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Trematode prevalence and abundance in hosts are known to be affected by biotic drivers as well as by abiotic drivers. In this study, we used the unique salinity gradient found in the south-western Baltic Sea to: (i) investigate patterns of trematode infections in the first intermediate host, the periwinkle Littorina littorea and in the downstream host, the mussel Mytilus edulis, along a regional salinity gradient (from 13 to 22) and (ii) evaluate the effects of first intermediate host (periwinkle) density, host size and salinity on trematode infections in mussels. Two species dominated the trematode community, Renicola roscovita and Himasthla elongata. Salinity, mussel size and density of infected periwinkles were significantly correlated with R. roscovita, and salinity and density correlated with H. elongata abundance. These results suggest that salinity, first intermediate host density and host size play an important role in determining infection levels in mussels, with salinity being the main major driver. Under expected global change scenarios, the predicted freshening of the Baltic Sea might lead to reduced trematode transmission, which may be further enhanced by a potential decrease in periwinkle density and mussel size.
To identify modifiers of emergency medical services (EMS) oversight quality, including facilitators and barriers, and inform best practices and policy related to EMS oversight and system performance.
We used a qualitative design, including 4 focus groups and 10 in-depth, 1-on-1 interviews. Primary data were collected from EMS stakeholders in Michigan from June to July 2016. Qualitative data were analyzed using the rapid assessment technique.
Emergent themes included organizational structure, oversight and stakeholder leadership, interorganizational communication and relationships, competition or collaboration among MCA stakeholders, quality improvement practices, resources, and needs specific to rural communities.
EMS is a critical component of disaster response. This study revealed salient themes and modifiers, including facilitators and barriers, of EMS oversight quality. These findings were evaluated in the context of current evidence and informed state policy to improve the quality of EMS oversight and prehospital care for both routine and disaster settings. Some were particular to geographic regions and communities, whereas others were generalizable.
The study aims to investigate the recognition of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in psychiatric outpatients.
Subjects and methods
A total of 2282 outpatients seen at 14 different psychiatric clinics in South Germany were asked to participate in the study. Five hundred and eighty-nine (30%) of the original 2282 patients met screening criteria for OCD, and of those, 237 (42%) participated in the final interview including DSM-IV diagnosis, and comorbidity.
Sixty-nine of 589 participating patients who screened positively for obsessive symptoms actually had an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Only 19 (28%) of the outpatients diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV criteria were also given this diagnosis by their consultant. The psychopathology scores indicated that the OCD patients had clinically relevant OCD with a mean Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (Y-BOCS) of 17.5 (± 5.4), and a mean Clinical Global Impression Score (CGI) of 5.2 (± 1.2).
In outpatient clinics over 70% of OCD patients remain unrecognised and thus untreated by consultants. Screening questions provide a rapid way of identifying those who may have OCD and should be incorporated into every mental state examination by consultants.
The Good Hope carbonatite is located adjacent to the Prairie Lake alkaline rock and carbonatite complex in northwestern Ontario. The occurrence is a heterolithic breccia consisting of diverse calcite, dolomite and ferrodolomite carbonatites containing clasts of magnesio-arfvedsonite + potassium feldspar, phlogopite + potassium feldspar together with pyrochlore-bearing apatitite clasts. The apatitite occurs as angular, boudinaged and schlieren clasts up to 5 cm in maximum dimensions. In these pyrochlore occurs principally as euhedral single crystals (0.1–1.5 cm) and can comprise up to 25 vol.% of the clasts. Individual clasts contain compositionally- and texturally-distinct suites of pyrochlore. The pyrochlores are hosted by small prismatic crystals of apatite (~100–500 μm × 10–25 μm) that are commonly flow-aligned and in some instances occur as folds. Allotriogranular cumulate textures are not evident in the apatitites. The fluorapatite does not exhibit compositional zonation under back-scattered electron spectroscopy, although ultraviolet and cathodoluminescence imagery shows distinct cores with thin (<50 μm) overgrowths. Apatite lacks fluid or solid inclusions of other minerals. The apatite is rich in Sr (7030–13,000 ppm) and rare earth elements and exhibits depletions in La, Ce, Pr and Nd (La/NdCN ratios (0.73–1.14) relative to apatite in cumulate apatitites (La/NdCN > 1.5) in the adjacent Prairie Lake complex. The pyrochlore are primarily Na–Ca pyrochlore of relatively uniform composition and minor Sr contents (<2 wt.% SrO). Irregular resorbed cores of some pyrochlores are A-site deficient (>50%) and enriched in Sr (6–10 wt.% SrO), BaO (0.5–3.5 wt.%), Ta2O5 (1–2 wt.%) and UO2 (0.5–2 wt.%). Many of the pyrochlores exhibit oscillatory zoning. Experimental data on the phase relationships of haplocarbonatite melts predicts the formation of apatite and pyrochlore as the initial liquidus phases in such systems. However, the texture of the clasts indicates that pyrochlore and apatite did not crystallise together and it is concluded that pyrochlores formed in one magma have been mechanically mixed with a different apatite-rich magma. Segregation of the apatite–pyrochlore assemblage followed by lithification resulted in the apatitites, which were disrupted and fragmented by subsequent batches of diverse carbonatites. The genesis of the pyrochlore apatitites is considered to be a process of magma mixing and not simple in situ crystallisation.
