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For Byron, poetic achievement was always relative. Writing meant dwelling in an echo chamber of other voices that enriched and contextualised what he had to say. He believed that literary traditions mattered and regarded poetic form as something embedded in historical moments and places. His poetry, as this volume demonstrates, engaged richly and experimentally with English influences and in turn licenced experimentation in multiple strands of post-Romantic English verse. In Byron Among the English Poets he is seen as a poet's poet, a writer whose verse has served as both echo of and prompt for a host of other voices. Here, leading international scholars consider both the contours of individual literary relationships and broader questions regarding the workings of intertextuality, exploring the many ways Byron might be thought to be 'among' the poets: alluding and alluded to; collaborative; competitive; parodied; worked and reworked in imitations, critiques, tributes, travesties and biographies.
This book provides an understanding of memory development through an examination of the scientific contributions of eminent developmental scientist Peter A. Ornstein. His fifty-year career not only coincided with but also contributed to a period of extraordinary progress in the understanding of children's memory. The volume describes this historical context, constructs a theoretical structure for understanding memory development, and emphasizes research applications for educational and forensic practice. Organized around Ornstein's four influential research programs in children's memory strategies, children's event memory, family socialization of memory, and classroom socialization of memory, the chapters examine contemporary directions in each area, with commentaries addressing each program provided by internationally renowned developmental psychologists. The book presents a comprehensive overview of memory development for psychologists and educators at all levels of training and practice, and also provides a model of a generative life in science.
Following the format change to single best answer questions (SBAs) for the Diploma of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, this excellent resource is fully aligned with the new syllabus and exam style. Topics covered include basic clinical and surgical skills, all stages of pregnancy from antenatal care to postpartum problems, and general gynaecological and fertility concerns. Containing 310 single best answer (SBA) style questions, detailed explanations ensure candidates understand the reasoning and evidence-based decision-making behind each answer. With a recommended reading source also provided readers can explore and revise topics in further detail to reinforce their learning. A further 130 questions are included in two mock exam papers, helping candidates to strengthen their time management skills. Written by an author with many years' experience working on the DRCOG, candidates can be sure of the exact question format and how best to prepare for the actual exam.
A hybrid asymptotic-numerical method is developed to approximate the mean first passage time (MFPT) and the splitting probability for a Brownian particle in a bounded two-dimensional (2D) domain that contains absorbing disks, referred to as “traps”, of asymptotically small radii. In contrast to previous studies that required traps to be spatially well separated, we show how to readily incorporate the effect of a cluster of closely spaced traps by adapting a recently formulated least-squares approach in order to numerically solve certain local problems for the Laplacian near the cluster. We also provide new asymptotic formulae for the MFPT in 2D spatially periodic domains where a trap cluster is centred at the lattice points of an oblique Bravais lattice. Over all such lattices with fixed area for the primitive cell, and for each specific trap set, the average MFPT is smallest for a hexagonal lattice of traps.
To determine whether food security, diet diversity and diet quality are associated with anthropometric measurements and body composition among women of reproductive age. The association between food security and anaemia prevalence was also tested.
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) study. Food security and dietary data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Hb levels were measured using a HemoCue, and anaemia was classified as an altitude-adjusted haemoglobin level < 12·5 g/dl. Body size and composition were assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
The urban township of Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Non-pregnant women aged 18–25 years (n 1534).
Almost half of the women were overweight or obese (44 %), and 9 % were underweight. Almost a third of women were anaemic (30 %). The prevalence rates of anaemia and food insecurity were similar across BMI categories. Food insecure women had the least diverse diets, and food security was negatively associated with diet quality (food security category v. diet quality score: B = –0·35, 95 % CI –0·70, –0·01, P = 0·049). Significant univariate associations were observed between food security and total lean mass. However, there were no associations between food security and body size or composition variables in multivariate models.
Our data indicate that food security is an important determinant of diet quality in this urban-poor, highly transitioned setting. Interventions to improve maternal and child nutrition should recognise both food security and the food environment as critical elements within their developmental phases.
The quality of any research is undoubtedly based on a sound methodological approach, and this is certainly true for acculturation psychology. Unfortunately, acculturation psychology has had its own challenges and limitations. In this chapter, we will review the development and evolution of models, measures and methods that are specific to psychological acculturation research as well as explore the mechanisms underlying acculturation processes. We approach this by describing three generations of acculturation theory and research in terms of their areas of emphasis and major contributions to the field: (i) Models; (ii) Measurements and Methods; and (iii) Mechanisms. We conclude with a note on re-visioning acculturation and speculate about the next cycle of developments.
