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Metaphors are inescapable in human discourse. Policy researchers have suggested that the use of particular metaphors by those implementing policy changes both influences perceptions of underlying reality and determines what solutions seem possible, and that exploring ‘practice languages’ is important in understanding how policy is enacted. This paper contributes to the literature exploring the generative nature of metaphors in policy implementation, demonstrating their role in not just describing the world, but also framing it, determining what is seen/unseen, and what solutions seem possible. The metaphor ‘care pathway’ is ubiquitous and institutionalised in healthcare. We build upon existing work critiquing its use in care delivery, and explore its use in health care commissioning, using evidence from the recent reorganisation of the English NHS. We show that the pathways metaphor is ubiquitous, but not necessarily straightforward. Conceptualising health care planning as ‘designing a pathway’ may make the task more difficult, suggesting a limited range of approaches and solutions. We offer an alternative metaphor: the service map. We discuss how approaches to care design might be altered by using this different metaphor, and explore what it might offer. We argue not for a barren language devoid of metaphors, but for their more conscious use.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the Mestizos of Kisar, a dry, almost barren island in the Dutch East Indies off the coast of East Timor, were a model for the study of race mixing or human hybridity. Discovered in the late nineteenth century, these ‘anomalous blondes’ of Dutch and Kisarese ancestry became subjects of intense scrutiny by physical anthropologists. As a German specialist in tropical medicine in search of a convenient empire after 1918, Ernst Rodenwaldt favourably evaluated the physique and mentality of the isolated, fair Mestizos in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Back in Germany in the 1930s, as professor of hygiene at Heidelberg, his views on race hardened to accord with Nazi doctrine. Yet after the war, Rodenwaldt successfully cited his earlier appreciation of mixed-race peoples in the eastern Malay Archipelago as grounds for rehabilitation. Once a celebrated case study in human hybridity, the Mestizos of Kisar were erased from anthropological discussion in the 1950s, when race mixing ceased to be a biological issue and became instead a sociological interest. Still, Rodenwaldt's work continues to exert some limited influence in the eastern parts of the archipelago and among the Kisarese diaspora, indicating the penetrance and resilience of colonial racialisation projects.
In an earlier paper that looked at the dating of Edward the Confessor’s shrine at Westminster Abbey and which was published in volume 97 of The Antiquaries Journal, the authors suggested that a scribal error in the recording of the original inscription by the fifteenth-century monk Richard Sporley may have led to the incorrect date of 1279 being given for the construction (or, at least, completion) of the shrine. As a result of the debate aroused by that earlier paper, the authors have now reconsidered and slightly amended their original argument.
Writing in Urban History in the spring of 1991, Peter Borsay considered how the gap between the ‘popular presentations of the urban past’ produced by the growing heritage industry and ‘the booming academic study of urban history’ might be bridged. Heritage, he argued, was ‘deeply bound up with the meanings and functions of towns’ and urban historians should play a crucial role within communities ‘engaged in a complex discourse with the past . . . that for many was fundamental to their livelihood and identity’. Borsay's concerns 27 years later continue to be mirrored in academic discussions surrounding heritage and materiality, echoing wider questions that surround the relevance of urban history beyond the academy. Recent conferences have also demonstrated the continued salience of Borsay's argument, considering the potential of the study of cities to shape approaches to their management through work with local communities, heritage partners, cultural institutions and professional groups. This emphasis on knowledge exchange and partnership has also attracted the support of funding bodies through collaborative doctoral awards that have sought to ‘increase opportunities for all researchers to develop their work in collaboration with public, private and third sector partners that increase the flow, value and impact of world-class arts and humanities research from academia to the UK's wider creative economy and beyond’. This has included the author's own work on the heritage of Middlesbrough's iron and steel industries, which has involved working collaboratively with local archives and heritage partners.