This paper studies estimation of the conditional mean squared error of prediction, conditional on what is known at the time of prediction. The particular problem considered is the assessment of actuarial reserving methods given data in the form of run-off triangles (trapezoids), where the use of prediction assessment based on out-of-sample performance is not an option. The prediction assessment principle advocated here can be viewed as a generalisation of Akaike’s final prediction error. A direct application of this simple principle in the setting of a data-generating process given in terms of a sequence of general linear models yields an estimator of the conditional mean squared error of prediction that can be computed explicitly for a wide range of models within this model class. Mack’s distribution-free chain ladder model and the corresponding estimator of the prediction error for the ultimate claim amount are shown to be a special case. It is demonstrated that the prediction assessment principle easily applies to quite different data-generating processes and results in estimators that have been studied in the literature.
Tribology—the study of contacting, sliding surfaces—seeks to explain the fundamental mechanisms underlying friction, adhesion, lubrication, and wear, and to apply this knowledge to technologies ranging from transportation and manufacturing to biomedicine and energy. Investigating the contact and sliding of materials is complicated by the fact that the interface is buried from view, inaccessible to conventional experimental tools. In situ investigations are thus critical in visualizing and identifying the underlying physical processes. This article presents key recent advances in the understanding of tribological phenomena made possible by in situ experiments at the nanoscale. Specifically, progress in three key areas is highlighted: (1) direct observation of physical processes in the sliding contact; (2) quantitative analysis of the synergistic action of sliding and chemical reactions (known as tribochemistry) that drives material removal; and (3) understanding the surface and subsurface deformations occurring during sliding of metals. The article also outlines emerging areas where in situ nanoscale investigations can answer critical tribological questions in the future.
Like the BIA model (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 1998; van Heuven, Dijkstra & Grainger, 1998) and the BIA+ model (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002), the Multilink model is a symbolic, localist-connectionist, interactive model for lexical processing in the visual domain. In our view, the symbolic nature of Multilink makes it attractive and easily interpretable, even in relation to brain activity (Page, 2000, p. 501; 2017). Symbolic localist-connectionist models have a long tradition and have been applied to many different areas of cognitive research (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1998). As a consequence, a lot is known about their properties and limitations (e.g., Bowers, 2009). These models can also easily be organized hierarchically in a cognitive functional way, and they have a reasonable degree of flexibility while still being falsifiable. Thus, despite the availability of other sophisticated frameworks for modeling language processes, a lot can still be gained from localist models.
We construct η- and ρ-invariants for Dirac operators, on the universal covering of a closed manifold, that are invariant under the projective action associated to a 2-cocycle of the fundamental group. We prove an Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in this setting, as well as its higher generalisation. Applications concern the classification of positive scalar curvature metrics on closed spin manifolds. We also investigate the properties of these twisted invariants for the signature operator and the relation to the higher invariants.
The computational BIA+ model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002) has provided a useful account for bilingual word recognition, while the verbal (pre-quantitative) RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) has often served as a reference framework for bilingual word production and translation. According to Brysbaert and Duyck (2010), a strong need is felt for a unified implemented account of bilingual word comprehension, lexical-semantic processing, and word production. With this goal in mind, we built a localist-connectionist model, called Multilink, which integrates basic assumptions of both BIA+ and RHM. It simulates the recognition and production of cognates (form-similar translation equivalents) and non-cognates of different lengths and frequencies in tasks like monolingual and bilingual lexical decision, word naming, and word translation production. It also considers effects of lexical similarity, cognate status, relative L2-proficiency, and translation direction. Model-to-model comparisons show that Multilink provides higher correlations with empirical data than both IA and BIA+ models.
In a 2015 report, the Institute of Medicine (IOM; Washington, DC USA), now the National Academy of Medicine (NAM; Washington, DC USA), stated that the field of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) exhibits signs of fragmentation; an absence of system-wide coordination and planning; and a lack of federal, state, and local accountability. The NAM recommended clarifying what roles the federal government, state governments, and local communities play in the oversight and evaluation of EMS system performance, and how they may better work together to improve care.
This systematic literature review and environmental scan addresses NAM’s recommendations by answering two research questions: (1) what aspects of EMS systems are most measured in the peer-reviewed and grey literatures, and (2) what do these measures and studies suggest for high-quality EMS oversight?
