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To evaluate the impact of message framing on attitudes towards messages aimed at promoting the use of nutritional warnings, behavioural intention and actual behaviour, evaluated through visual attention to nutritional warnings and the choice of a snack product during a real choice task.
Following a between-subjects design, participants were exposed to loss-framed nutrition messages, gain-framed nutrition messages or non-nutrition-related messages (control group). After evaluating the messages, participants were asked to select a snack product as a compensation for their participation. The experiment was conducted using an eye tracker.
Convenience sample of 201 people (18–51 years old, 58 % female).
The average percentage of participants who fixated their gaze on the nutritional warnings during the choice task was slightly but significantly higher for participants who attended to nutrition messages (regardless of their framing) compared with the control group. Participants who attended to loss-framed messages fixated their gaze on the warnings for the longest period of time. In addition, the healthfulness of the snack choices was higher for participants exposed to nutrition-related messages compared with the control group.
Results from the present work suggest that nutrition messages aimed at increasing awareness of nutritional warnings may increase consumers’ visual attention and encourage more heathful choices. The framing of the messages only had a minor effect on their efficacy.
Nutritional warnings have recently been suggested as a simplified front-of-pack nutrition labelling scheme to facilitate citizens’ ability to identify unhealthful products and discourage their consumption. However, citizens’ perspective on this policy is still under-researched. The objective of the present work was to study how citizens perceive nutritional warnings and to evaluate public support of this policy, with the goal of deriving recommendations for the design of policy measures accompanying the introduction of nutritional warnings.
An online survey with 1416 Uruguayan citizens, aged 18–75 years, 61 % female, was conducted. Participants had to answer a series of questions (open-ended and multiple-choice) related to their perception of warnings as a front-of-package nutrition labelling scheme.
Participants showed a positive attitude towards nutritional warnings, which were regarded as easy to understand and to identify on food packages. The majority of respondents emphasized that they would take nutritional warnings into account when making their food choices, stating that they would allow them to make informed choices and, consequently, to increase the quality of their diet and their health status. Health motivation appeared as a crucial driver for taking nutritional warnings into consideration.
A high level of public support for nutritional warnings was observed. Responses can be used to derive a range of recommendations for a policy mix that should synergistically support the introduction of nutritional warnings and encourage citizens to take them into account when making their food purchases.
We re-analyzed OJ287 in 120 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA, MOJAVE) observations (at 15 GHz) covering the time span between Apr. 1995 and Apr. 2017. We find that the radio jet motion over the sky is consistent with a precessing and nutating jet source. The variability of the radio flux-density can be explained by Doppler beaming due to a change in the viewing angle. We suggest that part of the optical emission is due to synchrotron emission related to the jet radiation. We find a strikingly similar scaling for the timescales for precession and nutation as indicated for SS433 with a factor of roughly 50 times longer in OJ287.
The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers’ accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines.
An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet. Content analysis using inductive coding by two researchers was used to analyse the responses.
Consumers mainly intended to change consumption of types of foods, particularly eating more fruits, vegetables and legumes and consuming less flour, but also intended to alter their eating patterns. Lack of time and the fact that healthy foods are perceived as being more expensive than unhealthy foods were major barriers to behaviour change. Some of the recommendations of the dietary guidelines, particularly those related to enjoying cooking and meals and engaging in it as a social activity, were not represented in consumer accounts.
Accompanying policies to the dietary guidelines need to underline the importance of changes in dietary patterns, including greater enjoyment and sharing food preparation and meals in the company with others, address misconceptions about flour, and provide concrete, consumer-derived recommendations on how to enact the guidelines.
We present constraints on the variability and binarity of young stars in the central 10 arcseconds (~ 0.4 pc) of the Milky Way Galactic Center (GC) using Keck Adaptive Optics data over a 12 year baseline. Given our experiment’s photometric uncertainties, at least 36% of our sample’s known early-type stars are variable. We identified eclipsing binary systems by searching for periodic variability. In our sample of spectroscopically confirmed and likely early-type stars, we detected the two previously discovered GC eclipsing binary systems. We derived the likely binary fraction of main sequence, early-type stars at the GC via Monte Carlo simulations of eclipsing binary systems, and find that it is at least 32% with 90% confidence.
Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.
We give an update of the observations and analysis of G2 – the gaseous red emission-line object that is on a very eccentric orbit around the Galaxy's central black hole and predicted to come within 2400 RS in early 2014. During 2013, the laser guide star adaptive optics systems on the W. M. Keck I and II telescopes were used to obtain three epochs of spectroscopy and imaging at the highest spatial resolution currently possible in the near-IR. The updated orbital solution derived from radial velocities in addition to Br-γ line astrometry is consistent with our earlier estimates. Strikingly, even ∼ 6 months before pericenter passage there is no perceptible deviation from a Keplerian orbit. We furthermore show that a proposed “tail” of G2 is likely not associated with it but is rather an independent gas structure. We also show that G2 does not seem to be unique, since several red emission-line objects can be found in the central arcsecond. Taken together, it seems more likely that G2 is ultimately stellar in nature, although there is clearly gas associated with it.
We discuss observations of Sagittarius A* with NACO@VLT in K-band and recent synchronous observations with NIRC2@Keck II and OSIRIS@Keck I in L′-band and H-band, respectively. The variability of Sagittarius A* in the near infrared is a continuous one-state process that can be described by a pure red-noise process having a timescale of a few hours. We describe this process and its properties in detail. Our newest observations with the Keck telescopes represent the first truly synchronous high cadence data set to test for time variability of the spectral index within the near infrared. We discovered a time-variable spectral index that might be interpreted as a time lag of the L′-band with respect to the H-band.
We present a brief overview of results obtained from near-infrared polarized observations of Sgr A*, which is associated with the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. The observations have been carried out using the NACO adaptive optics instrument at the VLT UT4 in the infrared Ks-band from 2004 to 2012. Several polarized flares have been observed in this time interval which allow us to determine the statistical properties of NIR linearly polarized light from Sgr A*. Linear polarization at 2.2 μm and its variations can help us to constrain the physical conditions of the accretion process around this supermassive black hole.
There is new evidence which identifies seasonal changes of the variability time scale in intraday variable (IDV) sources with refractive interstellar scintillation effects. Such a RISS model takes the annual change of the Earth's velocity relative to the scattering medium into account. In September 1998 we found a remarkable prolongation of the variability time scale in the IDV source 0917+624 with only small variations in flux density during a period of 5 days. This was explained as a seasonal effect, in which the velocity vector of the Earth and the interstellar medium nearly cancelled. In order to further investigate the applicability of the model for 0917+624, we performed an Effelsberg 6 cm-flux monitoring program over the course of one year. Since September 2000, the source appears to be remarkably inactive and yet (May 2001) no return to its normal, faster and stronger variability pattern is observed. Here, our observational results and a possible explanation for the current quiescence are presented.
We summarise results from flux density monitoring campaigns performed with the 100 m radio telescope at Effelsberg and the VLA during the past 15 yrs. We briefly discuss some of the statistical properties from now more than 40 high declination sources (δ ≥ 30°), which show intraday variability (IDV). In general, IDV is more pronounced for sources with flat radio spectra and compact VLBI structures. For 0917+62, we present new VLBI images which suggest that the variability pattern is modified by the occurrence of new jet components. For 0716+71, we show the first detection of IDV at millimetre wavelengths (32 GHz). For the physical interpretation of the IDV phenomenon, a complex source and frequency dependent superposition of interstellar scintillation and source intrinsic variability should be considered.
Radio variability on timescales from a few hours to several days in extragalactic flat spectrum radio sources is generally classified as intraday variability (IDV). The origin of this short term variability is still controversial and both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms must be considered and may both contribute to the observed variations. The measured linear and circular polarisation of IDV sources constrains the low energy end of the electron population. Any population of cold electrons within sources at or above the equipartition temperature of 1011 K depolarises the emission and can be ruled out. Intrinsic shock models are shown to either violate the large fraction of sources displaying IDV or they do not relax the light travel time argument for intrinsic variations. From structure function analysis, we further conclude that interstellar scintillation also leads to tight size estimates unless a very local cloud in the ISM is responsible for IDV.
Extreme scattering events (ESEs) are dramatic variations of the flux density at gigahertz frequencies caused by ray path distortions within an isolated inhomogeneity (‘plasma lens’) in the interstellar medium. These events are characterised by a deep flux density minimum in the light curve with, in some cases, surrounding maxima. The variability time scales range from weeks to months. These phenomena show a strong frequency dependence, in which the variability amplitudes increase with wavelength. During an intraday variability (IDV) monitoring project (March 2000), a feature resembling an ESE-like event appeared in the variable light curve of 0954+658, however with a time scale of less than two days. We will discuss this effect and its implications for a better description of the interstellar medium.
To identify and assess healthy eating policies at national level which have been evaluated in terms of their impact on awareness of healthy eating, food consumption, health outcome or cost/benefit.
Review of policy documents and their evaluations when available.
European Member States.
One hundred and twenty-one policy documents revised, 107 retained.
Of the 107 selected interventions, twenty-two had been evaluated for their impact on awareness or knowledge and twenty-seven for their impact on consumption. Furthermore sixteen interventions provided an evaluation of health impact, while three actions specifically measured any cost/benefit ratio. The indicators used in these evaluations were in most cases not comparable. Evaluation was more often found for public information campaigns, regulation of meals at schools/canteens and nutrition education programmes.
The study highlights the need not only to develop harmonized and verifiable procedures but also indicators for measuring effectiveness and success and for comparing between interventions and countries. EU policies are recommended to provide a set of indicators that may be measured consistently and regularly in all countries. Furthermore, public information campaigns should be accompanied by other interventions, as evaluations may show an impact on awareness and intention, but rarely on consumption patterns and health outcome.
This study examines the reading patterns of native speakers (NSs) and high-level (Chinese) nonnative speakers (NNSs) on three English sentence types involving temporarily ambiguous structural configurations. The reading patterns on each sentence type indicate that both NSs and NNSs were biased toward specific structural interpretations. These results are interpreted as evidence that both first-language and second-language (L2) sentence comprehension is guided (at least in part) by structure-based parsing strategies and, thus as counterevidence to the claim that NNSs are largely limited to rudimentary (or “shallow”) syntactic computation during online L2 sentence processing.
We report on the first successfully deployed time-depth recorder on an immature Kemp's ridley turtle in a coastal foraging habitat in south-west Florida. The turtle exhibited three distinct dive patterns interpreted as: post release stress (26 h) post release transition (8 h) and normal (>34 h). The normal pattern consists of short periods on the surface followed by longer periods on the bottom in 2–3 m of water which we speculate is foraging behaviour. Overall, the turtle spent 94% of the time submerged during the normal period. The turtle spent significantly more time submerged at night than during the day, suggesting the turtle was resting. Night dives were consistently longer than dawn, day or dusk dives.
The sex ratio of 100 immature Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) captured in Gullivan Bay, Ten Thousand Islands, south-west Florida was determined through radioimmunoassay analysis (RIA) of plasma testosterone levels. We determined the sex ratio to be 1·9F:1·0M, corroborating the female dominance reported from other studies. The mean sizes of female (N=57) and male turtles (N=30) were 40·9 cm (±6·9 SD) and 41·9 cm (±6·2 SD), respectively. There were an additional 13 turtles (41·3 cm±6·5 SD) for which sex could not be determined by this technique. Female-biased sex ratios are not uncommon in reptiles with temperature dependent sex determination. If fecundity is not male-limited, the occurrence of a female-biased sex ratio could enhance the recovery of the endangered Kemp's ridley turtle.
We present three epochs of VSOP observations of the BL Lac object 2007+777 at 5 GHz. Compared with the ground-based VLBA data, the space baselines with HALCA clearly reveal a more detailed and finer source structure. Mainly based on the quite uniform and circular UV-coverages of the VLBA, and using a new cross-selfcalibration method, we have found evidence for weak structural changes on a timescale of two weeks in the core region of this intraday variable source. The physical causes for these variations are discussed.
We investigate the structural evolution of the IDV source BL Lac 0716+714 from 10 epochs of global VLBI and VLBA observations. Our study reveals two possible component identification schemes, in which the jet components move either slow or fast. Although the fast motion would fit better to the observed IDV, the quality of our data does not allow a final decision between the slow and the fast picture.