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An important objective of research in Second Language Acquisition has been to find a simple and reliable way to quantify second language use. Corpora have provided a crucial source of information for these studies. In spite of many attempts to determine an optimal “yardstick” to measure the quality of second language use, particularly lexical complexity and syntactic complexity, a reliable and widely applicable instrument has not yet been determined. The difficulty in finding a suitable instrument can be accounted for in a complex dynamic systems theory (CDST) approach to second language development. An important starting point of this approach is that every next step in time “is the emergent product of context and history, and no component has causal priority” (Thelen 2005, p. 271). In this paper we illustrate this by using a dense longitudinal corpus of the development of 22 highly similar L2 learners, consisting of 23 weekly measurements. The analysis of these data show convincingly that L2 development is a highly individually owned and nonlinear process. While complexity yardsticks (like MLTU and Guiraud) may seem functional from a group perspective, their application to individual learners is very limited.
This study employed a narrative review and a meta-analysis to synthesize the literature on mobile-assisted language learning (MALL). Following a systematic retrieval of literature from 2008 to 2017, 17 studies with 22 effect sizes were included based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. By categorizing the characteristics of the studies retrieved, the narrative review revealed a detailed picture of MALL research in terms of the language aspects targeted, theoretical frameworks addressed, mobile technologies adopted, and multimedia components used. The qualitative review helped to contextualize and interpret the results found in the meta-analysis, which revealed a large effect for mobile technologies in language learning, identified three variables (i.e. type of activities, modality of delivery, and duration of treatment) that might influence the effectiveness of mobile technologies, and confirmed the existence of a redundancy effect and a novelty effect in MALL practice. Implications for future research and pedagogy are discussed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We modeled risk of reintubation within 48 hours of cardiac surgery using variables available in the electronic health record (EHR). This model will guide recruitment for a prospective, pragmatic clinical trial entirely embedded within the EHR among those at high risk of reintubation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: All adult patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit following cardiac surgery involving thoracotomy or sternotomy were eligible for inclusion. Data were obtained from operational and analytical databases integrated into the Epic EHR, as well as institutional and departmental-derived data warehouses, using structured query language. Variables were screened for inclusion in the model based on clinical relevance, availability in the EHR as structured data, and likelihood of timely documentation during routine clinical care, in the hopes of obtaining a maximally-pragmatic model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 2325 patients met inclusion criteria between November 2, 2017 and November 2, 2019. Of these patients, 68.4% were male. Median age was 63.0. The primary outcome of reintubation occurred in 112/2325 (4.8%) of patients within 48 hours and 177/2325 (7.6%) at any point in the subsequent hospital encounter. Univariate screening and iterative model development revealed numerous strong candidate predictors (ANOVA plot, figure 1), resulting in a model with acceptable calibration (calibration plot, figure 2), c = 0.666. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Reintubation is common after cardiac surgery. Risk factors are available in the EHR. We are integrating this model into the EHR to support real-time risk estimation and to recruit and randomize high-risk patients into a clinical trial comparing post-extubation high flow nasal cannula with usual care. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: REF has received grant funding and consulting fees from Medtronic for research on inpatient monitoring.
Mild psychotic experiences are common in the general population. Although transient and benign in most cases, these experiences are predictive of later mental health problems for a significant minority. The goal of the present study was to perform examinations of the dimensional and discrete variations in individuals’ reporting of subclinical positive and negative psychotic experiences in a unique Dutch internet-based sample from the general population.
Positive and negative subclinical psychotic experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in 2870 individuals. First, the prevalence of these experiences and their associations with demographics, affect, psychopathology and quality of life were investigated. Next, latent class analysis was used to identify data-driven subgroups with different symptom patterns, which were subsequently compared on aforementioned variables.
Subclinical psychotic experiences were commonly reported. Both positive and negative psychotic experiences were associated with younger age, more negative affect, anxiety and depression as well as less positive affect and poorer quality of life. Seven latent classes (‘Low psychotic experiences’, ‘Lethargic’, ‘Blunted’, ‘Distressed’, ‘Paranormal’, ‘Distressed_grandiose’ and ‘Distressed/positive psychotic experiences’) were identified that demonstrated both dimensional differences in the number/severity of psychotic experiences and discrete differences in the patterns of reported experiences.