To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted in the PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Web of Science (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA), SCOPUS (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands), and EMBASE (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands) databases for peer-reviewed literature and for grey literature; targeted web searches of 10 EMS-related government agencies and professional organizations were performed. Inclusion criteria required peer-reviewed literature to be published between 1966-2016 and grey literature to be published between 1996-2016. A total of 1,476 peer-reviewed titles were reviewed, 76 were retrieved for full-text review, and 58 were retained and coded in the qualitative software Dedoose (Manhattan Beach, California USA) using a codebook of themes. Categorizations of measure type and level of application were assigned to the extracted data. Targeted websites were systematically reviewed and 115 relevant grey literature documents were retrieved.
A total of 58 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria; 46 included process, 36 outcomes, and 18 structural measures. Most studies applied quality measures at the personnel level (40), followed by the agency (28) and system of care (28), and few at the oversight level (5). Numerous grey literature articles provided principles for high-quality EMS oversight.
Limited quality measurement at the oversight level is an important gap in the peer-reviewed literature. The grey literature is ahead in this realm and can guide the policy and research agenda for EMS oversight quality measurement.
TaymourRK, AbirM, ChamberlinM, DunneRB, LowellM, WahlK, ScottJ. Policy, Practice, and Research Agenda for Emergency Medical Services Oversight: A Systematic Review and Environmental Scan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):89–97.
We formulate and study Howe–Moore type properties in the setting of quantum groups and in the setting of rigid
-tensor categories. We say that a rigid
has the Howe–Moore property if every completely positive multiplier on
has a limit at infinity. We prove that the representation categories of
-deformations of connected compact simple Lie groups with trivial center satisfy the Howe–Moore property. As an immediate consequence, we deduce the Howe–Moore property for Temperley–Lieb–Jones standard invariants with principal graph
. These results form a special case of a more general result on the convergence of completely bounded multipliers on the aforementioned categories. This more general result also holds for the representation categories of the free orthogonal quantum groups and for the Kazhdan–Wenzl categories. Additionally, in the specific case of the quantum groups
, we are able, using a result of the first-named author, to give an explicit characterization of the central states on the quantum coordinate algebra of
, which coincide with the completely positive multipliers on the representation category of
Electrochemical sensing systems are advancing into a wide range of new applications, moving from the traditional lab environment into disposable devices and systems, enabling real-time continuous monitoring of complex media. This transition presents numerous challenges ranging from issues such as sensitivity and dynamic range, to autocalibration and antifouling, to enabling multiparameter analyte and biomarker detection from an array of nanosensors within a miniaturized form factor. New materials are required not only to address these challenges, but also to facilitate new manufacturing processes for integrated electrochemical systems. This paper examines the recent advances in the instrumentation, sensor architectures, and sensor materials in the context of developing the next generation of nanoenabled electrochemical sensors for life sciences applications, and identifies the most promising solutions based on selected well established application exemplars.
A richly furnished grave of an elite woman from the Hallstatt period was discovered close to the Heuneburg, the earliest proto-urban settlement north of the Alps. Dendrochronological analysis of timbers from the grave chamber dates the burial to 583 BC, the earliest of a series of such burials north of the Alps and a key anchor in the absolute chronology of the Early Iron Age in Europe. The woman was adorned with gold, bronze, jet and amber jewellery; gold filigree objects, amber fibulae and items of horse-head armour suggest close connections south of the Alps. An infant female burial close to the main grave included gold jewellery made for a child but similar to that of the woman.
Early Archaic human skeletal remains found in a burial context in Lapa do
Santo in east-central Brazil provide a rare glimpse into the lives of
hunter-gatherer communities in South America, including their rituals for
dealing with the dead. These included the reduction of the body by means of
mutilation, defleshing, tooth removal, exposure to fire and possibly
cannibalism, followed by the secondary burial of the remains according to
strict rules. In a later period, pits were filled with disarticulated bones
of a single individual without signs of body manipulation, demonstrating
that the region was inhabited by dynamic groups in constant transformation
over a period of centuries.
Background: Repeated checking in OCD can be understood from a cognitive perspective as the motivated need to achieve certainty about the outcome of a potentially risky action, leading to the application of Elevated Evidence Requirements (EER) and overuse of subjective criteria. Method: Twenty-four obsessional checkers, 22 anxious controls, and 26 non-clinical controls were interviewed about and rated recent episodes where they felt (a) they needed to check and (b) checked mainly out of habit (i.e. not obsessionally). Results: Both subjective and objective criteria were rated as significantly more important in obsessional checkers than in controls; obsessional checkers also used more criteria overall for the termination of the check, and rated more criteria as “extremely important” than the control groups. The termination of the check was rated as more effortful for obsessional checkers than for the comparison groups. Analysis of the interview data was consistent with the ratings. Feelings of “rightness” were associated with the termination of a check for obsessional checkers but not for controls. Conclusion: Results were consistent with the proposal that the use of “just right feelings” to terminate checking are related to EER.