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How does gender influence the American judicial system? Scholars interested in this question have focused on several areas, including the substance of the law (Bender 1993; Olsen 1995; Rifkin 1981), the presence of women on a jury (Fowler 2005; Marder 1987; Taylor-Thompson 2000), and the sex of criminal defendants (Sarnikar, Sorenson, and Oaxaca 2007; Starr 2012). Among political scientists in particular, most work has examined judicial decision-making and whether the rulings of female judges differ from those of their male counterparts. Results of these studies have been mixed: some indicate that female judges vote differently, at least in certain types of cases (Boyd, Epstein, and Martin 2010; Peresie 2005; Songer and Crews-Meyer 2000), but others have found no, or only a minimal, gender effect (Segal 2002; Songer, Davis, and Haire 1994; Walker and Barrow 1985).
Political science is one of the most popular majors for law school applicants, and studies show that political science majors have high rates of law school admission. In addition, many political science departments have a pre-law advisor. However, little is known about the status of pre-law advising on college campuses or the views of pre-law advisors on political science. This article presents the results of a February 2015 survey of 313 college pre-law advisors from across the United States. The authors discovered that the majority of pre-law advisors hold faculty appointments and serve as pre-law advisors without additional compensation or course releases. Pre-law advisors also rate political science as the second-best major, among 14 popular majors, for preparing students for both admission to and academic success in law school. These findings should be of interest to political scientists as well as other faculty and administrators who are concerned with pre-law advising.
We have used low-energy electron diffraction and microscopy to compare the growth of graphene on hydrogen-free Ge(111) and Ge(110) from an atomic carbon flux. Growth on Ge(110) leads to significantly better rotational alignment of graphene domains with the substrate. To explain the poor rotational alignment on Ge(111), we have investigated experimentally and theoretically how the adatom reconstructions of Ge interact with graphene. We find that the ordering transition of the Ge(111) adatom reconstruction is not significantly perturbed by graphene. Density functional theory calculations show that graphene on reconstructed Ge(110) has large-amplitude corrugations, whereas it is remarkably flat on reconstructed Ge(111). We argue that the absence of corrugations prevents graphene islands from locking into a preferred orientation.
We undertake a comprehensive comparative test of seven widely-used spectral synthesis models using multi-band HST photometry of a sample of eight YMCs in two galaxies. We provide a first quantitative estimate of the accuracies and uncertainties of new models, show the good progress of models in fitting high-quality observations, and highlight the need of further comprehensive comparative tests.
We have obtained ultraviolet spectra between 1150 and 1450 Å of four ultraviolet-bright, infrared-luminous starburst galaxies. Our selected sight-lines towards the starburst nuclei probe the conditions in the starburst-driven outflows. We detect outflowing gas with velocities of up to ∼900 km s−1. It is likely that the outflows are a major source of metal enrichment of the galaxies' halos. The mass outflow rates of several tens of M⊙ yr−1 are similar to the star-formation rates. The outflows may quench star formation and ultimately regulate the starburst.
We obtained HST COS Lyα spectroscopy for 20 galaxies that were Hα-selected from the Kitt Peak International Spectroscopic Survey data release. We cover redshifts of z=0.02–0.06 and a broad range in metallicity, reddening, and luminosity. We investigate correlations between the properties of the Lyα-lines and fundamental properties of the galaxies. Our seven emitters have: equivalent widths in the range EW(Lyα)=1–12 Å, i.e., below the completeness limits of higher redshift studies; extinction corrected Lyα/Hα ratios of at most 12–15% of the case B recombination theory value; and O I λ1302 ISM absorptions blueshifted to 〈v(O I)〉= − 117±40 km/s, which are consistent with H I gas outflows. Six emitters have P-Cygni-like Lyα profiles with peaks redshifted to 〈v〉=172±25 km/s, and one of our face-on spiral galaxies has two Lyα peaks separated by 370 km/s. The latter peaks are such that the blueshifted peak is twice as strong as the redshifted peak. The rest of the galaxies show Lyα absorption troughs centered at 〈v〉=19 km/s and O I λ1302 absorptions centered at 〈v(O I)〉= − 34±25 km/s, which is consistent with static or low velocity H I gas. Our two most metal poor and least reddened galaxies, which have large Hα equivalent widths are absorbers. The spiral galaxies in our sample have Lyα in single emission, double emission, or absorption. There appears to be a correlation between the Hα derived SFR and the strength of the Lyα emission but our sample is small. Our observations cover regions of at most 3 kpc in diameter and may miss a significant fraction of the resonantly scattered Lyα emission. This work is supported by NASA grant N1317.
Recent studies have claimed the existence of very massive stars (VMS) up to 300 M⊙ in the local Universe. As this finding may represent a paradigm shift for the canonical stellar upper-mass limit of 150 M⊙, it is timely to discuss the status of the data, as well as the far-reaching implications of such objects. We held a Joint Discussion at the General Assembly in Beijing to discuss (i) the determination of the current masses of the most massive stars, (ii) the formation of VMS, (iii) their mass loss, and (iv) their evolution and final fate. The prime aim was to reach broad consensus between observers and theorists on how to identify and quantify the dominant physical processes.
