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In the context of worldwide ageing, increasing numbers of older people are lonely, isolated and excluded, with serious implications for health, and cognitive and physical functioning. Access to good public transport can improve mobility and social participation among older adults, and policies that improve access and promote use, such as concessionary travel schemes, are potentially important in promoting healthy and successful ageing. Concessionary travel schemes for older people are in place in many countries but are under threat following the global financial crisis. Evidence regarding their success in encouraging activity and social participation is generally positive but based largely on qualitative or observational associations and, in particular, is often limited by the lack of appropriate comparison groups. We use changes in the English statutory scheme, in particular the rising eligibility age from 2010 onwards, as a natural experiment to explore its impact on older people's travel. A difference-in-difference-in-difference analysis of National Travel Surveys (2002–2016) compares three age groups differentially affected by eligibility criteria: 50–59 years (consistently ineligible), 60–64 years (decreasing eligibility from 2010) and 65–74 years (consistently eligible). Compared with 50–59-year-olds, bus travel by 60–74-year-olds increased year-on-year from 2002 to 2010 then fell following rises in eligibility age (annual change in weekly bus travel: −2.9 per cent (−4.1%, −1.7%) in 60–74- versus 50–59-year-olds). Results were consistent across gender, occupation and rurality. Our results indicate that access to, specifically, free travel increases bus use and access to services among older people, potentially improving mobility, social participation and health. However, the rising eligibility age in England has led to a reduction in bus travel in older people, including those not directly affected by the change, demonstrating that the positive impact of the concession goes beyond those who are eligible. Future work should explore the cost–benefit trade-off of this and similar schemes worldwide.
Banach (1, pp. 242-243) defines, for two Banach spaces X and Y, a number (X, Y) = inf (log (‖L‖ ‖L-1‖)), where the infimum is taken over all isomorphisms L of X onto F. He says that the spaces X and Y are nearly isometric if (X, Y) = 0 and asks whether the concepts of near isometry and isometry are the same; in particular, whether the spaces c and c0, which are not isometric, are nearly isometric. In a recent paper (2) Michael Cambern shows not only that c and c0 are not nearly isometric but obtains the elegant result that for the class of Banach spaces of continuous functions vanishing at infinity on a first countable locally compact Hausdorff space, the notions of isometry and near isometry coincide.
For archaeologists discussion of style is unavoidable. Within classical archaeology ‘style’ is closely associated with connoisseurship as practised by J. D. Beazley. Style identifies individuals, artistic personalities such as the Amasis Painter. This notion of style necessarily overlaps with another debate within both anthropology and prehistoric archaeology (personhood) which also touches on an older discussion within classical studies. These two debates have remained strangers to each other. The article explores these issues in relation to the iconography of hares and arming scenes. Notions of personhood and agency force us to re-evaluate such iconography and its effectiveness as narrative.
Walt Whitman is a poet of contexts. His poetic practice was one of observing, absorbing, and then reflecting the world around him. Walt Whitman in Context provides brief, provocative explorations of thirty-eight different contexts - geographic, literary, cultural, and political - through which to engage Whitman's life and work. Written by distinguished scholars of Whitman and nineteenth-century American literature and culture, this collection synthesizes scholarly and historical sources and brings together new readings and original research.