Subclinical psychotic experiences show both dimensional severity variations and discrete symptom-pattern variations across individuals. To understand and capture all interindividual variations in subclinical psychotic experiences, their number, nature and context (co-occurrence patterns) should be considered at the same time. Only some psychotic experiences may lay on a true psychopathological psychosis continuum.
Data-driven techniques are frequently applied to identify subtypes of depression and anxiety. Although they are highly comorbid and often grouped under a single internalizing banner, most subtyping studies have focused on either depression or anxiety. Furthermore, most previous subtyping studies have not taken into account experienced disability.
To incorporate disability into a data-driven cross-diagnostic subtyping model.
To capture heterogeneity of depression and anxiety symptomatology and investigate the importance of domain-specific disability-levels to distinguish between homogeneous subtypes.
Sixteen symptoms were assessed without skips using the MINI-interview in a population sample (LifeLines; n = 73403). Disability was measured with the RAND-36. To identify the best-fitting subtyping model, different nested latent variable models (latent class analysis, factor analysis and mixed-measurement item response theory [MM-IRT]) with and without disability covariates were compared. External variables were compared between the best model's classes.
A five-class MM-IRT model incorporating disability showed the best fit (Fig. 1). Accounting for disability improved the differentiation between classes reporting isolated non-specific symptoms (“Somatic” [13.0%], and “Worried” [14.0%]) and those reporting more psychopathological symptoms (“Subclinical” [8.8%], and “Clinical” [3.3%]). A “Subclinical” class reported symptomatology at subthreshold levels. No pure depression or anxiety, but only mixed classes were observed.
An overarching subtyping model incorporating both symptoms and disability identified distinct cross-diagnostic subtypes. Diagnostic nets should be cast wider than current phenomenology-based categorical systems.
Figure not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Features of the two illuminations from the first quire of the Codex Amiatinus, the bifolium of the tabernacle of Moses (6v and 7r, formerly 2v/II and 7r/III) and the miniature of the Jewish priest Ezra, who is identified by inscription (2r, formerly 4r/V), correspond more closely with text from the Jewish Antiquities of Flavius Josephus than with the parallel accounts in Scripture. Cassiodorus had the Jewish Antiquities of Flavius Josephus rendered from Greek into Latin, referring to the seventh chapter (that is, chapter 6) of book 3 as the source for his illustration of the tabernacle of Moses; and this illumination, according to Bede, was available as a model at Wearmouth–Jarrow. It appears that Bede also took part in fashioning the miniature of Ezra, both the verse inscription and the image itself, which also reflects more closely passages from Cassiodorus’ so-called Latin Josephus than the corresponding sections of the Bible.
Depressive patients can present with complex and different symptom patterns in clinical care. Of these, some may report patterns that are inconsistent with typical patterns of depressive symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of person-fit statistics to identify inconsistent symptom reports and to assess the clinical usefulness of providing clinicians with person-fit score feedback during depression assessment.
Inconsistent symptom reports on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR) were investigated quantitatively with person-fit statistics for both intake and follow-up measurements in the Groningen University Center of Psychiatry (n = 2036). Subsequently, to investigate the causes and clinical usefulness of on-the-fly person-fit alerts, qualitative follow-up assessments were conducted with three psychiatrists about 20 of their patients that were randomly selected.
Inconsistent symptom reports at intake (12.3%) were predominantly characterized by reporting of severe symptoms (e.g. psychomotor slowing) without mild symptoms (e.g. irritability). Person-fit scores at intake and follow-up were positively correlated (r = 0.45). Qualitative interviews with psychiatrists resulted in an explanation for the inconsistent response behavior (e.g. complex comorbidity, somatic complaints, and neurological abnormalities) for 19 of 20 patients. Psychiatrists indicated that if provided directly after the assessment, a person-fit alert would have led to new insights in 60%, and be reason for discussion with the patient in 75% of the cases.
Providing clinicians with automated feedback when inconsistent symptom reports occur is informative and can be used to support clinical decision-making.
