To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this article, we explore the role of the early 20th-century Armenian genocide and the unresolved Karabakh conflict of the 1990s in identity shaping among the new generation of Armenian diaspora—those who grew up after the establishment of the independent Armenian state in 1991. We draw on original interviews with diasporic youth in France, the United Kingdom, and Russia—diasporas that were largely built in the aftermath of the genocide and the Karabakh war. Diaspora youth relate to these events through transmitted collective memories, but also reconnect with the distant homeland’s past and present in new ways as they engage with new possibilities of transnational digital communication and mobility. Their experiences of identity shed light on how the new generation of diasporic Armenians defines itself in relation to the past; how this past is (re)made present in their interpretations of the Karabakh conflict and in everyday behaviors; and how diasporic youth experience the dilemmas of “moving on” from traumatic narratives that for a long time have been seen as foundational to their identity.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis in humans, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD). Imidazole compounds are used for the treatment of trichomoniasis, and metronidazole is the most commonly prescribed. However, these compounds can lead to parasite resistance and unwanted side effects. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative treatment for this disease. Here, we explored the potential of clotrimazole (CTZ) and zinc compounds, as well as CTZ complexed with zinc salts ( acetate [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] and  a chloride [Zn(CTZ)2Cl2] complexes) against T. vaginalis. We synthesized the zinc complexed CTZ compounds and determined their concentration values that inhibited parasite growth by 50% (IC50). We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to visualize the ultrastructural alterations induced by CTZ and their zinc complexes. The incubation of the parasites with [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] complex inhibited their growth, yielding an IC50 of 4.9 µm. Moreover, there were changes in the shape of treated parasites, including the formation of surface projections that subsequently detached from the cell, in addition to changes in the hydrogenosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. We found [Zn(CTZ)2(Ac)2] to be a highly effective compound against T. vaginalis in vitro, suggesting its potential utility as an alternative chemotherapy for trichomoniasis.
In this article Steve Wilmer discusses adaptations of Greek tragedy that highlight the plight of the displaced and the dispossessed, including Janusz Glowacki's Antigone in New York, Marina Carr's Hecuba, and Elfriede Jelinek's Die Schutzbefohlenen, which is notably emblematic among appropriations of ancient Greek plays in referencing the problems facing refugees in Europe. He considers how this latter play has been directed in a variety of ways in Germany and Austria since 2013, and how in turn it has been reappropriated for new dramatic performances to further investigate the conditions of refugees. Some of these productions have caused political controversy and one of them has even been physically attacked by a right-wing group. Steve Wilmer is Professor Emeritus of Drama at Trinity College Dublin. He is the co-editor of ‘Theatre and Statelessness in Europe’ for Critical Stages (2016), Resisting Biopolitics: Philosophical, Political, and Performative Strategies (Routledge, 2016), and Deleuze and Beckett (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). He also edited a special issue of Nordic Theatre Studies in 2015 titled ‘Theatre and the Nomadic Subject’.
In this article Stephen Wilmer applies Deleuze and Guattari's concept of nomadology to the Fluxus art movement that spread across the world, breaking down barriers between art and life, privileging concrete and conceptual art, and staging unusual events. He traces Rosi Braidotti's development of Deleuze and Guattari's concept into her notion of the nomadic subject in which she favours factors such as geographic movement, transnational identities, common space (in accord with the Deleuzian differentiation between the divisible earth or private property, and nomadic space which belongs to everyone), polylingualism, desubjectivation, becoming minoritarian, and thinking and acting differently. With this as a philosophical and political context, the author investigates some of the artistic practices of specific Fluxus practitioners, especially the shamanistic performances and fat and felt installations of Joseph Beuys that supposedly owed their inspiration to his experience with nomadic Tatars. Stephen Wilmer is Professor Emeritus of Drama at Trinity College Dublin. He co-edited (with Audronė Žukauskaitė) Resisting Biopolitics: Philosophical, Political, and Performative Strategies (Routledge, 2016) and Deleuze and Beckett (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). He edited ‘Theatre and the Nomadic Subject’ for Nordic Theatre Studies (2015), and co-edited (with Azadeh Sharifi) ‘Theatre and Statelessness in Europe’ for Critical Stages (2016).
Native Americans have been structurally excluded from the discipline of political science in the continental United States, as has Native epistemology and political issues. I analyze the reasons for these erasures and elisions, noting the combined effects of rejecting Native scholars, political issues, analysis, and texts. I describe how these arise from presumptions inherent to the disciplinary practices of U.S. political science, and suggest a set of alternative formulations that could expand our understanding of politics, including attention to other forms of law, constitutions, relationships to the environment, sovereignty, collective decision-making, U.S. history, and majoritarianism.
