To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Middle Upper Palaeolithic (MUP) in eastern Central Europe (ECE) comprises three variants of Gravettian culture: Early Gravettian, Pavlovian, and Late Gravettian. While Early Gravettian and Pavlovian are merely located in Lower Austria and Moravia, the Late Gravettian occupations occurred over the entire territory of ECE. Compared to the number of sites the radiocarbon dating and the absolute chronology of the Late Gravettian is rather poor. The results presented here bring a new set of radiocarbon (14C) dates for the Late Gravettian period in ECE and propose that this period began and ended earlier than previously suggested.
The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) was widespread in almost all of Europe during the late Pleistocene. However, its distribution changed because of population fluctuations and range expansions and reductions. During Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2 (MIS 2), these processes were highly dynamic. Our analyses of 318 radiocarbon dates from 162 localities, obtained directly from mammoth material, confirmed important changes in mammoth range between ~28.6 and ~14.1 ka. The Greenland stadial 3 interval (27.5–23.3 ka) was the time of maximum expansion of the mammoth in Europe during MIS 2. The continuous range was soon fragmented and reduced, resulting in the disappearance of Mammuthus during the last glacial maximum from ~21.4 to ~19.2 ka in all parts of the North European Plain. It is not clear whether mammoths survived in the East European Plain. The mammoth returned to Europe soon after ~19.0 ka, and for the next 3–4 millennia played an important role in the lifeways of Epigravettian societies in eastern Europe. Mammoths became extinct in most of Europe by ~14.0 ka, except for core areas such as the far northeast of Europe, where they survived until the beginning of the Holocene. No significant correlation was found between the distribution of the mammoth in Europe and human activity.
Stable carbon isotope ratios and radiocarbon (14C) concentrations in samples of pine wood (AD 1975–2012) from 3 sites, as well as needles (AD 2012–2014) collected from 15 sites, in a heavily urbanized area in proximity to heavy industrial factories in Poland were analyzed as bio-indicators of CO2 emissions. The sampling sites were located at different distances from point sources. The stable isotopic composition was determined using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, and the 14C concentration was determined using a liquid scintillation counter and an accelerator mass spectrometer. Spatial and temporal variability of δ13C and Δ14C in tree ring cellulose and needles was noted in all regions. A negative correlation between δ13C tree ring cellulose and anthropogenic CO2 emissions has been observed. The ratio of δ13C in tree ring cellulose to δ13C in needles created in the same year is equal to 1.2 at the investigated sites.
This study aimed to describe Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in Polish pregnant women and the incidence rates of congenital infections in their neonates observed between 2004 and 2012. Serological tests for T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were performed on serum samples of 8281 pregnant women treated at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute in Lodz. The yearly seroconversion rate for T. gondii IgG antibodies was estimated using a mathematical model to determine the dependency between age and prevalence. Mean prevalence of IgG antibodies between 2004 and 2012 in pregnant women was 40·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39·6–41·7] and increased with age with a yearly seroconversion rate of 0·8% (95% CI 0·6–1·0, P < 0·001). Assuming a T. gondii materno-fetal transmission rate of 30% gave an estimate of 1·80/1000 neonates as congenitally infected. The increased mean age (28·7 vs 26·7 years, P < 0·001) of pregnant women was probably the most important factor in abolishing the effect of falling prevalence rates.
As a means of empowering consumers, nutrition labelling has become a widely discussed topic. Simplicity and uniformity of labelling systems are regarded as the prevailing demands from the consumer side. In the present study, we analyse the effects of the traffic light signposting scheme on consumers’ food choices.
In an online survey, respondents first rated the understandability of the traffic light signposting scheme. In a following conjoint experiment, they indicated which products they would select as the healthiest of the presented products, based on the nutritive information provided by the traffic light signposting scheme.
A major German university.
In total 2002 undergraduate students participated in the survey. Two-thirds (69 %) of the respondents were female and the majority of the respondents (70 %) were between 18 and 24 years old. Seventy-seven per cent of the participants indicated that they had a higher level of education.
Overall, the participants rated the understandability of the traffic light nutrition signposting scheme fairly high (5·9 out of 7). Sugar and fat were found to be the most important attributes of the scheme. Participants placed greater emphases on a change in a product's nutrient characteristic from ‘amber to ‘red’ compared with a change from ‘green’ to ‘amber’.
Our results confirm the signalling effect of colour coding as it helps reduce the complexity of decision making. Our findings shed new light on the ongoing discussion concerning appropriate and efficient nutrition labelling and provide interesting insights for further research as well as implications for public policy making.
Brains vary in characters other than size. We should consider whether Finlay et al.'s argument, that developmental shifts responding to selection for change in one area yield correlated changes across the brain, must be extended from size differences to other neural characters responsible for the circuitry or physiological differences distinguishing vertebrate brains.
The paper presents results of an investigation of energy transport in 6-μm aluminum foils covered with a silver or gold layer irradiated with 1·06-μm, 1-ns laser-pulse at intensities 1013to 1014 W/cm2. The increase in mass ablation rate and volume heating of accelerated fragment of the foil as well as the increased range of lateral energy transport were registered. The measured plasma parameters from aluminum foils were used for testing the one-dimesional numerical code.
This paper presents the results of laser-produced plasma investigations at an intensity of 1014W/cm2. Shadowgraphy, interferometry and second harmonic emission measurements were done to evaluate the main hydrodynamic parameters of the plasma.