To determine whether an educational strategy using a handheld, multimedia computer (iPod™) is practical and sustainable for routine office-based patient educational tasks.
With the limited amount of time allotted to the office encounter and the growing number of patient educational tasks, new strategies are needed to improve the efficiency of patient education. Education of patients anticoagulated with warfarin is considered critical to preventing complications. Despite the dangers associated with the use of warfarin, educational practices are variable and often haphazard
During a four-month period, we examined the implementation of a three-part series of iPod™-based patient educational modules delivered to anticoagulated patients at the time of routine INR (International Normalized Ratio) blood tests for outpatients on the anticoagulation registry at an urban community health center.
A total of 141 computer module presentations were delivered to 91 patients during the four-month period. In all, 44 patients on the registry had no INR checkups, and thus no opportunity to view the modules, and 32 patients had at least three INR checkups but no modules were documented. Of the 130 patients with at least one INR performed during the study period, 22 (16.9%) patients completed all three modules, 91 (70.0%) patients received at least one module, and nine (7.6%) patients refused to view at least one module. Neither of the two handheld computers was lost or stolen, and no physician time was used in this routine educational activity. Patients reported that the audio and visual quality was very good, (9.0/10); the educational experience of the patient was helpful (7.4/10) compared with the patient's previous warfarin education (6.3/10), and the computer strategy extended the INR visit duration by 1–5 min at most.
The computer-assisted patient educational strategy was well received by patients, and uptake of the intervention by the clinic was successful and durable. The iPod™strategy standardized the educational message, improved clinic efficiency, and helped this busy clinic meet its educational goals for patient education.
I modeled the pollution of low metallicity (Z=0.001) superbubble Hii regions with the ejecta from single stellar populations of 104−106M⊙ in mass. I found that the He, C, N, and O abundance enhancements in the Hii regions, due to pollution with the enriched winds from Wolf-Rayet stars, are insignificant at 5Myr. The few localized metal enhancements observed so far in resolved extragalactic Hii regions are not associated with superbubbles and remain to be modeled in detail.
To open Book I of The Faerie Queene is to encounter immediately the question of what kind of poem one is reading. A nationalistic panegyric that eulogises Queen Elizabeth I, whom Spenser calls 'O Goddesse heauenly bright, / Mirrour of grace and Maiestie diuine, / Great lady of the greatest Isle' and, perhaps more honestly, 'O dearest dred' (I, proem, 4), The Faerie Queene has been described as well-written Elizabethan propaganda or at least as a celebration and extension of the queen's political mythology; as political poetry that is complexly engaged, critical of the queen and her politics; as a Protestant poem more shaped by its Reformation context than by fiction or secular literary ideals; as an inspired Humanist summation of mythology that brings into English a wealth of plot material (mythoi) from Irish, Welsh, Scottish, French, Italian, Latin and Greek sources; and as an anatomy of the imagination, a poetic place in which the literary imagination expatiates and dilates to demonstrate how poetry, moral and political value, and literary form intersect. Spenser's great epic-romance is, at some point or another, all of these things. The great challenge for any reader of Spenser, then, is to understand how these different faces of the poem can be brought into one focus.
The spatial distribution of interstellar dust is clearly important in understanding not only galactic dynamics but also the processing of the dust and the interstellar medium in general. Probably the best spectral region for investigating interstellar dust is the infrared (IR), where the cool dust is likely to radiate. Indeed, one of the most prominent features of the IRAS sky is the ubiquitous cirrus emission, thought to be due to interstellar dust heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF), seen at 60 and 100 μm (Low 1984). However, it is difficult to use the cirrus to probe the dust distribution, both because we have no depth information and also because the cirrus, due to its low temperatures (~20 K), is a probe of high-density dust regions. A far more sensitive search could be made if the dust were hotter, that is, in the presence of a greater ultraviolet (UV) flux. We have made use of this fact to search for dust in the vicinity of hot, bright stars, where even a small amount of dust will dominate the total emission along that line of sight.
Various studies have enquired into the influence of socioeconomic development or public health measures on life expectancies in less developed countries. Analysis of the effect of these two groups of factors upon life expectancy, using data for 95 less developed countries, indicates that mortality is primarily influenced by such socioeconomic development measures as urbanization, industrialization, and education, and secondarily by such public health measures as access to safe water, physicians, and adequate nutrition.
The Leake mounds are located 1½ miles west of Cartersville, Georgia, on the north side of the Dallas-Rockmart road. They lie a short distance back from the left bank of the Etowah River but are still in the river bottom. They were briefly mentioned by Moorehead in Etowah Papers, but he did not discuss the type of material there. The group consists of three mounds, of which one was flattopped and the others domed, at least in recent years. The mounds lie directly across the Etowah River from Ladd's Mountain, where Waring recently reported the destruction of a tomb of Hopewellian type. In 1940 the Leake mounds were also sold to road builders and the greater part of them now forms the fill for the new bridge at that point. Pat Wofford, Jr., of Atco, Georgia, observed the destruction of the mounds and salvaged as much material as possible. The other authors are indebted to him for calling to their attention the significance of the remains.
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