We studied physiological traits of 12 Criollo cocoa cultivars growing in a germplasm bank in the southern region of Maracaibo Lake Basin, during the rainy (RS) and dry seasons (DS) of 2007. A further evaluation of photosynthetic responses to changes in environmental parameters was done on three cultivars: Los Caños 001 (LCA001), Sur Porcelana 010 (SP010) and Escalante 001 (ESC001) in 2009 and 2010. Leaf water potential (ΨL) of most cultivars decreased during the DS of 2007, with the exception of ESC001. Maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance and water use efficiency varied among cultivars and seasons. The CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate (ACO2sat) was higher in LCA001 and ESC001 than in SP010, with no differences in carboxylation efficiency. Light curve responses of the three cultivars were similar. In all cultivars, no evidence of chronic photoinhibition was observed, since maximum quantum yield of photosystem II was high (0.77–0.81). We conclude that ESC001 has the best physiological performance (ΨL remained unchanged, highest Amax, ACO2sat and photochemical activity), and it seems to be a promising cultivar for cocoa agroforestry systems in the southern region of Maracaibo.
We have studied the dependence of the absorption edge and the refractive index of wurtzite AlxGa1−xN films on composition using transmission, ellipsometry and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The Al molar fraction of the AlxGa1−xN films grown by plasma-induced molecular beam epitaxy was varied through the entire range of composition (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). We determined the absorption edges of AlxGa1−xN films and a bowing parameter of 1.3 ± 0.2 eV. The refractive index below the bandgap was deduced from the interference fringes, the dielectric function between 2.5 and 25 eV from ellipsometry measurements. The measured absorption coefficients and refractive indices were used to calculate the design and reflectivity of AlGaN-based Bragg reflectors working in the blue and near-ultraviolet spectral region.
In the last of the five volumes of Modern Painters, published in 1860, 17 years after the project began, John Ruskin proclaims what he calls ‘the Law of Help’. He has been talking about composition in painting — about the way the individual parts of a picture contribute to the whole — and he then goes on to affirm such collaboration as the ruling principle of nature itself:
[I]n a plant, the taking away of any one part […] injure[s] the rest. Hurt or remove any portion of the sap, bark, or pith, the rest is injured. If any part enters into a state in which it no more assists the rest, and has thus become ‘helpless’, we call it ‘dead’.
The power which causes the several portions of the plant to help each other, we call life. Much more is this so in an animal. (7:205)
And of course (he goes on) still more so in humans. He goes so far as to retranslate the old Anglo-Saxon word ‘holy’ as ‘helpful’, so that God becomes ‘the Helpful One’ (7:206). This discussion completed, he then announces his ‘Law’:
A pure or holy state of anything, therefore, is that in which all its parts are helpful or consistent. They may or may not be homogeneous. The highest or organic purities are composed of many elements in an entirely helpful way. The highest and first law of the universe — and the other name of life is, therefore, ‘help’.
Community-onset methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) became a prominent cause of infection in North America in 2003, with a peak in the epidemic noted by multiple groups in the USA between 2005 and 2007. We reviewed rates of MRSA in two hospitals in Vancouver, Canada, to observe changes in epidemiology from 2003 to 2011. Episodes of emergency department (ED) MRSA bacteraemia and wounds were extracted from the laboratory database, with rates calculated per 10 000 ED visits. All cases were assumed to be community onset, as they were diagnosed in the ED. A peak in ED MRSA bacteraemias occurred in 2005, at 7·8/10 000 ED visits. By 2011, rates of ED bacteraemia declined significantly to 3·3/10 000 ED visits (P⩽0·03). MRSA wound rates peaked at 82·2 cases/10 000 ED visits in 2007 with a subsequent significant decline to 34·3 cases in 2011 (P = 0·04). We have demonstrated a significant decline in CO-MRSA within our population, consistent with reports from the USA, suggesting a substantial change in the epidemiology of CO-MRSA in certain North American cities.
To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multi-dimensional hand hygiene approach in 19 limited-resource countries and to analyze predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance.
An observational, prospective, cohort, interventional, before-and-after study from April 1999 through December 2011. The study was divided into 2 periods: a 3-month baseline period and a 7-year follow-up period.
Ninety-nine intensive care unit (ICU) members of the INICC in Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Greece, India, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Turkey.
Healthcare workers at 99 ICU members of the INICC.
A multidimensional hand hygiene approach was used, including (1) administrative support, (2) supplies availability, (3) education and training, (4) reminders in the workplace, (5) process surveillance, and (6) performance feedback. Observations were made for hand hygiene compliance in each ICU, during randomly selected 30-minute periods.
A total of 149,727 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 48.3% to 71.4% (P < .01). Univariate analysis indicated that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance, including males versus females (63% vs 70%; P<.001), physicians versus nurses (62% vs 72%; P<.001), and adult versus neonatal ICUs (67% vs 81%; P<.001), among others.
Adherence to hand hygiene increased by 48% with the INICC approach. Specific programs directed to improve hand hygiene for variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance should be implemented.