This chapter presents a selection of findings based on the study Hard Time(s): Women's Pathways to Crime and Incarceration by Artz et al. (2011), which was presented by the lead author researcher at the 2014 IPPF Colloquium, “Women in Prison: The Bangkok Rules and Beyond” in Bangkok, Thailand.
What we know about crime, justice and punishment is based almost entirely on frameworks that have been developed to explain the experiences of men. It is widely accepted that, in comparison to literature on the reasons for men's offending, there is a paucity of research aimed at understanding the reasons why women engage in criminal offending and, more specifically, historical factors that influence offending behaviour. Moreover, almost nothing is known about women incarcerated anywhere on the African continent. What little is known about incarcerated women in South Africa suggests that they are among the most socially and economically vulnerable members of South African society. Their backgrounds - marked as many of them are by violence, extreme economic deprivation, and household disruption - point to longstanding failures of social policies to adequately address the needs of poor women. The specific vulnerabilities that these women face, however, and the ways in which these vulnerabilities interact with other risk factors and shape the specific contexts in which women choose to commit crimes, are not sufficiently known or understood. Understanding these distinctive experiences and the needs of women in prison is crucial for the formulation of effective and humane responses to women's crimes, and to minimising the damaging effects of incarceration on children, households and communities.
It is for this reason that the Gender, Health & Justice Research Unit embarked on a study to explore the reasons why women come into conflict with the law and end up in prison. We established the Pathways Project, an innovative, multi-method project designed for women's prison settings. Moving beyond classical criminological studies on prison - where positivist survey methods still dominate - our methods culminated in 55 in-depth narratives of incarcerated women. The “theoretical aim” of this project was to highlight the distinctive nature of female criminality, thereby shifting attention from the all-male focus on crime that has characterised most South African criminology (to date).
In search of empirical classifications of depression and anxiety, most subtyping studies focus solely on symptoms and do so within a single disorder. This study aimed to identify and validate cross-diagnostic subtypes by simultaneously considering symptoms of depression and anxiety, and disability measures.
A large cohort of adults (Lifelines, n = 73 403) had a full assessment of 16 symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders, and measurement of physical, social and occupational disability. The best-fitting subtyping model was identified by comparing different hybrid mixture models with and without disability covariates on fit criteria in an independent test sample. The best model's classes were compared across a range of external variables.
The best-fitting Mixed Measurement Item Response Theory model with disability covariates identified five classes. Accounting for disability improved differentiation between people reporting isolated non-specific symptoms [‘Somatic’ (13.0%), and ‘Worried’ (14.0%)] and psychopathological symptoms [‘Subclinical’ (8.8%), and ‘Clinical’ (3.3%)]. Classes showed distinct associations with clinically relevant external variables [e.g. somatization: odds ratio (OR) 8.1–12.3, and chronic stress: OR 3.7–4.4]. The Subclinical class reported symptomatology at subthreshold levels while experiencing disability. No pure depression or anxiety, but only mixed classes were found.
An empirical classification model, incorporating both symptoms and disability identified clearly distinct cross-diagnostic subtypes, indicating that diagnostic nets should be cast wider than current phenomenology-based categorical systems.
This study investigated whether lifelong bilingualism can be associated with enhanced executive control, particularly mental flexibility, and with a modulation of an age-related decline in these functions. We compared performance of middle-aged and elderly speakers of German and bilingual speakers of Dutch and Frisian in a cued task-switching paradigm. All bilinguals were fluent in the same, closely-related language pairs. Bilinguals incurred significantly lower switching costs than monolinguals, and elderly bilinguals were less affected by an age-related increase in switching costs than monolinguals. Bilinguals did not differ from monolinguals in the size of the mixing costs. Our findings suggest that lifelong bilingualism correlates with enhanced ability to shift between mental sets, as well as increased resistance to proactive interference. The fact that we found significant group differences – while some previous studies did not – may be attributable to the choice of our task and to the cognateness of the languages involved.
Skin schistosomula can be prepared by collecting them after isolated mouse skin have been penetrated by cercariae in vitro. The schistosomula can also migrate out of isolated mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vitro and from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo. Schistosomula can also be produced from cercariae applied through a syringe or in a vortex. When certain surface properties of the different forms of schistosomula were compared, those migrating from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo or in vitro had greatly increased permeability to membrane impermeant molecules such as Lucifer yellow and high molecular weight dextrans. These migrating forms also possessed surfaces which showed greatly enhanced uptake into internal membrane vesicles of the dye FM 143, a marker for endocytosis. This greatly enhanced activity and permeability of the surfaces of tissue migrating schistosomula is likely to be of great importance in the adaptation to the new host.
