critically reflect on the evaluation of contemporary community-based obesity prevention programmes.
A systematic review of the methods and community-based literature was performed by one reviewer.
The review identified that there is considerable scope to improve the rigour of community-based obesity prevention programmes through: prospective trial registration; the use of more rigorous research designs, particularly where routine databases including an objective measure of adiposity are available; implementing strategies to quantify and reduce the risk of selective non-participation bias; the development and use of validated instruments to assess intervention impacts; reporting of intervention process and context information; and more comprehensive analyses of trial outcomes.
To maximise the quality and utility of community-based obesity prevention evaluations, programme implementers and evaluators need to carefully examine the strengths and pitfalls of evaluation decisions and seek to maximise evaluation rigour in the context of political, resource and practical constraints.
In Australia, 20% of stroke survivors are aged less than 55 years. These younger survivors value age-appropriate, identity-affirming goals, such as resuming employment. This article reports on a small qualitative research project that explored the experiences of young, higher functioning stroke survivors in re-establishing identity and returning to work. The participants understood identity as both an inner sense of self and as socially and discursively constructed. The research found that the participants actively pursued identity continuity while managing biographical disruption. Resumption of life roles and responsibilities were important for identity re-establishment, but fraught, particularly the return to work. The findings suggest that psychosocial rehabilitation could play a greater role in supporting survivors’ resumption of valued life roles, including return to work.
To examine the potential efficacy of a brief telephone-based parental intervention in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 3–5 years and to examine the feasibility of intervention delivery and acceptability to parents.
A pre–post study design with no comparison group. Telephone surveys were conducted approximately 1 week before and following intervention delivery.
Participants were recruited through pre-schools in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia.
Thirty-four parents of 3–5-year-olds received four 30-min interventional telephone calls over 4 weeks administered by trained telephone interviewers. The scripted support calls focused on fruit and vegetable availability and accessibility within the home, parental role modelling of fruit and vegetable consumption and on implementing supportive family eating routines.
Following the intervention, the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption increased (P = 0·027), as measured by a subscale of the children's dietary questionnaire. The intervention was feasible to be delivered to parents, as all participants who started the intervention completed all four calls, and all aspects of the interventional calls, including the number, length, content, format and relevance, were considered acceptable by more than 90 % of parents.
A brief telephone-based parental intervention to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption in pre-school-aged children may be effective, feasible and acceptable. Further investigation is warranted in a randomised controlled trial.
Monoliths of two contrasting vegetation types, a species-rich grassland
on a brown earth soil over limestone and
a species-poor community on a peaty gley, were transferred to solardomes
grown under ambient (350 μl l−1)
and elevated (600 μl l−1) CO2 for 2 yr.
Shoot biomass was unaltered but root biomass increased by 40–50%
under elevated CO2. Root production was increased by elevated
CO2 in the peat soil, measured both as
instantaneous and cumulative rates, but only the latter measure was increased
in the limestone soil. Root growth
was stimulated more at 6 cm depth than at 10 cm in the limestone soil.
was faster under elevated CO2
in the peat soil, but there was only a small effect on turnover in the
limestone soil. Elevated CO2 reduced nitrogen
concentration in roots and might have increased mycorrhizal colonization.
Respiration rate was correlated with N
concentration, and was therefore lower in roots grown at elevated CO2.
Estimates of the C budget of the two
communities, based upon root production and on net C uptake, suggest that
C sequestration in the peat soil
increases by c. 0·2 kg C m−2 yr−1
(=2 t ha yr−1) under elevated CO2.
This study examined the effect of emotional salience on the severity of thought disorder in schizophrenic patients.
Ten thought disordered and ten non-thought disordered schizophrenic patients were interviewed under two conditions: a personal interview involving material which was emotionally salient and an impersonal interview involving material which was not emotionally salient.
Both groups exhibited some thought disorder during both interviews. The thought disordered patients exhibited significantly more thought disorder during the emotionally salient interview.
Thought disorder in schizophrenic patients is affected by the emotional salience of the material being discussed. Clinical implications are discussed.
Extruded NiAl and NiAlZr alloys often show discontinuous yielding on strain aging in compression at room temperature. Two sets of experiments were conducted to understand the reasons for this yield-point behavior. First, strain-aging experiments were carried out on NiAl alloys containing O to 0.1 at. % Zr. The specimens were all deformed in compression at room temperature at a nominal initial strain rate of 1.1 × 10−4S−1, and the effect of annealing at 700 and 1200 K on the stress-strain curves and the yield strength was studied after an initial prestrain. While annealing at 700 and 1200 K consistently reduced the yield strength of both NiAl and NiAlZr, the effects were quite different. In the case of NiAl, annealing at 1200 K did not result in discontinuous yielding, whereas it generally resulted in a sharp yield point for the Zr containing alloys. Second, the PUCOT (piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique) was used to measure the dynamic Young modulus, breakaway strain amplitude, and damping for the alloys. Only small differences were observed in the values of Young's modulus, but the breakaway strain was at least a factor of 2 to 3 lower for NiAl than for NiAlZr. The experimentally determined values of damping were used in the Granato-Lücke model to estimate the binding energy for NiAl. While the binding energy values were found to be in agreement with the calculated values of dislocation kink nucleation and migration energies in this material, to within an order of magnitude, other effects, such as dislocation pinning by quenched-in vacancies, cannot be ruled out. The observations made in this study suggest that the yield-point behavior in NiAl may be due to several factors, such as difficulties in double kink nucleation, and single kink migration, as well as dislocation-vacancy interactions; whereas, the yield-point behavior in the Zr-alloyed material is due at least in part to dislocation-solute interaction.