Books on European theatre and world theatre have generally ignored Finnish theatre and Finnish theatre history. There are no world-famous dramatists or theatre directors as in other northern European countries, such as Henrik Ibsen in Norway, August Strindberg and Ingmar Bergman in Sweden, or Jerzy Grotowski and Tadeusz Kantor in Poland. Nevertheless, the theatre infrastructure is as impressive and the theatre audience as engaged as in any country in Europe. Is Finnish theatre then only for the Finns? What is the relevance of Finnish theatre and Finnish theatre history for an international audience today? While Finnish theatre is isolated by its language and its location and idiosyncratic in many of its features, it is representative of many European systems that emerged in the nationalist movements of the nineteenth century. Many parallels can be drawn between the development of Finnish theatre and, for example, Hungarian, Norwegian, Czech, and Irish theatre. As in other emerging nations in Europe in the late nineteenth century, the Finnish theatre became a force for cultural nationalism, using the local language, folk poetry and mythology to stress the distinctiveness of the nation and ultimately its right to political independence. Like Czechs and Norwegians, for example, Finnish cultural nationalists built an impressive National Theatre in a prominent location in their capital city as a focal point for Romantic nationalist cultural expression in advance of becoming a nation-state.
Situated between Sweden and Russia and subject successively to the rule of both countries, Finland emerged as an independent country after the Russian Revolution in 1917. For much of the twentieth century, Finland occupied a strategic position between eastern and western Europe. During the Cold War, it acted as a border state, associated more with the West while maintaining political and military neutrality in the shadow of the Soviet Union. Even today Finland continues to occupy a frontier position as the most eastern state of the European Union. Although the Cold War has ended, the Russian government continues to flex its muscles and intimidate neighbours, such as Ukraine, Georgia and Estonia. Remembering the attempts by the Soviet Union to invade it during the Second World War, the Finnish population looks to the European Union for support but holds on to a semblance of neutrality by not joining NATO.
Understanding how species cope with ecological and environmental variation is a fundamental concern of ecology. Over the course of their lives, many organisms alter their phenotypes in response to biotic and abiotic pressures (Miner et al. 2005), responses that cascade through the food web to, in turn, affect the dynamics of species interactions. These effects, called trait-mediated effects, are pervasive in ecological communities, and their study has offered new insights into community ecology, a subject previously dominated by a density-mediated understanding of species interactions (Werner and Peacor 2003). Most analyses of trait-mediated effects take a top-down perspective where variation in consumer traits causes phenotypic responses by prey species. These phenotypic responses include behavioural, morphological and/or physiological plasticity that have ramifying consequences for the food web by influencing how predators and prey interact (Werner and Peacor 2003). This top-down perspective on the influence of traits in communities suggests that it is consumers that determine the nature and strength of the mediated effects.
Climate change is an ongoing global perturbation that also affects the densities and traits of interacting species, although these effects are not necessarily related to food web trade-offs. Cohesive shifts in phenology – the timing of periodic biological events, such as migration, flowering or mating – reveal the global scale of climate change’s influence on species’ traits (Parmesan and Yohe 2003; Root et al. 2003). These phenological changes affect conditions that influence the relative fitness contributions of life-history traits, traits such as age-structured growth, reproductive timing or developmental rates. For some species, these traits are plastic to fitness trade-offs created by phenological shifts. In this way, climate change can affect the expression of traits that have an overwhelming influence on species interactions. Unlike the top-down influence of consumers, this non-trophic forcing can affect food webs via bottom-up processes. Phenology not only affects the nature and timing of species interactions, but also influences the very likelihood that two species will interact at all. In this manner, it can conflate or confound prey trait responses to immediate food web trade-offs, like those mediated by predators. Climate-driven phenological variability provides new context for understanding the interaction between trophic and non-trophic traits and how this influences overall food web dynamics.
Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent (‘phoria’) and manifest (‘tropia’) strabismus using cover–uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50–0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and unravel their mechanisms of action.
The southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) holds a particular type of neotropical savanna characterized by the local occurrence of morichales (Mauritia palm swamps), in a climate apparently more suitable for rain forests. We present a paleoecological analysis of the last millennia of Lake Chonita (4°39′N–61°0′W, 884 m elevation), based on biological and physico-chemical proxies. Savannas dominated the region during the last millennia, but a significant vegetation replacement occurred in recent times. The site was covered by a treeless savanna with nearby rainforests from 3640 to 2180 cal yr BP. Water levels were higher than today until about 2800 cal yr BP. Forests retreated since about 2180 cal yr BP onwards, likely influenced by a higher fire incidence that facilitated a dramatic expansion of morichales. The simultaneous appearance of charcoal particles and Mauritia pollen around 2000 cal yr BP supports the potential pyrophilous nature of this palm and the importance of fire for its recent expansion. The whole picture suggests human settlements similar to today – in which fire is an essential element – since around 2000 yr ago. Therefore, present-day southern Gran Sabana landscapes seem to have been the result of the synergy between biogeographical, climatic and anthropogenic factors, mostly fire.