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The molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and indium tin oxide (ITO) interface were studied by atom probe tomography (APT). Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction measurements were performed as complementary characterization. Results confirm that nanowires plated shape with the 〈110〉-orientation are aligned perpendicular to the ITO film with principal reflections at (002), (100), (101), (201), and Raman spectroscopy vibrational modes at E12g at 378 cm−1 and A1g at 407 cm−1 correspond to 2H-MoS2. APT reveals MoS+2, MoS+3 as predominant evaporated molecular ions on the sample, indicating no significant diffusion/segregation of Mo or S species within the ITO layer.
For close to a century, experiments using artificial languages (hereafter ALs) have been a staple of psycholinguistic research (Esper, 1925). Contemporary AL research has spanned numerous levels of linguistic inquiry, from phonetic learning through syntax (see Culbertson & Schuler, 2019). This approach has also been successfully applied across development, from infants and children (see Saffran & Kirkham, 2018) through older adults (e.g., Schwab, Schuler, Stillman, Newport, Howard & Howard, 2016), even spanning cross-species comparisons (e.g., Wilson, Slater, Kikuchi, Milne, Marslen-Wilson, Smith & Petkov, 2013). Given the proliferation of AL methods for investigating issues related to first language acquisition, it is not surprising that research on bilingualism has also embraced this approach. This special themed section comprises four concise review articles describing how AL research has informed questions related to bilingualism and second language learning. The articles also discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach, as well as pointing to future directions for the field.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Studies of statistical learning have shaped our understanding of the processes involved in the early stages of language acquisition. Many of these advances were made using experimental paradigms with artificial languages that allow for careful manipulation of the statistical regularities in the input. This article summarizes how these paradigms have begun to inform bilingualism research. We focus on two complementary goals that have emerged from studies of statistical learning in bilinguals. The first is to identify whether bilinguals differ from monolinguals in how they track distributional regularities. The second is determining how learners are capable of tracking multiple inputs, which arguably is an important facet of becoming proficient in more than one language.
To investigate the association between the intake of selected food groups and beverages and serum uric acid (UA).
Cross-sectional study using the baseline data (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with 114 items. Linear and logistic regressions investigated the associations between the daily intake of each food group (servings/d) and UA (mg/dl) and hyperuricemia (UA ≥ 6·8 mg/dl), respectively. All the analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, energy intake and all food groups.
Teaching and research institutions from six Brazilians states.
The participants were 14 320 active and retired civil servants, aged 35–74 years.
Higher intake of dairy products was associated with lower serum UA levels in both sexes, with a statistical dose-response gradient. High meat intake was associated with high UA only in women, and high intake of organ meats, in men. Intake of fish and fruits, vegetables and legumes were not associated with serum UA. In men, moderate and high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer and spirits, but not wine, increased UA. In women, only high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer, was associated with increased serum UA. Similar associations were seen for hyperuricemia.
Results suggest a potential beneficial role of dairy products consumption on UA levels. The association between alcohol intake and UA differed according to type of beverage and between sexes. Results reinforce the need to consider the whole diet in the analysis and to conduct sex stratified analysis.
We investigated a large multistate outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2015–2016. Epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback studies were conducted to determine the source of the infections. We identified 907 case-patients from 40 states with illness onset dates ranging from July 3, 2015 to March 2, 2016. Sixty-three percent of case-patients reported consuming cucumbers in the week before illness onset. Ten illness sub-clusters linked to events or purchase locations were identified. All sub-clusters investigated received cucumbers from a single distributor which were sourced from a single grower in Mexico. Seventy-five cucumber samples were collected, 19 of which yielded the outbreak strain. Whole genome sequencing performed on 154 clinical isolates and 19 cucumber samples indicated that the sequenced isolates were closely related genetically to one another. This was the largest US foodborne disease outbreak in the last ten years and the third largest in the past 20 years. This was at least the fifth multistate outbreak caused by contaminated cucumbers since 2010. The outbreak is noteworthy because a recall was issued only 17 days after the outbreak was identified, which allowed for the removal of the contaminated cucumbers still available in commerce, unlike previous cucumber associated outbreaks. The rapid identification and response of multiple public health agencies resulted in preventing this from becoming an even larger outbreak.