The physiological and biochemical features of plants that are responsible for determining susceptibility or tolerance to air pollutants have often proved hard to identify. In recent years, however, there has been new experimental evidence of responses which may be of critical importance. These include (a) changes in stomatal behaviour, affecting plant-water relations, (b) alterations in carbon and nitrogen assimilation and partitioning which can influence root growth, and (c) interference with the processes of winter hardening. Evidence of these changes to physiological processes, and the ways in which responses to pollutants may become more significant to plant survival in the presence of other environmental stresses, are discussed. The longer-term consequences, or secondary responses, such as effects on associations with other organisms, are also briefly reviewed. We have also examined the possibility that ecosystems may be overloaded with inputs of nitrogen from the atmosphere.
Rapidly solidified strips of Fe66.5-A128.5-Cr5 alloy with the addition of 0.5wt.% TiB2, were produced by planar flow strip casting. Correlations of the microstructure and room temperature mechanical properties were made for strips in the as-cast condition and after annealing at 1273K for periods up to 4hrs. The results showed that grain size, tensile strength, ductility, hardness and Young's modulus were very stable for the times investigated. Studies of tensile fracture surfaces revealed essentially 100% transgranular cleavage in the ascast strip with a greater tendency for intergranular failure after prolonged exposure to high temperatures. TEM studies of this alloy revealed diffraction patterns characteristic of DO3 ordering but the dislocations observed in both ascast and deformed specimens were those typical of the B2 structure without any extended APBs. This is attributed to the very fine DO3, domain size . At room temperature <111> slip is predominant.
The development of liquid crystalline mixtures with short electro-optic switching times has made possible an array of new products, including hand-held televisions and lap-top computers with flat panel displays. Whereas the switching times for materials with long switching times has been correlated with their steady shear viscosities, this is not true for materials with short switching times. Since such materials exhibit viscoelasticity in dynamic tests conducted at ultrasonic frequencies, we expect the dynamic moduli to correlate with their switching times. The viscoelastic properties of pure MBBA were measured using a piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique. The measurement technique and the relation between the linear viscoelastic behavior and the electro-optic switching behavior will be discussed.
Measurements of mechanical damping, or internal friction (Q−1), and dynamic Young's modulus (E) have been made near 80 kHz and at strain amplitudes (ε) in the range of 10−8 to 10−4 on small specimens of the following two continuous fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs): 6061 aluminum reinforced with alumina (Al/A12O3) and 6061 aluminum reinforced with tungsten (AI/W). Baseline experiments were also performed on 99.999% aluminum (pure Al) for comparison puposes. The temperature (T) dependence of modulus up to 475°C was determined for AI/A12O3 and pure Al. The rate of modulus decrease with increasing temperature for AI/A12O3 and Al was the same, that is, dE/dT was essentially the same for both materials. Thus, the reduction in modulus observed for the Al/Al2O3 was attributed to the reduction in modulus of the Al matrix and not that of the Al2O3 fibers. The strain amplitude dependence of damping was examined for all three materials. The pure Al exhibited classical dislocation damping behavior with strain amplitude dependent damping starting at a strain of 2 × 10−5. The Al/Al2O3 specimens showed only mild dependence of damping on strain amplitude starting at strains near 10−5. The AI/W exhibited significant amplitude dependence of damping starting at strains of 2 × 10−6 with the fiber diameter being a major factor in determining the damping behavior. The Q−1 versus ε data for Al/Al2O3, when analyzed in terms of the Granato-Lücke (GL) theory for dislocation damping, yielded minor pinning lengths of dislocations near 10−8 m and mobile dislocation densities near 1011 m−2. The same analysis for the Al/W data gave values near 10−8 m for the minor pinning lengths and 1012 M−2 for the dislocation density. Relative to the results for pure Al, the minor pinning lengths for Al/Al2O3 and AL/W are comparable (10−8 m for pure Al), but the dislocation densities are much higher (109 m−2 found in the pure Al). The relatively high dislocation densities calculated for these aluminum matrix MMCs agree with previous findings of other researchers and may be associated with the fiber/matrix interface.
The polycrystalline intermetallic alloys FeAl (50.9 to 58.2% Fe), NiAl (49.2 to 55.9% Ni) and CoAl (48.5 to 52.3% Co) have the B2 structure and are of interest for high temperature applications. We have used the PUCOT (piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique) to measure mechanical damping or internal friction (Q−) and Young's modulus (E) as a function of temperature and composition for these materials. The modulus data for six CoAl alloys at temperatures up to 1300 K are presented. Examples are given of the strain amplitude dependence of Q−1 for four CoAl alloys. The curves showed the break away phenomenon and are interpreted in terms of a theory dealing with the pinning of dislocation lines and their eventual break away at large strain amplitudes. The dislocation density was calculated to be about 108 m−2. For all the compositions (Xl) of CoAl studied a single equation could be fitted to the data: