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To understand how consumers use ‘dessert-only’ retail food outlets which represent one of the UK’s top ten growing retail business categories and a high-street source of energy-dense, low nutrient foods.
Responses to open-ended questions about dessert-only restaurant usage and closed-ended questions about demographic information including frequency of use and BMI were collected.
Online questionnaire launched from the UK.
Totally, 203 participants (female = 153; mean age = 33·5 years (sd = 14·2); mean BMI = 25·05 kg/m2 (sd = 5·29)) assisted with the study.
Quantitative results showed that participants used dessert-only restaurants infrequently, and qualitative results showed that they regarded a visit as a treat. Many participants also described ways that they modified their eating pattern to accommodate a visit. Thematic analysis also showed that consumer visits were influenced by properties of the foods on offer, opportunities for socialisation (especially with children) as well as convenience, price and a perceived relaxation of meal-time ‘rules’.
Despite some media opinion, this type of food retail outlet is being used somewhat judiciously by consumers. A fruitful public health focus may be on the management of treats within the broader context of the diet as opposed to targeting the treat itself, this may be especially helpful for parents/caregivers taking their children out for a treat to a dessert-only restaurant.
Geoglyphs are widely seen as an expression of past sacred landscapes. In this article, I offer a new theoretical approach to geoglyphs, interpreting them as a distinctly anarchic and decentralized medium for ritual activity. When we define geoglyphs as large-scale images, and exclude other phenomena such as earthworks, it is clear that their occurrence is actually quite limited in space and time. Almost all known examples of geoglyphs are located in the Americas, and they are particularly associated with ‘middle-range’ societies, rather than states or empires. Geoglyphs produced by hunter-gatherer communities are also comparatively rare. I regard this pattern as a direct consequence of the anarchist affordances of the geoglyph medium. In agricultural societies where regional integration and incipient centralization were taking place (e.g. the ancient Nasca), geoglyphs provided a decentralizing counterbalance. I therefore theorize the incorporation of geoglyph-based ritual practices as a historically situated process of constitutional reform, whereby ancient peoples consciously sought to redistribute power and authority.
Little is known about the impact of interpersonal betrayal experiences on mental health. Research suggests a link between betrayal and mental contamination (MC) within some forms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This study represents an initial exploration of that link in clinical samples.
A measure for assessing perceptions of betrayal was developed and evaluated (Study 1) in order to assess the extent of specificity of any association between the impact of betrayal and MC, and to estimate the extent of the impact of betrayal across common psychological disorders (Study 2).
In Study 1, the Perception of Betrayal Scale (POBS) was completed by 217 community participants; an exploratory principal components analysis identified the dimensional structure of the POBS. Study 2 was based on a cross-sectional, between-groups design, with three clinical groups [OCD (n = 23), other anxiety disorders (n = 21) and depression (n = 18)] and a non-clinical control group (n = 21). Three clinical groups (OCD, other anxiety disorders, and depression) and a community group completed a selection of measures via questionnaire.
In Study 1, the POBS was found to have an internal consistency of α = .95, and four factors were identified: preoccupation with betrayal events, belief that betrayal had caused major life change, lack of trust due to betrayal and betrayal leading to traumatic responses. In Study 2, the OCD group scored more highly in terms of maladaptive perceptions of betrayal than the other groups. Regression analysis showed betrayal scores to be a moderate predictor of the experience of MC; the POBS subscales lack of trust due to betrayal and betrayal leading to traumatic responses were found to be significantly associated with MC. Although there was some overlap with bitterness, betrayal better predicted MC.
Findings support the hypothesis of a specific relationship between the construct of betrayal and MC.
Dinosaur body fossil material is rare in Scotland, previously known almost exclusively from the Great Estuarine Group on the Isle of Skye. We report the first unequivocal dinosaur fossil from the Isle of Eigg, belonging to a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) taxon of uncertain affinity. The limb bone NMS G.2020.10.1 is incomplete, but through a combination of anatomical comparison and osteohistology, we determine it most likely represents a stegosaur fibula. The overall proportions and cross-sectional geometry are similar to the fibulae of thyreophorans. Examination of the bone microstructure reveals a high degree of remodelling and randomly distributed longitudinal canals in the remaining primary cortical bone. This contrasts with the histological signal expected of theropod or sauropod limb bones, but is consistent with previous studies of thyreophorans, specifically stegosaurs. Previous dinosaur material from Skye and broadly contemporaneous sites in England belongs to this group, including Loricatosaurus and Sarcolestes and a number of indeterminate stegosaur specimens. Theropods such as Megalosaurus and sauropods such as Cetiosaurus are also known from these localities. Although we find strong evidence for a stegosaur affinity, diagnostic features are not observed on NMS G.2020.10.1, preventing us from referring it to any known genera. The presence of this large-bodied stegosaur on Eigg adds a significant new datapoint for dinosaur distribution in the Middle Jurassic of Scotland.
Here we report the findings from excavations at the open-air Middle Palaeolithic site of Alapars-1 in central Armenia. Three stratified Palaeolithic artefact assemblages were found within a 6-m-thick alluvial-aeolian sequence, located on the flanks of an obsidian-bearing lava dome. Combined sedimentological and chronological analyses reveal three phases of sedimentation and soil development. During Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 5–3, the manner of deposition changes from alluvial to aeolian, with a development of soil horizons. Techno-typological analysis and geochemical sourcing of the obsidian artefacts reveal differential discard patterns, source exploitation, and artefact densities within strata, suggesting variability in technological organization during the Middle Palaeolithic. Taken together, these results indicate changes in hominin occupation patterns from ephemeral to more persistent in relation to landscape dynamics during the last interglacial and glacial periods in central Armenia.
This chapter provides an overview of economic and behavioral economic approaches to behavior change. The chapter begins with a description of the traditional or neoclassical economic view of decision-making using expected utility theory as its basis. Attempts by an external party (e.g., a government or agency) to change behavior are viewed as justifiable in a limited number of circumstances, such as when there are externalities or coordination failures. When behavior change is warranted, neoclassical economics has focused on four options: provide information, increase incentives, reduce prices, or increase subsidies, or impose regulations. To be successful, the approach must change the net benefits of the promoted behavior. The chapter then describes the rationale behind behavioral economic approaches to behavior change, emphasizing the role that “nudges” play in behavior change. Examples are provided of common heuristics and associated decision errors that can result, and how nudges are designed to overcome these decision errors. The underlying rationale and steps for developing nudges are summarized. Current evidence suggests that some nudges can be effective in changing behavior, but more research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of many nudge strategies. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the likely long-term impact of nudges in the field of behavior change.
The scarcity of Romano-British human remains from north-west England has hindered understanding of burial practice in this region. Here, we report on the excavation of human and non-human animal remains1 and material culture from Dog Hole Cave, Haverbrack. Foetal and neonatal infants had been interred alongside a horse burial and puppies, lambs, calves and piglets in the very latest Iron Age to early Romano-British period, while the mid- to late Roman period is characterised by burials of older individuals with copper-alloy jewellery and beads. This material culture is more characteristic of urban sites, while isotope analysis indicates that the later individuals were largely from the local area. We discuss these results in terms of burial ritual in Cumbria and rural acculturation. Supplementary material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000136), and contains further information about the site and excavations, small finds, zooarchaeology, human osteology, site taphonomy, the palaeoenvironment, isotope methods and analysis, and finds listed in Benson and Bland 1963.
This contribution explores how the predictive processing framework could be employed to explain imagination. At first sight, this framework seems well suited to explaining imagination, since a wide range of mental processes, such as perception and action, are seen as employing imagination-like generative processes. However, it faces problems with explaining distinctively deliberate, voluntary, and purposeful acts of imagination in which agents aim to generate content that departs from immediate reality. In order to explain imagination of this kind, more work is needed. We suggest that one clue might lie in understanding the role language plays in shaping and cueing imaginative episodes.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has necessitated rapid adaptations to all levels of clinical practice. Recently produced guidelines have suggested additional considerations for tracheostomy and advocated full personal protective equipment, including filtering facepiece code 3 masks. Air seal with filtering facepiece code 3 masks is often challenging, and full-face respirators and powered air-purifying respirators with hoods need to be employed. The infection prevention benefits of this equipment are accompanied by potential issues in communication.
In an attempt to minimise surgical error through miscommunication, the authors sought to introduce a simple sign language system that could be used as an adjunct during surgery.
Following evaluation of pre-existing sign language platforms and consideration of multiple surgical factors, 14 bespoke hand signals were ultimately proposed.
Whilst this novel sign language system aims to bridge the communicative gap created by additional personal protective equipment, further development and validation of the proposed tool might be beneficial.
Dissociation is a common and often overlooked symptom in traumatised children. Although there is a lack of a scientific consensus as to the nature of dissociation and very limited research about dissociative identity disorder (DID) in children, the authors have seen children given this diagnosis recently referred to their clinic and are concerned about this practice and the parenting approaches that have ensued. The diagnosis of DID in children may be rare or of doubtful validity, but repeated traumatic experiences of an interpersonal nature can have a profound effect on a child's identity, memory and self-organisation. Furthermore, abuse and neglect can increase the risk of dissociative symptoms. This brief article considers dissociation in post-traumatic stress disorder, then outlines developmental factors hypothesised to be associated with dissociation in childhood and early adulthood. It warns that clinicians should keep an open mind about how dissociation may manifest transdiagnostically, and concludes with recommendations for further research.
Eligibility for health-related income benefits in the United Kingdom is now determined through the use of functional assessments conducted by healthcare professionals. Claimant satisfaction with both Personal Independence Payment (PIP) and Work Capability Assessments (WCA) has been mixed and concerns have been raised that mental health conditions are not well-understood in this context, but academic research has so far been limited. Individuals with a range of common mental disorders and severe mental illness were interviewed (n=18) about their experiences of undergoing eligibility assessments for health-related income benefits. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach.
Eleven out of the 18 participants had been turned down for one or more income benefits and successful claims were more likely where supported by health and care professionals. Eligibility assessments were overwhelmingly perceived as focusing on physical health with limited scope to explore the impact of mental health on functioning. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that improvements are needed to the eligibility assessment process for all claimants but particularly those with a mental health condition.
I present a rationale for two different types of in-patient child psychiatric unit: 24/7 intensive units and 24/5 child and family units. Intensive units address safety requirements. The developing personality of young people is at the centre of in-patient approaches on the child and family units. This requires attachment-informed practice. Families must always be involved and placement of units must facilitate their participation. The primary skill characterising these units is use of the milieu for therapy and combining this with family therapy. In other words, nurses and allied professionals need to be the dominant force in unit development, under the reflective guidance of consultants and clinical psychologists.
ON 9 October 1273 at Sorde-l’Abbaye in southern Gascony, the English king Edward I negotiated a matrimonial alliance ‘per verba de futuro’ between his daughter by his queen consort, Eleanor of Castile, and the eldest son of the Aragonese infante Peter. In an age when a royal marriage was usually too important a matter to be decided by the bride and groom alone, from a parental perspective there were a number of potential political reasons for this particular match. Behind it, on the part of the Aragonese, lay, perhaps, a desire to find allies who might counter Charles of Anjou's aggressive domination of Sicily. After all, Charles had seized the Sicilian Regno from its Hohenstaufen rulers, with papal backing, between 1265 and 1268. Constance, Peter of Aragon's wife, was the daughter of Manfred (d. 1266), the last Hohenstaufen ruler of Sicily; after her nephew Corradin's execution at Charles’ hands in 1268, Constance inherited a strong claim to her father's throne there. The Aragonese might, similarly, have hoped for support against the Capetians in securing their rights to contested territories in the south of France. Peter and Edward I also probably welcomed the opportunity to strengthen the security of the Aragonese-Catalan border with Gascony. Such a concern on Edward's part is strongly suggested by the way in which a second, but ultimately ill-fated union that apparently served a broadly similar purpose was proposed just a few months later, in December 1273, this time between Edward's eldest surviving son, Henry, and Juana, the heiress to the neighbouring kingdom of Navarre. Edward I might well have felt attached to his family's remaining territories in south-west France; he had exercised personal lordship over them since 1254, when Gascony had formed part of the appanage bestowed upon Edward at the time of his own marriage.
In the midst of the diplomatic manoeuvrings of 1273, however, it is difficult to trace any particular concern for the personal welfare of the young bride-to-be and her intended groom. The mooted Anglo-Aragonese marriage did not take place straight away – Eleanor, who was the oldest English royal daughter, was still only four years old, while Alfonso, Peter's heir, was seven.