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A pioneering work in the history of philosophy, the ancient text of the Lives presents engaging portraits of nearly a hundred Greek philosophers. It blends biography with bibliography and surveys of leading theories, peppered with punchy anecdotes, pithy maxims, and even snatches of poetry, much of it by the philosophers themselves. The work presents a systematic genealogy of Greek philosophy from its origins in the sixth century BCE to its flowering in Plato's Academy and the Hellenistic schools. In this fully up-to-date and accessible translation, based on the most accurate texts and the latest advances in scholarship, Stephen White provides a valuable resource for students and scholars of ancient philosophy. Highlights include extended treatment of the 'Seven Sages' (Book 1), Socrates and his Socratic followers (Book 2), Plato (Book 3), Aristotle and his school (Book 5), Diogenes the Cynic (Book 6), Stoicism (Book 7), Pythagoreans (Book 8), Pyrrhonian skepticism (Book 9), and Epicureanism (Book 10).
This essay examines the legal arguments in Wolf c. Abingdon, a tithes dispute from 1293–5 between the rector and the vicar of Aldington, Kent. The case records contain explicit citations to written law, a surprising find in a seemingly minor case. The presence of explicit citations in particular suggests first that the litigants had access to legal assistance in the provincial court, and second that advocates and possibly judges were turning to written legal sources to resolve disputed points. This essay shows how the litigants' arguments were constructed and determines whether or not these arguments were effective in court.
Previous research has shown that psychoeducation for bipolar disorder (BD) improves symptoms and reduces relapse risk, but there is little research on how this impacts stigma, perceived recovery and views about diagnosis. The aim of this study was to explore whether a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)-based 12-week BD psychoeducation group conducted in a community mental health team for adults impacted perceived stigma, diagnosis-related self-esteem, recovery and views about diagnosis. The case series pre- and post-group had 23 participants across three groups. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, views on Manic Depression Questionnaire, Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire and author-constructed questions were completed pre and post. Twenty participants completed the group. An intent-to-treat repeated measures multiple analysis of variance showed significantly improved perceived recovery and improvements in sense of control and understanding around their diagnosis. Other specific questions such as understanding of triggers and impact of thinking patterns also improved. However, there was no change in the perceived stigma or self-esteem associated with living with BD. CBT-based psychoeducation groups may help improve perceived recovery and factors such as sense of control in BD. However, there appears to be no impact on stigma and self-esteem, and the role of non-specific factors needs to be examined further.
Key learning aims
(1)To raise awareness of the impact of stigma and self-esteem in bipolar disorder.
(2)To understand the content and structure of CBT-based psychoeducation groups.
(3)To consider the potential benefits of CBT-based psychoeducation groups beyond symptoms and relapse reduction on factors such as perceived recovery.
We develop rapid chemical vapor sensors and micro gas chromatography (μGC) analyzers based on the optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR). An OFRR is a micro-sized thin-walled glass capillary; the circular cross-section of the capillary acts as an optical ring resonator while the whispering gallery modes or circulating waveguide modes (WGMs) supported by the ring resonator interact with the vapor samples passing through the capillary. The OFRR interior surface is coated with a vapor-sensitive polymer. The analyte and polymer interaction causes the polymer refractive index (RI) and the thickness to change, which is detected as a WGM spectral shift. Owing to the excellent fluidics, the OFRR vapor sensor exhibits sub-second detection and recovery time with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. On-column separation and detection in the OFRR based μGC system is also demonstrated, showing efficient separation of vapor mixtures and presenting highly reproducible retention time for the individual analyte. Compared to the conventional GC system, the OFRR μGC has the advantage of small size, rapid response, and high selectivity over a short length of column.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in long term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from 10 centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding, (n=604, 60% male, age 58years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37%). Patients were long-term tube fed (4.1years tube feeding, 3.5years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71%) and sedentary (70%). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22%) who were significantly more active (79%) and lived at home (97%), while those with cerebral palsy (12%) were typically younger (age 31years) but sedentary (94%). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46%), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top up to oral diet or to mimic meal times. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85% of patients, with 51% of these being compact-style ONS (2.4kcal/ml, 125ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common amongst UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Hair fescue is a widespread, seed-limited perennial grass in lowbush blueberry fields. Growers rely on pronamide, an expensive and difficult herbicide to use, for hair fescue management. Recent herbicide registrations provide opportunity to reduce pronamide use, though effects of these herbicides on hair fescue suppression and seedbank reduction are not well understood. The objectives of this research were to determine (1) the effects of herbicides currently registered in lowbush blueberry on suppression of hair fescue tufts and (2) whether suppression of hair fescue with these herbicides reduces hair fescue seedbanks. Pronamide gave the most consistent reductions in flowering tuft density, though applications after both autumn pruning and autumn of the nonbearing year were required to reduce the hair fescue seedbank by >60% across sites. Nonbearing-year hexazinone applications did not control hair fescue or reduce the seedbank. Nonbearing-year terbacil applications reduced flowering tuft density, but hair fescue recovered in the bearing year, and the seedbank was not reduced. Glufosinate applications following autumn pruning or in the spring of the nonbearing year did not suppress hair fescue or reduce the seedbank. Spring nonbearing-year foramsulfuron applications, alone or after autumn or spring glufosinate applications, reduced hair fescue flowering tuft density, but hair fescue recovered in the bearing year, and the seedbank was not reduced. In contrast, autumn and spring glufosinate applications followed by spring nonbearing-year foramsulfuron applications, when combined with autumn nonbearing-year pronamide applications, reduced flowering tuft density in both the nonbearing and bearing years and reduced the hair fescue seedbank by 58% to 83% across sites. Results indicate that hair fescue seedbanks can be reduced in lowbush blueberry fields and that a reduction in pronamide use will require alternative bearing-year treatments to prevent tuft recovery and seed production.
Books V-IX of the Confessions trace five crucial years in the life of Augustine, from his debut as a teacher of rhetoric in North Africa to his baptism as a Christian and the renunciation of a worldly career in Milan. This commentary will be invaluable for those wishing to read his story in the original Latin. Through careful glosses and notes, Augustine's Latin is made accessible to students of patristics and of classics. His extensive quotations from Scripture are translated and explained in light of the variant Bible texts and the interpretative assumptions through which he came to understand them. The unfolding of his career is set against the background of political, cultural, and religious change in the fourth century, and the art with which he created a form of narrative without precedent in earlier Latin literature is illustrated in close detail.