To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Trans-Universal Zombie Church of the Blissful Ringing is a religion that emerged in the context of a period of political uprising in Slovenia in 2012–13 and later consolidated into a church that now claims 12,000 members. We use the lens of invented religion and interviews conducted with observers and participants in 2017 to demonstrate ways in which the Zombie Church has been an unusually effective actor in contemporary Slovenian political discourse and, indeed, has broken ground by spotlighting challenges in the young republic's negotiation of the legal and cultural relationships between church, state, and civil society. Part 1 explores the context that led to the mobilization of Zombie as a multivalent symbol for political critique. Part 2 looks at the church's tenets, its success in compelling changes in Slovenia's registration process, and the challenge is its advocates raise to Slovenian church-state structures and practices.
If performance goals (i.e., motivation to prove ability) increase children's vulnerability to depression (Dykman, 1998), why are they overlooked in the psychopathology literature? Evidence has relied on self-report or observational methods and has yet to articulate how this vulnerability unfolds across levels of analysis implicated in stress–depression linkages; for example, hypothalamic–pituitaryadrenal axis (HPA), sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Utilizing a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach (Cicchetti, 2010), this experimental study tested Dykman's goal orientation model of depression vulnerability in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 121, Mage = 10.60 years, Range = 9.08–12.00 years, 51.6% male). Self-reports of performance goals, attachment security, and subjective experience of internalizing difficulties were obtained in addition to objective behavioral (i.e., task persistence) and physiologic arousal (i.e., salivary cortisol, skin conductance level) responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and two randomly assigned coping conditions: avoidance, distraction. Children with performance goals reported greater internalizing difficulties and exhibited more dysregulated TSST physiologic responses (i.e., HPA hyperreactivity, SNS protracted recovery), yet unexpectedly displayed greater TSST task persistence and more efficient physiologic recovery during avoidance relative to distraction. These associations were stronger and nonsignificant in the context of insecure and secure attachment, respectively. Findings illustrate a complex matrix of in-the-moment, integrative psychobiological relationships linking performance goals to depression vulnerability.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The overall goal of the Community-Engaged Research Core, supported by the Penn State Clinical and Translational Science Institute, is to invest in opportunities that promote collaboration between researchers and communities. Research in which community members are participating in the research process will more likely lead to reducing health disparities when compared to more traditional approaches. This abstract describes a community research day that brought researchers and community-based organizational leaders together to discuss critical areas of research. We aim to highlight a successful approach for how to work with a community, particularly one that has been distrustful of research, to facilitate and support collaborations between academic researchers and community-based organizational leaders (CBOs). Community-based organizational leaders are often the most knowledgeable individuals when it comes to identifying and discerning the needs and research priorities of their communities and they are generally in the best positions to help build greater trust between academic researchers and communities. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A Community Research Day Steering Committee was formed in the spring of 2018 and consisted of 10 community-based organizational leaders from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, two Penn State University staff, and one Penn State University faculty member. The Steering Committee’s purpose was to design, plan, and execute an event (Better Together: Community Driven Awareness) in which community-organizational leaders and faculty researchers came together to discuss possible research collaborations to improve community health. The Steering Committee participated in bi-monthly planning meetings leading up to the event, Better Together: Community-Driven Awareness. During these planning meetings, members determined that mental health and nutrition were two critical areas deserving of more attention from research within their geographical community. Organizations were asked to identify sub-categories within mental health and nutrition that they saw as most relevant to their communities. The sub-categories that they selected became the theme topics for round table discussions at the main event. This information was also used to determine which academic researchers to invite to the event, based on scientific expertise. In addition to selecting these topics for table discussions, the Steering Committee provided advice on the agenda and program materials. The agenda for Better Together: Community-Driven Awareness featured a presentation from a successful collaboration between a faculty member and a community-based organization whose project was centered around suicide prevention in the school system. After the presentation, researchers and CBOs sat at round tables for facilitated discussions about their table’s theme. The facilitated discussions fostered new relationships and led to collaborations outside of the event. Following the round-table discussions, there was a presentation about funding and next steps. Lastly, feedback forms were given to each attendee to assess their experience of the event and to better understand what to improve upon for the future. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Following the Community-Driven Awareness event, the Community-Engaged Research Core at Penn State released a call for proposals for planning grants to be awarded to faculty/community-based organization teams. These grants were intended to build capacity for externally-funded research that seeks to address important community-identified research questions. The internal grants support meetings to discuss mutual interests, develop research questions, identify leaders, conduct literature reviews, and collect pilot data. A team must have included, at a minimum, one Penn State faculty researcher and one community-based organizational leader as co-principal investigators. In the proposal, the team was asked to describe its preliminary research question, the work to be accomplished during the planning period, anticipated outcome(s) and deliverables, and preliminary ideas for seeking future external funding. A two-page narrative briefly described how the team members’ expertise/experience/constituencies would address the specified research question. In addition, the team provided a budget and budget justification. Planning grants ranged from $500-$5,000. Funds were allocated for a 6-12 month period. After the call was sent out, seven proposals were submitted and three were selected for external funding. Proposal topics included: * Exploring the Mechanism of Engagement in HIV Testing, Prevention, and Care Among African American and Hispanic/Latino Men who Have Sex with Men * Educator Translation of a Universal Social-Emotional Learning Program in School Practice * Growing Nutritious Communities: Gardening to increase access to and knowledge about fresh fruits and vegetables among residents in South Harrisburg, Hall Manor community. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There are several academic institutions that have implemented similar events whose goal is to bring together academic researchers and community-based organizational leaders. To our knowledge, this is one of a few examples of an event that was developed from the ground up by a committee comprised mostly of community organization leaders. The community leaders guided the decisions made in all phases of the event design from determining the research themes to providing input on program materials. Additionally, our Steering Committee garnered the interest and attendance from over 20 community participating organizations, which attests to their commitment and dedication to seeing this event through from beginning to end. The feedback received from the event was overwhelmingly positive. Both academic researchers and community-based organizational leaders expressed their appreciation for an event that brought both parties together in a space where they felt comfortable to share ideas and knowledge. When asked how we could improve this event in the future, most attendees shared that they wanted more time and more opportunities to connect. One limitation of the event noted by attendees was that attendees were not able to sign up for the round table discussions themselves but were placed strategically at them by our Steering Committee. Therefore, at our next event, attendees will be able to select their tables and determine which themed topic they prefer to participate in. Lastly, we are considering how to best summarize the ideas that are generated from these round table discussions in a way that can be shared with the larger group and in a way that might foster collaborations outside of the event.
There have been few attempts to link two aspects of psychiatric epidemiology, severe disorder and milder ‘common’ mental disorder, by ascertaining whether subjects who have received psychiatric treatment for major disorders are identified later in epidemiological community surveys.
Subjects were from a national birth cohort study and had been followed prospectively from childhood to middle age, with concurrent information on treatment from psychiatric facilities. In two successive prevalence surveys of milder disorder at 36 and 43 years, the association between earlier treatment and being a later community case was examined
Among 102 subjects who had been treated patients up to age 35 years, 52 (51%) were identified as definite community cases (36, 35%) or subthreshold cases (16, 16%) at either one or both later points. The proportion of community subjects who were previous psychiatric patients increased systematically from community non-cases, through subthreshold cases on one or both occasions, definite cases on one occasion, to definite cases on both occasions.
About half of subjects who have received treatment from psychiatric facilities remain with persistent symptoms such as to identify them as definite or subthreshold cases of milder common mental disorder some years later.
