To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The historiography of the Ottoman period (Tourkokratia) in what is now the state of Greece contains many untested propositions about both the nature and the consequences of Turkish rule (Hatzidimitriou 1982). Amongst these is the notion that during the Ottoman occupation the Christian population — or at least a sizeable proportion of it — was driven into the mountains. Our paper sets out to test the hypothesis — for such it is — using readily available published information on the settlements of the Morea (Peloponnisos) dating from c.1700 and c.1830. First, though, we specify the hypothesis and indicate the types of evidence which appear to give it support.
Cancer of the kidney represents 4% of adult malignancies. Men are more frequently affected than women, and it commonly occurs between the ages of 50 and 70 years. More than 30% of patients present with metastatic disease. The majority of malignant tumours are adenocarcinomas, arising from the proximal renal tubular epithelium. These tumours were previously called hypernephroma because it was believed that they originated from adrenal rests, but they are correctly termed renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The main focus of this chapter is the management of RCC. Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis accounts for 5% of all renal malignancies, and is covered separately at the end of the chapter.
Types of kidney tumour
Kidney tumours can be benign, malignant primary or metastatic. Benign tumours include cysts (simple, complex, multiple), inflammatory (infection, infarction), adenoma and oncocytoma. Malignant primary tumours include RCC, lymphoma, sarcoma and renal pelvis tumours (5% of malignant renal cancers arise from the renal pelvis, and more than 90% of these are transitional cell carcinoma).
The kidneys are retroperitoneal structures that lie between the eleventh rib and the transverse process of the third lumbar vertebral body, each approximately 11 cm in length, the right lying slightly lower than the left. Each kidney is surrounded by perinephric fat which in turn is covered by Gerota's fascia. The right kidney abuts the liver and stomach and the left, the spleen, stomach and pancreas. The lymphatics drain along the renal vessels, on the right draining to paracaval and aortocaval nodes, and on the left to the para-aortic region.
Incidence and epidemiology
Over 10,000 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed in the UK in 2011 resulting in approximately 4200 deaths (Cancer Research UK website accessed July 2014). In the last 10 years kidney cancer incidence rates in the UK have increased by almost a third, and unlike in some other cancers, the death rate is still rising. Kidney cancer occurs most commonly in people 50–80 years of age. Men are more frequently affected than women; the male-to-female ratio is 5:3. It is the seventh most common cancer in men and tenth most common cancer in women in the UK.
Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35–60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects.
Given a finitely generated module over a commutative noetherian ring that satisfies certain reflexivity conditions, we show how failure of the semidualizing property for the module manifests in a disconnection of the prime spectrum of the ring.
The Australian continent is large and therefore exhibits a range of very different climatic zones. Broadly, the continent is characterised by arid climatic regimes: four-fifths of the landmass receiving an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm (Figure 12.1) and one-half of the continent receiving less than 300 mm. These arid and semi-arid regions form the greatest proportion of inland Australia, and are fringed by narrow, wet and temperate climatic zones along the southwestern, southern and eastern coastal zones (Figure 12.1). Tropical monsoonal rainfall characterises the northern coastal zones. Compared to other continents on Earth, Australia has by far the lowest average rainfall. This low precipitation rate is coupled with a high evaporation rate meaning that surface water availability is also anomalously low compared to global averages. Average annual temperature also shows significant variation (Figure 12.1) and in most areas there is also a high diurnal variation in temperature.
It is well known, however, that the currently arid areas of inland Australia were significantly wetter in the geological past, from the early Cenozoic (a period of geological time from c. 65 Ma until the present day; Gradstein et al. 2004) until at least the early Miocene (c. 23 Ma) (e.g. Kershaw et al. 1994; Martin 2006). Much of our current knowledge of climate change from the early Cenozoic to the present is deduced from observed variations in the isotopic signature of marine sediments (e.g. deMenocal 1995; Lisiecki and Raymo 2005; Raymo et al. 2006) as well as the distribution, chemistry and palynological assemblages of terrestrial and marine sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Despite the surge of interest in urban agriculture, there have been few studies that address the biophysical challenges and opportunities of food production in urban environments. This study aims to determine the relative influence of atmospheric pollutants and microclimatic factors on the physiological response and productivity of vegetable crops across an urban-to-rural latitudinal transect in the greater Chicago metropolitan region. Data collected at each of six sites include continuous measures of atmospheric pollutants and microclimatic factors, and biweekly measures of physiological response and yield of various vegetable crops and cultivars. Preliminary data collected in early 2013 suggest that there is substantial variability in environmental factors and crop yield across this urban-to-rural transect. Results of this study will provide a scientific basis for crop adaptation to the urban environment and establish practical crop and cultivar recommendations for urban and peri-urban farmers in the North Central US.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission, extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.
This paper builds on work of Hochster and Yao that provides nice embeddings for finitely generated modules of finite G-dimension, finite projective dimension or locally finite injective dimension. We extend these results by providing similar embeddings in the relative setting, that is, for certain modules of finite GC-dimension, finite C-projective dimension, locally finite C-injective dimension or locally finite C-injective dimension where C is a semidualizing module. Along the way, we extend some results for modules of finite homological dimension to modules of locally finite homological dimension in the relative setting.