Specification of appropriate personal protective equipment for respiratory protection against influenza is somewhat controversial. In a clinical environment, N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are often recommended for respiratory protection against infectious aerosols. This study evaluates the ability of N95 FFRs to capture viable H1N1 influenza aerosols.
Five N95 FFR models were challenged with aerosolized viable H1N1 influenza and inert polystyrene latex particles at continuous flow rates of 85 and 170 liters per minute. Virus was assayed using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Aerosols were generated using a Collison nebulizer containing H1N1 influenza virus at 1 × 108 TCID50/mL. To determine filtration efficiency, viable sampling was performed upstream and downstream of the FFR.
N95 FFRs filtered 0.8-μm particles of both H1N1 influenza and inert origins with more than 95% efficiency. With the exception of 1 model, no statistically significant difference in filtration performance was observed between influenza and inert particles of similar size. Although statistically significant differences were observed for 2 models when comparing the 2 flow rates, the differences have no significance to protection.
This study empirically demonstrates that a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-approved N95 FFR captures viable H1N1 influenza aerosols as well as or better than its N95 rating, suggesting that a properly fitted FFR reduces inhalation exposure to airborne influenza virus. This study also provides evidence that filtration efficiency is based primarily on particle size rather than the nature of the particle's origin.
The objective was to determine the effects of dietary fibre with bulking, viscous and gel-forming properties on satiation, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. We conducted a randomised crossover study with 121 men and women. Subjects were healthy, non-restrained eaters, aged 18–50 years and with normal BMI (18·5–25 kg/m2). Test products were cookies containing either: no added fibre (control), cellulose (bulking, 5 g/100 g), guar gum (viscous, 1·25 g/100 g and 2·5 g/100 g) or alginate (gel forming, 2·5 g/100 g and 5 g/100 g). Physico-chemical properties of the test products were confirmed in simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions. In a cinema setting, ad libitum intake of the test products was measured concurrently with oral exposure time per cookie by video recording. In a separate study with ten subjects, 4 h gastric emptying rate of a fixed amount of test products was assessed by 13C breath tests. Ad libitum energy intake was 22 % lower for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (3·1 (sd 1·6) MJ) compared to control (4·0 (sd 2·2) MJ, P< 0·001). Intake of the other four products did not differ from control. Oral exposure time for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (2·3 (sd 1·9) min) was 48 % longer than for control (1·6 (sd 0·9) min, P= 0·01). Gastric emptying of the 5 g/100 g alginate product was faster compared to control (P< 0·05). We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time.
Soil testing strategies that include biologically based indicators in organic and alternative farming systems are needed in order to improve recommendations that balance production and environmental goals. In this study, soil samples were collected before and after soils were transitioned from conventional row crop production to organic management using rotations that varied in both their inputs and tillage intensity. Ley-, row crop- and vegetable-based farming systems were implemented using locally specific production practices. Subplots were imposed within each system to allow comparison of farming systems without amendment and with dairy manure- and compost-amendment. Soil analyses included standard chemical tests (0–15 cm) for available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Biological assays (0–15 and 15–30 cm) included particulate organic matter-C and -N (POM-C, POM-N), soil and POM C:N ratios, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and hydrolysable amino-N + NH4 (IL-N). Even though cropping and tillage intensity varied among systems (ley < row crop < vegetable), organic matter and nutrient reserves were not statistically different. Nutrient concentrations tested medium to high, even without compost or manure application. Labile fractions of soil organic matter were more enriched in the deeper sampling depth; whereby, POM stocks within the 15–30 cm depth increased by 20% on average compared to roughly 6% in the surface depth. This and observed changes in other properties demonstrate the multiple benefits derived from use of winter annual or perennial crops. Results from our analyses suggested PMN and POM have particular promise as metrics of change in commercial soil testing facilities to assist recommendations for amendments to balance production and environmental goals.