Projected climate warming and wettening will have a major impact on the state of glaciers and seasonal snow in High Arctic regions. Following up on a historical simulation (1957–2018) for Svalbard, we make future projections of glacier climatic mass balance (CMB), snow conditions on glaciers and land, and runoff, under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios for 2019–60. We find that the average CMB for Svalbard glaciers, which was weakly positive during 1957–2018, becomes negative at an accelerating rate during 2019–60 for both RCP scenarios. Modelled mass loss is most pronounced in southern Svalbard, where the equilibrium line altitude is predicted to rise well above the hypsometry peak, leading to the first occurrences of zero accumulation-area ratio already by the 2030s. In parallel with firn line retreat, the total pore volume in snow and firn drops by as much as 70–80% in 2060, compared to 2018. Total refreezing remains largely unchanged, despite a marked change in the seasonal pattern towards increased refreezing in winter. Finally, we find pronounced shortening of the snow season, while combined runoff from glaciers and land more than doubles from 1957–2018 to 2019–60, for both scenarios.
Systemic inflammation has been linked with mood disorder and cognitive impairment. The extent of this relationship remains uncertain, with the effects of serum inflammatory biomarkers compared to genetic predisposition toward inflammation yet to be clearly established.
We investigated the magnitude of associations between C-reactive protein (CRP) measures, lifetime history of bipolar disorder or major depression, and cognitive function (reaction time and visuospatial memory) in 84,268 UK Biobank participants. CRP was measured in serum and a polygenic risk score for CRP was calculated, based on a published genome-wide association study. Multiple regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical confounders.
Increased serum CRP was significantly associated with mood disorder history (Kruskal–Wallis H = 196.06, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.002) but increased polygenic risk for CRP was not (F = 0.668, p = 0.648, η2 < 0.001). Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest serum CRP quintile was significantly associated with both negative and positive differences in cognitive performance (fully adjusted models: reaction time B = −0.030, 95% CI = −0.052, −0.008; visuospatial memory B = 0.066, 95% CI = 0.042, 0.089). More severe mood disorder categories were significantly associated with worse cognitive performance and this was not moderated by serum or genetic CRP level.
In this large cohort study, we found that measured inflammation was associated with mood disorder history, but genetic predisposition to inflammation was not. The association between mood disorder and worse cognitive performance was very small and did not vary by CRP level. The inconsistent relationship between CRP measures and cognitive performance warrants further study.
Twelve hyper-β carotene-producing strains of algae assigned to the genus Dunaliella salina have been isolated from various hypersaline environments in Israel, South Africa, Namibia and Spain. Intron-sizing of the SSU rDNA and phylogenetic analysis of these isolates were undertaken using four commonly employed markers for genotyping, LSU rDNA, ITS, rbcL and tufA and their application to the study of Dunaliella evaluated. Novel isolates have been identified and phylogenetic analyses have shown the need for clarification on the taxonomy of Dunaliella salina. We propose the division of D. salina into four sub-clades as defined by a robust phylogeny based on the concatenation of four genes. This study further demonstrates the considerable genetic diversity within D. salina and the potential of genetic analyses for aiding in the selection of prospective economically important strains.
This essay explores several Emancipation-era novels reflecting the prevalence of the cross-cultural exchanges that defined Caribbean life at mid-nineteenth century, processes that are not readily apparent when looking at the region’s fiction through the lens of discrete anglophone, francophone, or hispanophone literary studies. Despite their different linguistic and cultural orientations, novelists like E. L. Joseph, Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, and Juan José Nieto share an engagement with issues and themes that continue to define Caribbean literature of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Thus, even as the conditions of each novel’s production are unique – whether created by a Cuban-born abolitionist writing of her native island from Spain (Avellaneda), or by an affiliate of Trinidad’s post-Emancipation planter class (Joseph), or by a political refugee from Colombia (Nieto) – they all exhibit a self-reflexive concept of caribeñidad or Caribbeanness. In so doing they also mark a point when the novel of the Caribbean became the Caribbean novel.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
Drawing on posthumanist and new materialism theorising, we take the concept of resonance for an a/r/tographic ‘walk’ to know, be and do differently, to challenge human-centric separatist ways that have resulted in our current socioecological crises. Beginning with Ingold’s knotty thinking, we identify the notion of resonance as a node for exploring and thinking about interactions in the world. Guided by Barad’s proposition of entangling ethico-onto-epistemic ways, our a/r/tographic thought experiments find resonances that echo through bodies, through connections as nature, through deep-time and modern spaces to notice and attend to intraactions within the ecological collective. Through art-full, thought-full scholartistic enquiry, we explore diffractive encounters to consider resonance as a conceptual tool for tuning into and harmonising with the entanglements of body–mind–space–time–matter. We pose this exploration of resonance as the start of a knotty theory conversation for shifting into a new ‘common world’ knowing, being and doing.