The VAST survey is a wide-field survey that observes with unprecedented instrument sensitivity (0.5 mJy or lower) and repeat cadence (a goal of 5 seconds) that will enable novel scientific discoveries related to known and unknown classes of radio transients and variables. Given the unprecedented observing characteristics of VAST, it is important to estimate source classification performance, and determine best practices prior to the launch of ASKAP's BETA in 2012. The goal of this study is to identify light-curve characterization and classification algorithms that are best suited for archival VAST light-curve classification. We perform our experiments on light-curve simulations of eight source types and achieve best-case performance of approximately 90% accuracy. We note that classification performance is most influenced by light-curve characterization rather than classifier algorithm.
Motivated by recent discoveries of isolated, dispersed radio pulses of possible extragalactic origin, we are performing a commensal search for short-duration (ms) continuum radio pulses using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The geographically separated antennæ of the VLBA make the system robust to local RFI and allow events to be verified and localised on the sky with milli-arcsec accuracy. We report sky coverage and detection limits from the experiment to date.
The detection of fast (< 1 second) transient signals requires a challenging balance between the need to examine vast quantities of high time-resolution data and the impracticality of storing all the data for later analysis. This is the epitome of a “big data” issue—far more data will be produced by next generation-astronomy facilities than can be analyzed, distributed, or archived using traditional methods. JPL is developing technologies to deal with “big data” problems from initial data generation through real-time data triage algorithms to large-scale data archiving and mining. Although most current work is focused on the needs of large radio arrays, the technologies involved are widely applicable in other areas.
Inertial cavitation, namely the rapid expansion and subsequent violent collapse of micron-sized cavities under the effect of ultrasound-induced pressure variations, has widely been considered as an undesirable phenomenon for in-vivo biomedical applications. This is mainly because of its highly stochastic nature and difficulties in its reliable initiation in vivo using moderate ultrasound pressure levels. Methods of lowering the pressure required to initiate cavitation, which is known as the cavitation threshold, has been previously addressed with the use of ultrasound contrast agents in form of encapsulated stabilized micron sized bubbles. However, such agents do not readily extravasate into tumours and other target tissues due to their relatively large size. This paper investigates the engineering of core-shell nanoparticles and examines their ability to initiate inertial cavitation in the context of ultrasound-enhanced local drug delivery. The nanoparticulate formulations are size-engineered to target tumour vasculature whilst presenting high surface roughness, facilitating surface air entrapment upon drying. The core-shell nanoparticles have been demonstrated to substantially lower the cavitation threshold in aqueous solution, allowing the initiation of inertial cavitation with moderate ultrasound amplitudes and the low energy levels typically deployed by diagnostic systems. The peak focal pressure where the probability of cavitation is greater than 0.5 was found to decrease by factors of five to ten fold, dependant on particle size, total surface area and surface morphology.
Health systems are not just about improving health. Good ones also ensure that people are protected from the financial consequences of illness and death, or at least from the financial consequences associated with the use of medical care. Anecdotal evidence suggests that health systems often perform badly in this respect, with devastating consequences especially for poor and near-poor households. The World Bank participatory poverty study in fifty countries – Voices of the Poor (Narayan et al. 2000a) – found that poor health and illness are universally dreaded as a source of destitution, not only because of the costs of health care but also because of the income lost. The study documents the case of a twenty-six year-old Vietnamese man who was the richest man in his community but became one of the poorest as a result of the health-care costs incurred for his daughter's severe illness (Narayan 2000). Another case concerned a thirty year-old Indian mother of four who was forced to sell the family's home and land and must walk 10 km a day transporting wood on her head in order to finance the cost of her diabetic husband's medical care (Narayan 2000).
How can a health system's success in protecting people against the financial consequences of ill health be measured? What do successful systems have in common? How far do health system reforms improve people's financial protection against health expenses?
Jason Lester, Consultant, Clinical Oncologist, Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff, UK,
John Wagstaff, Consultant, Medical Oncologist, Singleton Hospital, Sketty, Swansea, UK
Cancer of the kidney represents 3% of adult malignancies. There are about 6500 new cases per year diagnosed in England and Wales, occurring most commonly between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Men are more frequently affected than women. More than 30% of patients present with metastatic disease. The majority of malignant tumours are adenocarcinomas, arising from the proximal renal tubular epithelium. These tumours were previously called hypernephroma because it was believed that they originated from adrenal rests, but they are correctly termed renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis accounts for 5% of all renal malignancies, and is covered separately at the end of the chapter.
Types of kidney tumour
Kidney tumours can be benign, malignant primary or metastatic. Benign tumours include cysts (simple, complex, multiple), inflammatory (infection, infarction), adenoma, and oncocytoma. Malignant primary tumours include RCC, lymphoma, sarcoma and renal pelvis tumours (5% of malignant renal cancers arise from the renal pelvis, and more than 90% of these are transitional cell carcinoma).
The kidneys are retroperitoneal structures that lie between the 11th rib and the transverse process of the 3rd lumbar vertebral body, each approximately 11 cm in length, the right lying slightly lower than the left. Each kidney is surrounded by perinephric fat which in turn is covered by Gerota's fascia. The right kidney abuts the liver and stomach and the left, the spleen, stomach, and pancreas.