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Hyperspectral soft X-ray emission (SXE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometry have been used to investigate a carbonaceous-rich geological deposit to understand the crystallinity and morphology of the carbon and the associated quartz. Panchromatic CL maps show both the growth of the quartz and the evidence of recrystallization. A fitted CL map reveals the distribution of Ti4+ within the grains and shows subtle growth zoning, together with radiation halos from 238U decay. The sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer to carbon, together with the anisotropic X-ray emission from highly orientated pyrolytic graphite, has enabled the C Kα peak shape to be used to measure the crystal orientation of individual graphite regions. Mapping has revealed that most grains are predominantly of a single orientation, and a number of graphite grains have been investigated to demonstrate the application of this new SXE technique. A peak fitting approach to analyzing the SXE spectra was developed to project the C Kα 2pz and 2p(x+y) orbital components of the graphite. The shape of these two end-member components is comparable to those produced by electron density of states calculations. The angular sensitivity of the SXE spectrometer has been shown to be comparable to that of electron backscatter diffraction.
Early modern European warfare features prominently in several important discussions of early modern violence, notably the debate on the Military Revolution and its variants, as well as forming part of the standard narrative of state formation and the emergence of an international order based on sovereign states. While the dominant trend was towards establishing the state as a monopoly of legitimate violence, the patterns and practices of European warfare remained diverse, as were the ways in which they interacted with state and ‘international’ structures. The creation of permanent forces was slow and uneven, while their implications varied depending on whether they were navies or armies. This chapter contests conventional conceptual models, such as that of ‘limited war’ waged by allegedly disinterested ‘mercenaries’. It argues that efforts to impose tighter discipline arose from multiple political, cultural, social and religious impulses, and varied in effectiveness. War was certainly not limited in terms of its capacity for violence and destruction, but it nonetheless remained broadly within established Christian concepts of ‘just war’ directed by a ‘proper authority’ for legitimate ends. The risks inherent in military operations were an additional constraining factor, despite this period becoming known as an ‘age of battles’.
This chapter seeks to identify the distinctive characteristics of Greek, Punic and Roman urbanism in North Africa, and to explore similarities and differences between them. It presents an overview of urban morphology, infrastructure (streets, water supply), architectural characteristics (materials and aesthetics), and the common range of public buildings and types of domestic housing found in the various cultures; it also explores the extent to which we can reconstruct the use of public space and the character of urban life from inscriptions and the evidence of the statue habit in Roman towns. Questions of size and population, and economic roles, will also be considered. The main aim is to provide a succinct summary of fundamental information to enable comparison and contrast with other chapters in the collection which look at indigenous state formation and urbanism in the Maghrib and the Sahara.
Over the past decade, a growing interest has developed on the archaeology, palaeontology, and palaeoenvironments of the Arabian Peninsula. It is now clear that hominins repeatedly dispersed into Arabia, notably during pluvial interglacial periods when much of the peninsula was characterised by a semiarid grassland environment. During the intervening glacial phases, however, grasslands were replaced with arid and hyperarid deserts. These millennial-scale climatic fluctuations have subjected bones and fossils to a dramatic suite of environmental conditions, affecting their fossilisation and preservation. Yet, as relatively few palaeontological assemblages have been reported from the Pleistocene of Arabia, our understanding of the preservational pathways that skeletal elements can take in these types of environments is lacking. Here, we report the first widespread taxonomic and taphonomic assessment of Arabian fossil deposits. Novel fossil fauna are described and overall the fauna are consistent with a well-watered semiarid grassland environment. Likewise, the taphonomic results suggest that bones were deposited under more humid conditions than present in the region today. However, fossils often exhibit significant attrition, obscuring and fragmenting most finds. These are likely tied to wind abrasion, insolation, and salt weathering following fossilisation and exhumation, processes particularly prevalent in desert environments.
Aristotle divides the physical world between a celestial realm, which is alive but neither hot nor cold, and a sublunary realm, which is moved by heat in two forms: the vital heat of the biological works and the inanimate fire, the operation of which is explained in the Meteorologica. In the context of the second division we find Aristotle distinguishing between the macrocosm (roughly the world according to Physics, de Caelo, Generation and Corruption and the Meteorologica) and the microcosm (the realm of the biological works, the individual sublunary animals). Wilson argues that this second division does not overturn the first one, but rather complements it, for it has some bearing on the question of solar and vital heat. He further argues that Aristotle mediates the macrocosm and the microcosm through the conceptual apparatus of the spontaneous generation in which heat plays a manifest role.
This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a complex methotrexate ethics case used in teaching a Pharmacy Law and Ethics course. Qualitative analysis of student reflective writings provided useful insight into the students’ experience and comfort level with the final ethics case in the course. These data demonstrate a greater student appreciation of different perspectives, the potential for conflict in communicating about such cases, and the importance of patient autonomy. Faculty lessons learned are also described, facilitating adoption of this methotrexate ethics case by other healthcare profession educators.
There is evidence that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) is an effective intervention for reducing psychotic symptoms. The recently updated Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines (RANZCP CPG) recommend CBTp for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia and related disorders. Translational research is required to examine how well CBTp can be applied into public mental health services. This feasibility study aimed to provide preliminary evidence on how acceptable, implementable, and adaptable individual or group CBTp may be within a public mental health service in Australia. Twenty-seven participants initially agreed to participate in the study with 16 participants being randomised to either group or individual therapy, 11 starting therapy and 7 completing therapy. The intervention involved approximately 20 h of manualised CBTp. Attendance was higher in the individual therapy. Subjective reports indicated that the therapy was acceptable to all completers. Participants who engaged in individual or group CBTp experienced a similar level of reduction in the severity of hallucinations and delusions. Individual CBTp may be a feasible, acceptable, and effective intervention to include in Australian public mental health services. A pilot trial is now required to provide further evidence for and guidance of how best to translate CBTp protocols to Australian mental health services.
Emerging in the latter decades of the 18th century, New York periodical literature established and maintained a major relationship with the city and its people over the course of major historical, social, political, and cultural change. During this period, New York was one part of a literary triumvirate with Philadelphia and Boston in which periodical writing flourished. This periodical power soon shifted, however, to New York, with the founding of the New-York Magazine; or, Literary Repository (1790) by brothers Thomas and James Swords. The New-York Magazine preceded one of the most influential periodical publications in the history of New York writing by over a quarter of a century: the Knickerbocker (1833). New York was quickly becoming the centre of the American publishing world and the periodical was at the heart of this literary uprising. But, as this chapter argues, New York periodical literature first demonstrated its influence on New York society decades before in the final years of the 18th century.