Pubertal timing matters for psychological development. Early maturation in girls is linked to risk for depression and externalizing problems in adolescence and possibly adulthood, and early and late maturation in boys are linked to depression. It is unclear whether pubertal timing uniquely predicts problems; it might instead mediate the continuity of behavior problems from childhood to adolescence or create psychological risk specifically in youth with existing problems, thus moderating the link. We investigated these issues in 534 girls and 550 boys, measuring pubertal timing by a logistic model fit to annual self-report measures of development and, in girls, age at menarche. Prepuberty internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were reported by parents. Adolescent behavior problems were reported by parents and youth. As expected, behavior problems were moderately stable. Pubertal timing was not predicted by childhood problems, so it did not mediate the continuity of behavior problems from childhood to adolescence. Pubertal timing did not moderate links between early and later problems for girls. For boys, early maturation accentuated the link between childhood problems and adolescent substance use. Overall, the replicated links between puberty and behavior problems appear to reflect the unique effects of puberty and child behavior problems on the development of adolescent behavior problems.
The Colorado Twin Registry (CTR) is a population-based registry formed from birth and school records including twins born between 1968 and the present. Two previous reports on the CTR [Rhea et al., (2006). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 941–949; Rhea et al., (2013).Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 351–357] covered developments in the CTR through 2012. This report briefly summarizes previously presented material on ascertainment and recruitment and the relationships between samples and studies, discusses developments since 2012 for four previously described twin samples, describes two new samples and their complementary studies and expands on two subjects briefly mentioned in the last report: a history of genotyping efforts involving CTR samples, and a survey of collaborations and consortia in which CTR twins have been included. The CTR remains an active resource for both ongoing, longitudinal research and the recruitment of new twin samples for newly identified research opportunities.
The purpose of this update is to provide the most current information about both the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP) and the Longitudinal Twin Study (LTS) and to introduce the Colorado Adoption/Twin Study of Lifespan behavioral development and cognitive aging (CATSLife), a product of their merger and a unique study of lifespan behavioral development and cognitive aging. The primary objective of CATSLife is to assess the unique saliency of early childhood genetic and environmental factors to adult cognitive maintenance and change, as well as proximal influences and innovations that emerge across development. CATSLife is currently assessing up to 1600 individuals on the cusp of middle age, targeting those between 30 and 40 years of age. The ongoing CATSLife data collection is described as well as the longitudinal data available from the earlier CAP and LTS assessments. We illustrate CATSLife via current projects and publications, highlighting the measurement of genetic, biochemical, social, sociodemographic and environmental indices, including geospatial features, and their impact on cognitive maintenance in middle adulthood. CATSLife provides an unparalleled opportunity to assess prospectively the etiologies of cognitive change and test the saliency of early childhood versus proximal influences on the genesis of cognitive decline.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To build capacity for community engaged, translational research in faculty across the university. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Each year, the Community Engagement Research Core (CERC) of the Penn State CTSI invites applications for one to two Community Engagement Faculty Fellowships. Applicant teams are comprised of a junior or mid-level investigator seeking to expand their work into the CEnR arena under the mentorship of a senior investigator with expertise in community engaged scholarship. The fellow must develop a plan for the mentoring year, including a timeline, activities to be undertaken together, knowledge to be acquired, deliverables, and a budget. The funding supports two course releases or the clinical equivalent for the fellow, and a small budget to support the mentor’s research program. Proposals are evaluated using NIH scientific merit criteria. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We are in our second year of the fellowship program. Two highly qualified fellows are currently working with established community-based mentors. The 2017-2018 fellowship team showcases how an effective mentor-fellow partnership can help move a fellow’s work along the translational spectrum. By working with her mentor, our first fellow’s research has expanded from basic discovery science in a university hospital to development of a neonatal intensive care unit intervention to be employed with parents in the community. The 2018-2019 scholar, who utilized the community engagement research core (CERC) of the PSU CTSI in preparation of a PCORI grant, has since received the PCORI award and is working with her mentor to bring her innovative mental health screenings to the public schools. We are currently evaluating applications for the third year of the program, and please to have engaged applicants from across several Penn State campuses and disciplines. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The fellowship is enjoying early success in terms of fellow productivity, expanding translational research expertise, and fueling interest across the Penn State campuses in community engagement research. Future work will focus on sustainability planning for this type of program, metrics for tracking success, and plans for integrating fellows into a growing community of engaged scholars at the university.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.
