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An essential text on practical application, theory and simulation, written by an international coalition of experts in the field and edited by the authors of Colloidal Suspension Rheology. This up-to-date work builds upon the prior work as a valuable guide to formulation and processing, as well as fundamental rheology of colloidal suspensions. Thematically, theory and simulation are connected to industrial application by consideration of colloidal interactions, particle properties, and suspension microstructure. Important classes of model suspensions including gels, glasses and soft particles are covered so as to develop a deeper understanding of industrial systems ranging from carbon black slurries, paints and coatings, asphalt, cement, and mine tailings, to natural suspensions such as biocolloids, protein solutions, and blood. Systematically presenting the established facts in this multidisciplinary field, this book is the perfect aid for academic researchers, graduate students, and industrial practitioners alike.
Agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but changing management practices to those more beneficial to the environment could help mitigate climate change as long as they are economically and environmentally viable. This study examines the environmental (public) and economic (private) effects of adopting ten different beneficial management practices on a representative corn farm in Ontario, Canada. The study integrates changes in GHG emissions in carbon equivalents (CO2e) and changes in profit from changes in costs and revenues in two dimensions to reveal the scope and scale of different kinds of practices. 4R nitrogen management practices are smaller in scale compared to cropping practices and, therefore, have smaller potential costs and benefits. Land use changes, from practices including biomass, afforestation, crop rotation and cover cropping, have larger impacts on soil sequestration and carbon-equivalent GHG reduction, but with significantly greater costs. Seven practices were found to, at least partially, be economically and environmentally beneficial. The adoption of no-till and N-rate reduction is firmly positive, whereas the production of biomass has the largest potential economic and environmental gains. Crop rotation and diversification and cover cropping can be mutually beneficial, as can changing N-application practices. The use of inhibitors may be economically beneficial if yield gains outweigh purchase costs.
The discoveries of the new science of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries offered unique challenges to philosophers concerned with answering scepticism or with defending common-sense beliefs. This chapter focuses on how Descartes, Locke, and Berkeley took up those challenges. Descartes’s philosophical project brought to the forefront the tensions embedded in the confrontation between common sense, science, and scepticism. His insistence on raising the strongest sceptical doubts and on answering them with absolute certainty often left common-sense beliefs behind. Confronted with this result, and perhaps also with Descartes’s own failure to answer the sceptic, Locke weakened both the force of his own scepticism and the degree of certainty he demanded in his philosophical views. Moreover, he was often willing to privilege common-sense beliefs over arguments conflicting with them. In these ways, he provided a system which reconciled common sense, science, and scepticism more adequately than Descartes. Berkeley, convinced that his predecessors’ work left the sceptic unscathed, developed views which, he claimed, completed this reconciliation project. But the chapter shows that his views fall short of this goal. The work of these philosophers put in place the foundations upon which later thinkers would tackle this reconciliation challenge.
Reconfiguration events in turbulent mixed convection, i.e. the superposition of thermal and forced flow contributions, at the two different Richardson numbers
and similar Rayleigh numbers of
$Ra \approx 10^8$
are investigated with tomographic particle image velocimetry in combination with local temperature measurements. For both cases, the three-dimensional velocity fields reflect diagonally aligned large-scale circulations (LSC) switching their alignment by rotating their axes around a pivot located at the centre of the LSC, while the temperatures perform a translation movement of the structures in agreement with earlier temperature-based investigations. For the high
case, the switching process of the observed spontaneous reconfigurations is induced by a reversing thermal flow contribution while the forced flow contribution is constant. Furthermore, it is shown that a secondary roll structure, which drives the reconfiguration process in Rayleigh–Bénard convection, also exists in mixed convection. However, in the latter, the flow reversals are triggered by different structures which accumulate and release their kinetic energy according to a proper orthogonal decomposition analysis. In contrast, for the low
case, the structure formation during continuous reconfigurations is governed by a Taylor- or Görtler-type instability. This means that the forced convection substantially affects the reconfiguration mechanism of these structures. Therefore, the reconfigurations cannot be described by a simple superposition of structures associated with the two flow contributions as for the high
