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The International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers (ITUCNW) was a radical trans-Atlantic network for the propagation of black proletarian internationalism, established by the Red International of Labour Unions in 1928. Its key mastermind was James W. Ford, an African American communist labour union activist who was in charge of the organization and its operations until the autumn of 1931. This article critically highlights Ford's ambitions as well as the early phase of the organization. Both in terms of its agenda and objective as well as in its outreach among black workers in the Black Atlantic, the ITUCNW and its main propagators stressed the “class-before-race” argument of the Comintern rather than the pan-Africanist “race-before-class” approach. This is not surprising as the ITUCNW was one of the organizations that had been established when the Comintern and the RILU had started to apply the “class-against-class” doctrine, which left no room for cooperation between communists and radical pan-Africanists.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
This paper reframes the intellectual genealogy of Baʿthism in modern Syria through a close reading of the writings of one of its founding figures, Michel ʿAflaq. Rereading ʿAflaq's most important texts is part of a broader reconsideration of the intellectual history of modern Syria between nationalism and liberalism, revolution and reaction. While recognizing the traces of nineteenth-century German idealist philosophy and Romantic nationalism in ʿAflaq's thought, this piece complicates the conventional understanding of his work by showing a striking resemblance with the left-personalism of Emmanuel Mounier and the Esprit group. This unexplored connection constitutes a “missing link” in the intellectual genealogy of Baʿthism. As such, this article contributes to a more expansive and complicated global history of personalism. At the same time, this reconsideration of Michel ʿAflaq suggests a more compelling account of the making of modern Syria, a history with roots more tangled than historians have hitherto imagined.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Cardiac radiation exposure following anti-cancer (CA) thoracic radiotherapy (RT) treatment increases risk of heart failure in a dose-dependent manner with a predominantly restrictive cardiomyopathy phenotype and is characterized by a diffuse fibrosis within the myocardium. The peak oxygen pulse (O2Pulse) determined at cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the quotient of oxygen consumption (VO2) divided by the heart rate (HR) at peak exercise. Through deduction of the Fick equation (VO2 = cardiac output (CO) x arteriovenous oxygen difference) it provides a noninvasive estimate of the stroke volume response to exercise. Knowledge of the relationship between cardiac radiation dose and O2Pulse may provide mechanistic insight into the cardiac reserve of the CA survivor following thoracic RT. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients without a history of cardiovascular disease with a history of thoracic RT for CA treatment with significant incidental heart exposure (≥5 Gray (Gy) to ≥10% of the heart volume) underwent treadmill CPET to determine cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to quantify central hemodynamics and for myocardial tissue characterization. The mean cardiac radiation dose (MCRD) and %volume of heart dose was determined from dose-volume histograms reflective of the dose contributions from all RT treatments for each patient. The oxygen pulse (milliliters (mL) of O2 per heart beat) was determined by dividing the absolute VO2 by the HR (beats per minute, bpm) at peak exercise and reported as %-predicted values to account for age and gender differences. Data are reported as number (%) or median (interquartile range). A stepwise multivariate linear regression model was created from significant univariate RT and CMR variables to determine independent predictors of %O2Pulse. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty patients (age = 63 [57-67] years, 18 [60%] female, 2.0 [0.1-28.7] years since completion of RT) underwent study procedures. The peak VO2=1376 mL·min-1 (62% of predicted) and peak HR = 150 (122-164) bpm resulted in a peak O2Pulse of 9.2 mL/beat (82% of predicted). The MCRD = 5.6 [3.7-17.8] Gy was inversely associated with %O2Pulse at univariate analysis (R = −0.514, p < .01), but was not retained at multivariate analysis. The CMR-derived CO ([4.9 (4.09-5.90) Liters/minute], β = +.374, p < .01), CMR-extracellular volume ([ECV, 26.9 (24.8-29.2)%], β = −.536, p < .01), and volume of the heart exposed to ≥30 Gy ([2.5 (0-15.0)Gy], (β = −.345, p = .01) were retained in the model (R2 = .709, F(3,19) = 15.438, p < .001) and were independent predictors of the %O2Pulse. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In patients with significant heart exposure following RT, %O2Pulse (a surrogate of stroke volume response to exercise) is inversely associated with cardiac radiation dose and is related to central hemodynamics (CO) and markers of diffuse fibrosis (ECV).
Recent excavations in the historic centre of ancient Jerusalem have revealed evidence of an Abbasid (eighth- to tenth-century AD) marketplace. Refuse pits and cesspits have yielded an exceptionally well-preserved archaeobotanical assemblage—the first to be recovered from a Levantine marketplace, and the first in the region to be almost entirely preserved by mineralisation. Among several rare species identified is the earliest discovery of aubergine in the Levant. The assemblage includes staple and luxury food plants, medicinal herbs and plants used for industrial production, illuminating patterns of consumption, production, trade and the socioeconomic structure of Abbasid Jerusalem.
Effective treatments for patients with high levels of negative symptoms of schizophrenia are lacking. Brexpiprazole is a serotonin–dopamine activity modulator that is a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors, and an antagonist at 5-HT2A and noradrenaline alpha1B/2C receptors, all with subnanomolar potency. Long-term treatment with brexpiprazole demonstrated broad efficacy across all five Marder factor groupings, including positive, negative, disorganized thoughts, uncontrolled hostility/excitement, and anxiety/depression. This post-hoc analysis of long-term effects of brexpiprazole in patients with clinically relevant levels of negative symptoms of schizophrenia is based on data from two similarly designed short-term, placebo-controlled studies (Vector; NCT01396421 or Beacon; NCT01393613) for the brexpiprazole-treated patients who continued into an open-label extension study (Zenith; NCT01397786).
In the short-term studies, patients with acute schizophrenia were randomly assigned to fixed once-daily doses of brexpiprazole 0.25mg (Vector), 1mg (Beacon), 2mg , 4mg or placebo for 6weeks. The long-term study was an open-label, 52-week (amended to 26weeks), safety extension study with flexible-dose (1–4mg/day) brexpiprazole. The post-hoc analyses were performed on brexpiprazole-treated patients from the short-term studies who continued into the long-term study, and who had clinically relevant negative symptoms, defined as PANSS Factor Score for Negative Symptoms (PANSS-FSNS; N1, N2, N3, N4, G7, G16) of ≥24, and score of ≥4 on at least two of three core negative symptom PANSS items at randomization in the parent study. The outcome of the analysis included change from baseline to up to 58weeks in PANSS-FSNS, PANSS Total, and PSP. Safety was also assessed.
A total of 187 patients with clinically relevant levels of negative symptoms in the parent study rolled-over into the open-label extension study and were available for analysis. Eighty-three of these patients remained in the studies for 58weeks. Due to the study amendment, not all patients had the opportunity of complete 52weeks of open-label treatment. Baseline PANSS Total score was 104.4, while baseline PANSS-FSNS was 27.6 and baseline PSP Total score was 41.3. Mean change (SD) from baseline in PANSS-FSNS was –10.9 (5.0), and –44.2 (17.5) for PANSS Total score at Week 58. Change from baseline (SD) to Week 58 for PSP Total score was 24.8 (12.9) with improvement in all domains (socially useful activities, personal and social relationship, self-care, and disturbing and aggressive behaviors). The TEAEs reported ≥5% were schizophrenia (18.9%), insomnia (8.6%), weight increased (5.9%) and akathisia (5.9%).
This post-hoc analysis suggests that brexpiprazole has long-term effectiveness on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and clinically relevant levels of negative symptoms.
Funding Acknowledgements: The study was funded by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization Inc. and H. Lundbeck A/S