This paper focuses on the material study (radiocarbon dating, wood identification and strontium isotope analyses) of four large ‘India occidentali’ clubs, part of the founding collections of the Ashmolean Museum, in Oxford, and originally part of John Tradescant’s ‘Ark’, in Lambeth (1656). During the seventeenth century, the term ‘India occidentali/occidentales’ referred not only to the ‘West Indies’ (its literal translation), but to the Americas as a whole; hence, the Ashmolean clubs and, indeed, the c forty examples of similarly large, decorated clubs known in international museum collections had no firm provenance and lacked even the most basic information. Previous attempts at attribution, based on stylistic comparisons with nineteenth- to twentieth-century Brazilian and Guyanese clubs, have proved inconclusive given the unique features of this club style, raising the intriguing possibility that these may be exceptionally rare examples of ‘Island Carib’ (Kalinago) material culture, particularly as images of such clubs appear in seventeenth-century ethnographic accounts from the Lesser Antilles. This paper provides new data for these poorly known objects from early collections, revealing not only the type of wood from which they were carved (Platymiscium sp. and Brosimum cf guianense) and their probable dates of manufacture (cAD 1300–1640), but also their possible provenance (strontium results are consistent with a possible range from Trinidad south to French Guiana).
Perennially ice-covered lakes are well known from Antarctica and also occur in the extreme High Arctic. Climate change has many implications for these lakes, including the thinning and disappearance of their perennial ice cover. The goal of this study was to consider the effects of transition to seasonal ice cover by way of limnological observations on a series of meromictic lakes along the northern coastline of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Conductivity-temperature profiles during a rare period of ice-free conditions (August 2008) in these lakes suggested effects of wind-induced mixing of their surface freshwater layers and the onset of entrainment of water at the halocline. Sampling of the mixed layer of one of these meromictic lakes in May and August 2008 revealed a pronounced vertical structure in phytoplankton pigments and species composition, with dominance by cyanobacteria, green algae, chrysophytes, cryptophytes and dinoflagellates, and a conspicuous absence of diatoms. The loss of ice cover resulted in an 80-fold increase in water column irradiance and apparent mixing of the upper water column during a period of higher wind speeds. Zeaxanthin, a pigment found in cyanobacteria, was entirely restricted to the <3μm cell fraction at all depths and increased by a factor of 2–17, with the greatest increases in the upper halocline region subject to mixing. Consistent with the pigment data, picocyanobacterial populations increased by a factor of 3, with the highest concentration (1.65 × 108 cells L−1) in the upper halocline. Chlorophyll a concentrations and the relative importance of phytoplankton groups differed among the four lakes during the open-water period, implying lake-specific differences in phytoplankton community structure under ice-free conditions.
This paper re-evaluates the evidence for the dating of Edward the Confessor’s shrine at Westminster Abbey, which has been the subject of debate for many years. The paper presents a new argument that the manuscript evidence for a later date is based on an identifiable scribal error, locates the source of this error and postulates an alternative original reading of the inscription on the shrine pedestal.
The medium energy X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 is characterised by a hard power-law continuum, a variable low-energy cut-off and iron line and edge features. Holt et al. (1980) found the spectral form below 4 keV to be incompatible with absorption in a uniform screen of cold gas and interpreted the apparent soft X-ray excess in terms of a partial covering model. However, recent observations point to a somewhat different description of the X-ray absorbing medium present in the nucleus of this galaxy.
This paper seeks to identify factors that may lie behind the tendency for parliamentary governments to form primarily from one side of the left-right spectrum and to adopt non-centrist policy positions. Because of measurement limitations as well as the inherent complexity of the processes involved, this exploration is undertaken through simulation experiments. The new software created for these experiments allows the potential impact of a wide variety of factors, including voter and party motivations and distributions, policy space dimensionality, and constraints on government formation, to be assessed. Although the results cannot tell us what fosters non-centrism in the real world, they do reveal some factors that appear to be conducive to that end and thus serve as a guide to further research on this neglected topic.
This essay considers the biomedical framing of labor in tropical Australia from the late-nineteenth century until the early twenty-first century. This entails critical inquiry into racialized estimates of labor capacity or fitness, as well as skeptical examination of medical assumptions of risk and danger. Racial theories and medical conjectures have constituted flexible analytic toolkits that might adjust, adapt, and justify a variety of exploitative labor practices in Australia’s tropical north. Debates about coolie or indentured labor were never simply economic calculations: They also concerned notions of races and their proper places, and expressed particular moral sensibilities and medical fears. Thus labor history becomes entangled with histories of racial formation and of science and medicine