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), a multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterium, can cause difficult-to-treat infections with mortality in approximately half of CRAB cases. CRAB can spread among healthcare facilities after transfer of an infected or colonized patient. Strategies to limit CRAB spread include adherence to contact precautions, environmental cleaning with bleach, and screening to identify colonized patients. During July–September 2018, the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) worked with an acute-care hospital (hospital A) to contain an outbreak of OXA-23–producing CRAB (OXA-23 is an enzyme that confers resistance to carbapenems). During November 2018–March 2019, statewide CRAB surveillance identified additional cases of related OXA-23–producing CRAB at other healthcare facilities. DPH, Connecticut State Public Health Laboratory (SPHL), and the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (ARLN) investigated to prevent additional cases. Methods: Since January 2017, CRAB isolates have been routinely sent to SPHL and ARLN for carbapenemase gene detection and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to determine isolate relatedness. During November 2018–March 2019, DPH collected patient healthcare history for patients with CRAB isolates to identify outbreaks and provide assistance in infection control and prevention to healthcare facilities reporting CRAB cases. Beginning May 2019, DPH and ARLN offered facilities screening to identify patients colonized with OXA-23–producing CRAB. Results: Of 10 OXA-23–producing CRAB isolates reported to DPH during November 2018–March 2019, 3 were closely related to the 9 isolates from hospital A’s outbreak by WGS (single-nucleotide polymorphism difference range, 1–16). One isolate was from a patient who had been admitted to hospital A during July 2018. All 3 patients with CRAB isolates shared a history of residence at long-term–care facility A (LTCF A). Two patients received a CRAB infection diagnosis upon admission to hospital B after transfer from LTCF A. Both LTCF A and hospital B performed environmental cleaning with bleach and placed CRAB-identified patients on contact precautions. LTCF A declined screening patients for CRAB, whereas hospitals B and C, which receive frequent transfers from LTCF A, screened all patients on admission from LTCF A. During May–September 2019, among 6 patients screened, 1 was colonized with OXA-23–producing CRAB and was placed on contact precautions. Conclusions: Transfer of patients who are infected or colonized with CRAB among hospitals and LTCFs can facilitate the regional spread of CRAB. Strategies for containing the spread of carbapenemase-producing organisms include adherence to contact precautions, colonization screening, interfacility communication, and collaboration with public health.
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission at outpatient hemodialysis clinics is well documented, but little is known about HCV transmission risks in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) providing hemodialysis services. LTCFs can provide onsite hemodialysis for residents by contracting with a licensed hemodialysis clinic to either provide its staff to the LTCF or to train LTCF staff as caregivers. In August 2019, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified about an HCV seroconversion in patient A at a LTCF providing onsite hemodialysis. Methods: Three residents (including patient A) were receiving hemodialysis at the LTCF in August 2019; patients B and C had chronic HCV infection upon admission. Records were reviewed for medical history, behavioral risk factors, and healthcare exposures. We conducted onsite infection control assessments and interviewed staff. Serum specimens were collected for all 3 patients in August 2019 and HCV tested for genetic similarity using Global Hepatitis Outbreak Surveillance Technology (GHOST). Results: The facility reported initiating onsite hemodialysis in November 2018; facility staff were trained by a dialysis provider. Patient A, admitted in September 2018, was anti-HCV negative in June 2019 and both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive in July 2019. Patient B was admitted in December 2018, discharged for 1 month in May 2019, and then readmitted. Patients A and B reported previous injection drug use, and they were not observed by staff to use during their stay and had limited mobility. Patient A was wheelchair confined and B was bed confined. Patient C was admitted in May 2019. HCV samples from patients A and B both had HCV genotype 1b and demonstrated 100% genetic relatedness, indicating that patient B was the likely source. Patient C had HCV genotype 1a. Hemodialysis was provided to residents simultaneously in a converted resident room with 4 hemodialysis stations, and the LTCF operated 2 shifts, 3 times per week. We observed multiple infection control gaps, such as preparation of IV medications and inadequate disinfection in the shared dialysis treatment area. Recommendations addressing gaps were issued, and a follow-up site visit was conducted to validate implementation. With the exception of May 2019, patients A and B received hemodialysis on the same shift and days from December 2018 to September 2019. Conclusions: Phylogenetic and epidemiological results indicate HCV transmission likely occurred during hemodialysis services provided by the LTCF. As the provision of dialysis expands to nontraditional settings such as LTCFs, it is essential that proper infection control procedures and oversight are in place.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
Governments have great difficulties designing politically sustainable responses to rising public debt. These difficulties are grounded in a limited understanding of the popular constraints during periods of fiscal pressure. For instance, an influential view claims that fiscal austerity does not entail significant political risk. But this research potentially underestimates the impact of austerity on votes because of strategic selection bias. This study addresses this challenge by conducting survey experiments in Spain, Portugal, Italy, the UK and Germany. In contrast to previous findings, the results show that a government's re-election chances greatly decrease if it proposes austerity measures. Voters object particularly strongly to spending cuts and, to a lesser extent, to tax increases. While voters also disapprove of fiscal deficits, they weight the costs of austerity policies more than their potential benefits for the fiscal balance. These findings are inconsistent with the policy recommendations of international financial institutions.