This article seeks to break the scholarly deadlock regarding attitudes toward war and bloodshed held by early Christian thinkers. I argue that, whereas previous studies have attempted to fit early Christian stances into one or another “unitary-ethic” framework, the historical-textual data can be best accounted for by positing that many early Christian writers held to a “dual-ethic” orientation. In the latter, certain actions would be viewed as forbidden for Christians but as legitimate for non-Christians in the Roman Empire. Moreover, this dual-ethic stance can be further illuminated by viewing it in connection with the portrayal in the Hebrew Bible of the relation between Levites and the other Israelite tribes. This framing enables us to gain a clearer understanding not only of writers like Origen and Tertullian, who upheld Christian nonviolence while simultaneously praising Roman imperial military activities, but also of writers such as Augustine, whose theological-ethical framework indicates a strong assumption of a dual-ethic stance in his patristic predecessors.
The present study is the first attempt to describe beta-diversity patterns in polychaetes of the Caribbean Sea, analysing depth changes in species composition of the Eunicida and Amphinomida inhabiting dead coral in Chinchorro Bank, southern Mexican Caribbean. In April 2008, dead coral fragments were collected by scuba diving in eight stations along two bathymetric gradients (4–9 m and 7–16.2 m depth); 755 individuals from 53 species of the families Amphinomidae, Dorvilleidae, Eunicidae, Lumbrineridae, Oenonidae and Onuphidae were identified. The highest number of species (32) and individuals (514) were found in the family Eunicidae. The Northern transect harboured 36 species, on average 18.75 ind. L−1, which decreased linearly with depth; the Central transect had 43 species, on average 19.01 ind. L−1, which increased at middle depths. The species inhabiting both these zones were moderately different (βsor = 0.603): 49.06% of the fauna occurred on both transects, but the components of beta-diversity, turnover and nestedness, displayed distinct patterns: in the Northern one replacement was the dominant factor (βsim = 0.3–1; βnes = 0–0.091), practically representing all faunal differences (βsor = 0.391–1); in the Central, dissimilarity due to nestedness increased (βnes = 0.031–0.829), mainly at the shallowest stations, but from 5 m depth, beta-diversity was almost completely explained by species replacement (βsim = 0.417–0.5; βnes = 0.031–0.318). Faunal differences were mostly related to higher abundances of Lysidice caribensis, Eunice goodei and Lumbrineris floridana in the Northern zone, and Lumbrineris perkinsi, Nicidion obtusa, Lysidice caribensis, Lumbrineris floridana, Lysidice unicornis and Eunice mutilata in the Central zone.
The main object of this article is to give two novel proofs of the admissibility of Ackermann’s rule (γ) for the propositional relevant logic R. The results are established as corollaries of cut elimination for systems of tableaux for R. Cut elimination, in turn, is established both nonconstructively (as a corollary of completeness) and constructively (using Gentzen-like methods). The extensibility of the techniques is demonstrated by showing that (γ) is admissible for RQ* (R with constant domain quantifiers). The status of the admissibility of (γ) for RQ* was, to the best of the author’s knowledge, an open problem. Further extensions of these results will be explored in the sequel(s).
The International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers (ITUCNW) was a radical trans-Atlantic network for the propagation of black proletarian internationalism, established by the Red International of Labour Unions in 1928. Its key mastermind was James W. Ford, an African American communist labour union activist who was in charge of the organization and its operations until the autumn of 1931. This article critically highlights Ford's ambitions as well as the early phase of the organization. Both in terms of its agenda and objective as well as in its outreach among black workers in the Black Atlantic, the ITUCNW and its main propagators stressed the “class-before-race” argument of the Comintern rather than the pan-Africanist “race-before-class” approach. This is not surprising as the ITUCNW was one of the organizations that had been established when the Comintern and the RILU had started to apply the “class-against-class” doctrine, which left no room for cooperation between communists and radical pan-Africanists.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
John Weiss, Emeritus Professor of Development Economics at the University of Bradford and an independent economic consultant.,
Hossein Jalilian, Reader in Development Economics at the University of Bradford and specializes in applied quantitative methods.
There is a long tradition in economics that argues that manufacturing industry is critical for economic growth, particularly at relatively low income per capita (Weiss 2011). This ‘engine of growth argument’ rests on several features of the sector:
• Output per worker (productivity) is normally considerably higher than in agriculture or services (although not in mining) so that structural change in favour of manufacturing raises the overall productivity of an economy.