IN 1932, T. S. Eliot's Selected Essays 1917–1932 arrived in print. The influence of these essays on subsequent critics and critical methods cannot be exaggerated, and even now, over eighty years since publication, their influence endures in the professional debates concerning aesthetics and literary methods of interpretation. Among Eliot's essays is “Ben Jonson,” a somewhat curious defense of Jonson's literary merit. For Eliot, Jonson's writings seek to appeal to the reader's mind; and so, in order for a contemporary reader to appreciate the “artistic value” of any individual work, one must labor through the corpus of Jonson's work as a whole. In addition to this, Eliot describes another necessary component to the method of understanding Jonson's work:
we mean that in order to enjoy him [Jonson] at all, we must get to the center of his work and his temperament, and that we must see him unbiased by time, as a contemporary. And to see him as a contemporary does not so much require the power of putting ourselves into seventeenth century London as it requires the power of setting Jonson in our London.
This recommended practice of lifting Jonson's works out of historical context dominated Jonsonian scholarship until the relatively recent past. Even L. C. Knights's ostensibly materialist examination of drama and society in the “age of Jonson” presents a cultural context available to Jonson as a source for his satire; however, Jonson himself remains precariously beyond the implicating reach of his own historical moment. In other words, for Knights, the age is of Jonson, Jonson is not of the age.
In the latter part of the twentieth century, however, scholarly work on Jonson attempted to read his texts through the multiple cultural ideologies and practices that constituted his work, and that in turn he participated in constituting. In his article, “Drama and Society in the Age of Jonson: Shifting Grounds of Authority and Judgment in Three Major Comedies,” Don E. Wayne provides a reappraisal of L. C. Knights's book and, at the same time, offers a more expansive perspective through which critics may (re-)locate Jonson's roles as playwright, poet, and social critic.
Suppose you are a reporter in London, England. You are covering a hotly contested general election for parliament. Someone tells you at a social event that there are allegations that John Jones, the Conservative Party leader, has sexually harassed women on his office staff. That “someone” is Jason, a senior election worker for the Labour Party. Jason mentions that a woman in Jones’s office, Martha, has told fellow staffers about his actions. You contact Martha by telephone. She confirms she was sexually harassed by Jones. She hints there may be other victims but refuses to go into detail. Martha says she is considering laying a complaint with the police. “Please don’t use my name,” she asks.
Media ethics, the study and application of the norms of journalism, should confront the most important questions that swirl around contemporary practice.
Today, these normative questions arise from a revolutionary change in journalism and information media in general: the evolution of a digital media that is global in reach, use, and impact. Journalism is now distributed along global, digital networks. Moreover, journalism is created by individuals who are not professional, mainstream journalists. The capacity to publish to a public is now in the hands of anyone with access to the Internet. Professional journalists, who once dominated the media sphere, now share the space with tweeters, bloggers, citizen journalists, and social media users around the world.
The rise of intolerant groups using media to publish images and stories about vulnerable groups creates a special problem for media ethics.
Extremism leads to serious media harm, including unjustifiable profound offence. The more that extreme messages are circulated, the greater likelihood that citizens, frustrated by slow-moving moderate politics, may adopt more extreme “solutions” to complex problems. Dialogic democracy wanes.
The troubles of contemporary media require society-wide initiatives to detox the public sphere, which I call macro-resistance, and a fundamental change in how media ethics is done. In particular, media ethics must incorporate the public into the reformulation of the norms and practices of responsible media in a digital, global world.
Citizens need to take greater responsibility for the quality of the information circulating in their media system. It is no longer plausible to blame only mainstream professional journalists for biases, inaccuracies, and distortions, when almost everyone is both a consumer and a creator of media content on the Internet.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
I have argued that media ethics is not antithetical to the freedom to publish. Media ethics recognizes freedom as a necessary condition of a democratic press. Without freedom, a robust journalism cannot exist. Yet media ethics also values how that freedom is used. The last chapter considers one way that media freedom should be used – to promote dialogic democracy. Dialogic democracy is the ultimate aim of responsible news media.