The carpenter ant Camponotus rufipes has intracellular bacteria in bacteriocytes scattered in the midgut epithelium, which have different amounts of endosymbionts, according to the developmental stages. However, there are no detailed data about the midgut cells in adult workers. The present work aimed to evaluate the morphology and cellular events that coordinate the abundance of endosymbionts in the midgut cells in C. rufipes workers. The midgut epithelium has digestive cells, bacteriocytes, and cells with intermediate morphology. The latter is similar to bacteriocytes, due to the abundance of endosymbionts, and similar to digestive cells, due to their microvilli. The digestive and intermediate cells are rich in autophagosomes and autolysosomes, both with bacteria debris in the lumen. These findings suggest that midgut cells of C. rufipes control the endosymbiont level by the autophagy pathway.
The aim of this study was to determine the level of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk perceptions in Indonesia and characterize predictors of perceptions.
An online cross-sectional study was conducted. A questionnaire assessed perceived risk and collected independent variables, including sociodemographic data. A multivariable linear regression model was used to characterize the relationship between independent variables and perceived risk.
We included 1379 respondents in the final analysis with the mean and median of perceived risk score was 19.21% and 10.0%, respectively. Respondents aged between 21 and 30 years had the highest perceived risk, and those who were unmarried had 4.3% higher perceived risk compared with those who were married. Compared with the lowest monthly income group, those making Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) 6-10 million and more than IDR 10 million a month believed they had 4.2% and 8.8% higher risk, respectively. Citizens who lived in cities and health-care workers also had a higher perceived risk compared with those in the rural areas and non–health-care workers, respectively.
Perceived risk of COVID-19 in Indonesia is relatively low, and this could hamper the adoption of preventive measures of COVID-19. Efforts to increase the awareness and perceived risk are important to prevent the pandemic from escalating.
This chapter explores how Charles Darwin’s ideas about structural and functional anomalies in plants, animals and humans inspired the new Gothic monsters to be found in the work of Grant Allen, H. G. Wells, Robert Louis Stevenson, Bram Stoker and Arthur Machen. It traces the ways in which these writers reimagined human genealogies in light of evolutionary biology, materialism and Darwinist criminal anthropology. Sadistic criminals whose degenerate minds and bodies threatened civilised society, and atavistic flesh-eating plants whose natural ‘criminality’ was coaxed out by sadistic experimental scientists, are part of a significant reimagining of both biological and cultural history in the last half of the century. Indeed, through these types of biological monsters, Gothic writers challenged some of the most cherished ideas that Victorians held about their cultural heritage. Knowledge about human descent, the biology of human and animal abnormality, and criminal compulsions that dwelt in the ‘protoplasm’, largely negated the ideals of the age of chivalry – the medieval origins of the higher-order values that supposedly defined the human as exceptional.
In this Research Communication we address the hypotheses that reduced contact with humans during the first week of life would impair the relationship of dairy calves reared in dam-calf-contact systems to humans in comparison with artificially reared animals, but that this difference would vanish over time. Artificially reared calves (Artificial) that had been separated from their mother within 12 h after birth were bottle-fed with colostrum for 5 d and thereafter sucked milk from an automatic milk feeder. Animals reared with dam-calf contact (Dam-contact) were kept in the calving pen with their dam for 5 d, and then had permanent access to the cow barn and thus to their dam. Calves were weaned at an age of 12 weeks and kept in young stock groups mixed of both treatments until integration into the cow herd. We tested the animals’ relationship with humans by assessing the animals' responses towards an unfamiliar person in an avoidance distance (AD) test in the home environment at 4 weeks of age, at 15 months and at 33 months. In calves, we additionally measured AD in a novel arena after a stationary person test. Artificial animals had lower AD, i.e. showed lower level of fear, than Dam-contact calves. However, the AD in Dam-contact calves decreased with increasing number of days they experienced assistance for suckling. Further, there was no significant difference in later ages. In conclusion, gentle human contact in combination with feeding during the first 5 d of life improved calves' relationship to humans leading to differences between the two treatments as well as within the Dam-contact calves. Potential effects under different conditions regarding quantity and quality of human-animal interactions need further research.
Habermas saw the public sphere as coterminous with the national space. Anderson dreamed of newspaper readers facing the same paper for breakfast forming an “imagined community,” which he saw as vital for supplementing the subjective side of nationhood. Historical evidence supports neither proposition. Both remain locked in a nation-state focused history and have to sideline large and crucial parts of the record. This article studies two early Chinese-language periodical publications characterised by their radical difference to the standard European models, the East Western Monthly Magazine (1833–1838) and the Shenbao (1872–1949), and considers the implications of these examples for dominant conceptual frameworks.