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Lectures on Astrophysics provides an account of classic and contemporary aspects of astrophysics, with an emphasis on analytic calculations and physical understanding. It introduces fundamental topics in astrophysics, including the properties of single and binary stars, the phenomena associated with interstellar matter, and the structure of galaxies. Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg combines exceptional physical insight with his gift for clear exposition to cover exciting recent developments and new results. Emphasizing theoretical results, and explaining their derivation and application, this book provides an invaluable resource for physics and astronomy students and researchers.
As young medical students at Guanabara State University, Luiz Roberto Tenório and Ricardo Agnese Fayad received some of the best medical education offered in 1960s Brazil. For six years, the peers in the same entering class had studied the principles of the healing arts and practiced their application at the university's teaching hospital. They had also witnessed the Brazilian military oust a democratically elected president and install a dictatorship that ruled the country for 21 years (1964–85). After graduating, however, Tenório and Fayad embarked on very distinct paths. The former became a political dissident in opposition to the military regime and provided medical assistance to members of the armed left. The latter joined the armed forces and, as a military physician, participated in the brutal torture and cruel treatment of political prisoners. At the end of military rule, Brazil's medical board would find him guilty of violating the Brazilian code of medical ethics and revoke his license.
Coronary ostial atresia seen with pulmonary atresia and coronary-cameral fistulae or, more rarely, in isolation manifested as left main coronary artery atresia, is well described. We describe the clinical course and post-mortem findings in a neonate who suffered a fatal cardiac arrest and was found to have congenital absence of both coronary ostia in a single/common coronary system.
This comment considers Ari Bryen's Violence in Roman Egypt (2013) from sociological and sociolegal perspectives. Although Bryen is a historian, and his site of inquiry is second‐century Roman Egypt, he turns to contemporary sociologists and law and society scholars to highlight the interplay between law and the social world in the construction of violence. In doing so, he finds a new way to analyze the role of law as a cultural resource for nonelites to make sense of their social world but also to change it (albeit with limits) through law.
The episode of the Sibylle de Panzoust, most often brushed aside as merely farcical, scatological and obscene, remaiijs to be examined seriously and at length. My reading of the sibylline episode will begin by placing the Sibylle in the context of Rabelais' general treatment of women; I shall attempt to determine her place among all the other means of divining the future; further, I shall examine the attitudes of the Pantagruelistes (Epistémon, Pantagruel, Panurge) towards her before the consultation, and, of course, thoroughly investigate the consultation itself.
Prenatal exposure to maternal mood disturbances shapes children's cognitive development reflected in the critical construct of executive functions (EFs). Little is known, however, about underlying mechanisms. By examining cortisol responses in both everyday and lab challenge settings, we tested whether the child/offspring hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis mediates effects of prenatal maternal mood on child EFs at age 6. In 107 Canadian children born to women with a wide range of anxious and depressive symptoms during pregnancy, we found that in boys but not girls, depressed and/or anxious prenatal maternal mood is associated with heightened diurnal cortisol levels in everyday settings, as well as heightened cortisol reactivity to a lab challenge and that this heightened reactivity was associated with poorer EFs. Among boys we also observed that cortisol reactivity but not diurnal cortisol mediated the association between depressed and/or anxious prenatal maternal mood and EFs. Depressed and/or anxious prenatal maternal mood was related to child EFs for both girls and boys. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a mediating role for child stress regulation in the association between prenatal maternal stress-related mood disturbances and child EFs, providing evidence of a mechanism contributing to fetal programming of cognition.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Otitis externa is the inflammation of the external auditory canal. The disease is common and shows a seasonal variation with a greater incidence in warmer months. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in otitis externa and in this retrospective study, we show a corresponding seasonal variation in the proportional incidence of P. aeruginosa isolates from otitis externa in South East England. In total 7770 patients were diagnosed with otitis externa over a period of 9 years from January 2008 to December 2016. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 2802 patients (proportional incidence of 36%). Incidence was higher in the months of August, September and October and in patients between 5 and 15 years of age. We postulate a combination of increased contact with water during warm weather in the holiday season and increased rainfall in the preceding season as a putative mechanism for the seasonal trends.
It is an unfortunate fact that the Near-Middle Eastern area, which has produced its share of the world's more spectacular antiquities, and which has been the focus of archaeological activity for so many years, has supplied but little material for the radiocarbon dating project. The dearth of specimens would seem to be due to two main factors. First, the general lack of attention hitherto given by excavators to non-artifactual materials (i.e., unworked wood, grain, etc.). Second, the understandable reluctance of museum curators to submit actual specimens of artifacts as samples, since they are destroyed in the process.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but few studies have examined long-term outcomes. We studied the impact of CDI after SOT on mortality and transplant organ complication-related hospitalizations (TOH).
SOT recipients ≥18 years of age with at least 1 year of posttransplant data were analyzed using the MarketScan database for 2007–2014. Patients who died within one year of transplant were followed until death. Patients were grouped as early CDI (ie, first occurrence ≤90 days posttransplant), late CDI (ie, first occurrence >90 days posttransplant) and controls (ie, no CDI occurrence during follow-up). The risk of mortality or TOH after CDI was evaluated using Cox and logistic regressions, respectively.
Overall, 96 patients had early CDI, 97 patients had late CDI, and 5,913 patients were used as controls. The risk for death was significantly higher in the early CDI group than the control group (hazard ratio [HR],1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–3.29; P=.018); there was no significant difference between the late CDI group and the control group (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.38–1.94; P=.717). Both the early CDI group (odds ratio [OR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.45–3.31; P<.001) and the late CDI group (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 2.84–6.71; P<.001) had higher risk for TOH than the control group. For those patients who survived >90 days posttransplant, both the early CDI group (n=89) and the late CDI group (n=97) had increased risk for death or TOH during follow-up than the control group (n=5,734).
Though our study could not prove causality, both early and late CDI occurrence in SOT recipients were associated with worse future outcomes than for SOT recipients without CDI.
With few exceptions, measurements of cometary brightness and polarization have been restricted to regions in or near the coma and therefore to a relatively small range of phase angles. Photoelectric techniques are required for detailed wavelength coverage, whereas large-field photographic techniques are better suited for mapping the large regions of sky spanned by a comet tail. Observations with a small field of view provide high spatial resolution but generally restrict multicolor measurements of brightness and polarization to a small region of the comet. Observations with a large field of view (diameter larger than 1 or 2 deg) provide adequate color and spatial coverage but can result in the loss of detail. A compromise is afforded by Fabry photometry, using a modest telescope of small aperture and relatively large field of view.