• Productivity growth in manufacturing has historically been more rapid than in other sectors owing to greater technical change and learning effects.
• Manufacturing is the sector where there is greater scope for specialization as outputs grows.
• Its linkages with other parts of the economy are greater than for any other aggregate sector.
• As a key tradable sector, manufacturing expansion allows access to the world market and faces better demand prospects there than primary exports.
The normal historical pattern has been that, in poor countries, the share of manufacturing in total economic activity is very low, but that as growth occurs and workers move out of agriculture, it rises rapidly. Once a threshold income level is passed the relative share of manufacturing starts to decline as demand shifts towards services. Thus for example, in 2005, manufacturing was 9 per cent of GDP in Ghana, 30 per cent of GDP in a middle- income economy like Malaysia and averaged 16 per cent in the OECD economies (Smirzai 2013: Table 1.2). It is at the transition from low to middle income status that the engine of growth effect can be expected to be greatest owing to the greater scope for a productivity boost as workers shift out of agriculture.
Experience in sub-Saharan Africa has not matched this positive story. The sector remains relatively small with much of it vulnerable to competition from imports. This chapter discusses evidence on recent Tanzanian experience in the context of industrialization in Africa more generally, drawing in some instances on empirical work by the authors. It considers industrialization in Tanzania from the perspective of economic competitiveness, and therefore should be seen as complementary to the broader discussion of the political economy of industrial development in Tanzania given in Chapter 8. We look at African experience, before turning to the Tanzanian case, and then present some empirical evidence from firm-level surveys of manufacturers in Tanzania before concluding the chapter.
This paper reframes the intellectual genealogy of Baʿthism in modern Syria through a close reading of the writings of one of its founding figures, Michel ʿAflaq. Rereading ʿAflaq's most important texts is part of a broader reconsideration of the intellectual history of modern Syria between nationalism and liberalism, revolution and reaction. While recognizing the traces of nineteenth-century German idealist philosophy and Romantic nationalism in ʿAflaq's thought, this piece complicates the conventional understanding of his work by showing a striking resemblance with the left-personalism of Emmanuel Mounier and the Esprit group. This unexplored connection constitutes a “missing link” in the intellectual genealogy of Baʿthism. As such, this article contributes to a more expansive and complicated global history of personalism. At the same time, this reconsideration of Michel ʿAflaq suggests a more compelling account of the making of modern Syria, a history with roots more tangled than historians have hitherto imagined.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Cardiac radiation exposure following anti-cancer (CA) thoracic radiotherapy (RT) treatment increases risk of heart failure in a dose-dependent manner with a predominantly restrictive cardiomyopathy phenotype and is characterized by a diffuse fibrosis within the myocardium. The peak oxygen pulse (O2Pulse) determined at cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the quotient of oxygen consumption (VO2) divided by the heart rate (HR) at peak exercise. Through deduction of the Fick equation (VO2 = cardiac output (CO) x arteriovenous oxygen difference) it provides a noninvasive estimate of the stroke volume response to exercise. Knowledge of the relationship between cardiac radiation dose and O2Pulse may provide mechanistic insight into the cardiac reserve of the CA survivor following thoracic RT. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients without a history of cardiovascular disease with a history of thoracic RT for CA treatment with significant incidental heart exposure (≥5 Gray (Gy) to ≥10% of the heart volume) underwent treadmill CPET to determine cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to quantify central hemodynamics and for myocardial tissue characterization. The mean cardiac radiation dose (MCRD) and %volume of heart dose was determined from dose-volume histograms reflective of the dose contributions from all RT treatments for each patient. The oxygen pulse (milliliters (mL) of O2 per heart beat) was determined by dividing the absolute VO2 by the HR (beats per minute, bpm) at peak exercise and reported as %-predicted values to account for age and gender differences. Data are reported as number (%) or median (interquartile range). A stepwise multivariate linear regression model was created from significant univariate RT and CMR variables to determine independent predictors of %O2Pulse. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty patients (age = 63 [57-67] years, 18 [60%] female, 2.0 [0.1-28.7] years since completion of RT) underwent study procedures. The peak VO2=1376 mL·min-1 (62% of predicted) and peak HR = 150 (122-164) bpm resulted in a peak O2Pulse of 9.2 mL/beat (82% of predicted). The MCRD = 5.6 [3.7-17.8] Gy was inversely associated with %O2Pulse at univariate analysis (R = −0.514, p < .01), but was not retained at multivariate analysis. The CMR-derived CO ([4.9 (4.09-5.90) Liters/minute], β = +.374, p < .01), CMR-extracellular volume ([ECV, 26.9 (24.8-29.2)%], β = −.536, p < .01), and volume of the heart exposed to ≥30 Gy ([2.5 (0-15.0)Gy], (β = −.345, p = .01) were retained in the model (R2 = .709, F(3,19) = 15.438, p < .001) and were independent predictors of the %O2Pulse. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In patients with significant heart exposure following RT, %O2Pulse (a surrogate of stroke volume response to exercise) is inversely associated with cardiac radiation dose and is related to central hemodynamics (CO) and markers of diffuse fibrosis (ECV).