This paper examines the relationship between bi-directional work–family enrichment, psychological capital, and supervisor support in promoting innovative work behavior. We hypothesized that work-to-family enrichment and family-to-work enrichment would have a positive relation with psychological capital. Further, we examined that psychological capital would mediate the relationship between (i) work-to-family enrichment and innovative work behavior, and (ii) family-to-work enrichment and innovative work behavior. We also studied the role of supervisor support as a predictor or moderator for catalyzing innovative work behavior. Data were collected through questionnaire survey from 398 service-sector employees. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling. Building on the theoretical foundation of broaden-and-build theory, we establish that both work-to-family enrichment and family-to-work enrichment were positively related to psychological capital. Psychological capital fully mediated between bi-directional enrichment and innovative work behavior. Supervisor support was directly related to innovative work behavior. We also suggest interventions for facilitating innovative work behavior.
Poetry was an immensely popular and prevalent literary form throughout nineteenth- century America, and there was no more popular or widely read poet than Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine, and attended Bowdoin College, where he graduated in 1825 in the same class as Nathaniel Hawthorne. Although Longfellow was originally intent on pursuing a law career, Bowdoin offered him a job as a professor of modern languages, which required him to study in Europe before assuming his teaching position at the college. He studied successfully in Germany, France, Spain and Italy and then took up his duties at Bowdoin only to transfer to a similar teaching position at Harvard a few years later. He taught at Harvard until 1854, when he retired to pursue his literary career full time.
Longfellow began to publish poetry while still teaching, and the popularity of his poetry in the ensuing decades eventually earned him national and international acclaim. He was granted honorary degrees from both Oxford and Cambridge in England. The genesis of his national reputation is found in the publication of what would become his most popular poem, Evangeline (1847). The concept of the poem germinated in Longfellow's mind after hearing a tale of lost love in Acadia (a region that included Nova Scotia, Canada, inhabited by settlers of French descent) from his friend Hawthorne.
Longfellow wrote Evangeline in dactylic hexameter, a poetic style used by Homer in his Iliad and Virgil in his Aeneid, and one that thus invoked the great classical epic. The poem tells the story of Evangeline, a girl exiled from her Acadian home, who spends her life searching for her lost love, Gabriel. It is a poem ultimately about a love that can never be realized, and thus it becomes a meditation on a range of themes, including: sacrifice, longing, ethnicity, hope, religious and romantic devotion and the nature of true happiness.
Because of recent concerns about the replication of published results in the behavioral and biomedical sciences (Ioannidis, PLoS Medicine, Vol. 2, 2005, p. e124; Open Science Collaboration, Science, Vol. 349, 2015, p. 943; Pashler & Wagenmakers, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 7, 2012, pp. 528–530), we have conducted a replication of our recently published analyses of longitudinal reading performance and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder data from twin pairs selected for reading difficulties (Wadsworth et al., Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 755–761). Results obtained from univariate and bivariate (DeFries & Fulker, Behavior Genetics, Vol. 15, 1985, pp. 467–473; Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research, Vol. 37, 1988, pp. 205–216) analyses of data from a subset of twin pairs tested in the International Longitudinal Twin Study of Early Reading Development at post-4th grade, and its continuation into high school at post-9th grade, were compared to those from our previous report. Similar measures of reading performance, the same measures of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and similar selection criteria were used in the two studies. In general, the patterns of results obtained from these two independent studies were highly similar. Thus, these results clearly illustrate the principle that findings from studies in quantitative behavioral genetics often replicate (Plomin et al., Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 11, 2016, pp. 3–23).