Effective treatments for patients with high levels of negative symptoms of schizophrenia are lacking. Brexpiprazole is a serotonin–dopamine activity modulator that is a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors, and an antagonist at 5-HT2A and noradrenaline alpha1B/2C receptors, all with subnanomolar potency. Long-term treatment with brexpiprazole demonstrated broad efficacy across all five Marder factor groupings, including positive, negative, disorganized thoughts, uncontrolled hostility/excitement, and anxiety/depression. This post-hoc analysis of long-term effects of brexpiprazole in patients with clinically relevant levels of negative symptoms of schizophrenia is based on data from two similarly designed short-term, placebo-controlled studies (Vector; NCT01396421 or Beacon; NCT01393613) for the brexpiprazole-treated patients who continued into an open-label extension study (Zenith; NCT01397786).
In the short-term studies, patients with acute schizophrenia were randomly assigned to fixed once-daily doses of brexpiprazole 0.25mg (Vector), 1mg (Beacon), 2mg , 4mg or placebo for 6weeks. The long-term study was an open-label, 52-week (amended to 26weeks), safety extension study with flexible-dose (1–4mg/day) brexpiprazole. The post-hoc analyses were performed on brexpiprazole-treated patients from the short-term studies who continued into the long-term study, and who had clinically relevant negative symptoms, defined as PANSS Factor Score for Negative Symptoms (PANSS-FSNS; N1, N2, N3, N4, G7, G16) of ≥24, and score of ≥4 on at least two of three core negative symptom PANSS items at randomization in the parent study. The outcome of the analysis included change from baseline to up to 58weeks in PANSS-FSNS, PANSS Total, and PSP. Safety was also assessed.
A total of 187 patients with clinically relevant levels of negative symptoms in the parent study rolled-over into the open-label extension study and were available for analysis. Eighty-three of these patients remained in the studies for 58weeks. Due to the study amendment, not all patients had the opportunity of complete 52weeks of open-label treatment. Baseline PANSS Total score was 104.4, while baseline PANSS-FSNS was 27.6 and baseline PSP Total score was 41.3. Mean change (SD) from baseline in PANSS-FSNS was –10.9 (5.0), and –44.2 (17.5) for PANSS Total score at Week 58. Change from baseline (SD) to Week 58 for PSP Total score was 24.8 (12.9) with improvement in all domains (socially useful activities, personal and social relationship, self-care, and disturbing and aggressive behaviors). The TEAEs reported ≥5% were schizophrenia (18.9%), insomnia (8.6%), weight increased (5.9%) and akathisia (5.9%).
This post-hoc analysis suggests that brexpiprazole has long-term effectiveness on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and clinically relevant levels of negative symptoms.
Funding Acknowledgements: The study was funded by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization Inc. and H. Lundbeck A/S
Recent excavations in the historic centre of ancient Jerusalem have revealed evidence of an Abbasid (eighth- to tenth-century AD) marketplace. Refuse pits and cesspits have yielded an exceptionally well-preserved archaeobotanical assemblage—the first to be recovered from a Levantine marketplace, and the first in the region to be almost entirely preserved by mineralisation. Among several rare species identified is the earliest discovery of aubergine in the Levant. The assemblage includes staple and luxury food plants, medicinal herbs and plants used for industrial production, illuminating patterns of consumption, production, trade and the socioeconomic structure of Abbasid Jerusalem.