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We identify the significance and typical requirements of developmental analyses of the microbiome-gut-brain (MGB) in parents, offspring, and parent-offspring relations, which have particular importance for neurobehavioral outcomes in mammalian species, including humans. We call for a focus on behavioral measures of social-emotional function. Methodological approaches to interpreting relations between the microbiota and behavior are discussed.
Although palliative care is critical to managing symptoms, pain, and transitions to end-of-life care among those facing serious or chronic illness, it is often underused, which may be due to stigma associated with palliative care representing giving up fighting one's illness. The goal of the present studies was to test the theoretical framework of stigma within the context of palliative care to inform future work on intervention development that addresses potential barriers to palliative care utilization.
In study 1, participants (n = 152) had an oncologist describe two treatment options to a terminally ill cancer patient: (1) palliative care and (2) chemotherapy. Participants were then randomly assigned to read that the patient chose palliative care or chemotherapy. In study 2, these stereotypes about those receiving palliative care were examined as a potential mediator between perceived palliative care stigma and prospective palliative care use. Participants (n = 199) completed self-report measures of palliative care stigma, negative stereotypes about palliative care users, and prospective use of palliative care. Mediation analysis tested the mediational effects of stereotypes on the relationship between palliative care stigma and prospective usage of palliative care.
In study 1, those in the palliative care condition endorsed significantly higher levels of negative stereotypes about the patient, viewed the decision more negatively, and saw the patient as less afraid of death. In study 2, palliative care stigma was associated with less prospective usage of palliative care for self and for one's family member. This relationship was mediated by negative stereotypes about individuals receiving palliative care.
Significance of results
Results suggest that palliative care stigma exists (study 1) and that this stigma may be a barrier to the utilization of palliative care (study 2). Future research should examine stigma reduction as a potential intervention target to improve palliative care utilization.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Since Schleiermacher there has been little agreement as to the authenticity of the Alcibiades Major. Taylor, for example, doubts that Plato wrote the dialogue because of its language, its colorless portrayal of Alcibiades, and the textbook character of its substantive elements, and an impressive list of scholars seem to agree, although perhaps for different reasons. While fewer individuals—especially Friedlander and Vink—accept the dialogue as genuine, they at least have the ancient weight of Olympiodorus, Proclus, and Plutarch behind them. Perhaps the most interesting view to be presented in recent years is that of Clark who, in a heroic effort at compromise, ascribes the first two thirds of the dialogue to a student of Plato and the final part to Plato himself. Presumably the bulk of the dialogue is ascribed to a non-Platonic source since the majority of commentators question its authenticity, but I find Clark's position unconvincing, especially when she suggests that it was Plato's “usual affection for his pupils and associates” that prompted him to finish the work when the student died.
A study of the geomorphology of the Prince Charles Mountains using colour vertical air photographs shows well–preserved old moraines throughout much of the outcrop area. Along Fisher Glacier, lower Lambert Glacier and the Amery Ice Shelf, within the altitude range 50–2 000 m, the old moraines show that the ice level had risen 150–200 m above the present level at least three times. Old moraines elsewhere show that none of the other glaciers had risen significantly in their upper parts; the rise of their lower parts was caused by the rise of lower Lambert Glacier and the Amery Ice Shelf. The changes in ice level are unlikely to be due to climatic change because this would not repeatedly affect only one glacier draining central Antarctica. It is thought that the changes in ice level are caused by repeated surges of Fisher Glacier.
Detailed quantitative data has previously been collected from plant megafossil assemblages from a Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) plant bed from Hasty Bank, North Yorkshire, UK. We conducted a similar analysis of palynological dispersed sporomorph (spore and pollen) assemblages collected from the same section using the same sampling regime: 67 sporomorph taxa were recorded from 50 samples taken at 10 cm intervals through the plant bed. Basic palynofacies analysis was also undertaken on each sample. Both dispersed sporomorph and plant megafossil assemblages display consistent changes in composition, diversity (richness), and abundance through time. However, the dispersed sporomorph and plant megafossil records provide conflicting evidence for the nature of parent vegetation. Specifically, conifers and ferns are underrepresented in plant megafossil assemblages, bryophytes and lycopsids are represented only in sporomorph assemblages, and sphenophytes, pteridosperms, Caytoniales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales and Bennettitales are comparatively underrepresented in sporomorph assemblages. Combined multivariate analysis (correspondence analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling) of sporomorph occurrence/abundance data demonstrates that temporal variation in sporomorph assemblages is the result of depositional change through the plant bed. The reproductive strategies of parent plants are considered to be a principal factor in shaping many of the major abundance and diversity irregularities between dispersed sporomorph and plant megafossil data sets that seemingly reflects different parent vegetation. Preferential occurrence/preservation of sporomorphs and equivalent parent plants is a consequence of a complex array of biological, ecological, geographical, taphonomic, and depositional factors that act inconsistently between and within fossil assemblages, which results in notable discrepancies between data sets.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, with no history of international travel in the previous 14 days. Epidemiological, environmental, and traceback investigations were conducted. Of the 631 cases reported in the multistate outbreaks, Texas reported the greatest number of cases, 270 (43%). More than 70 clusters were identified in Texas, four of which were further investigated. One restaurant-associated cluster of 25 case-patients was selected for a case-control study. Consumption of cilantro was most strongly associated with illness on meal date-matched analysis (matched odds ratio 19·8, 95% confidence interval 4·0–∞). All case-patients in the other three clusters investigated also ate cilantro. Traceback investigations converged on three suppliers in Puebla, Mexico. Cilantro was the vehicle of infection in the four clusters investigated; the temporal association of these clusters with the large overall increase in cyclosporiasis cases in Texas suggests cilantro was the vehicle of infection for many other cases. However, the paucity of epidemiological and traceback information does not allow for a conclusive determination; moreover, molecular epidemiological tools for cyclosporiasis that could provide more definitive linkage between case clusters are needed.
In this essay, I argue that absent special circumstances, there are no moral, judicial procedural rights. I divide this essay into four main sections. First, I argue that there is no general moral right against double jeopardy. Next, I explain why punishing a criminal without first establishing her guilt via a fair trial does not necessarily violate her rights. In the third section, I respond to a number of possible objections. And finally, I consider the implications of my arguments for the human right to due process.
Assemblages of well-preserved dispersed spores have been recovered from the ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ deposits of the Berriedale Outlier in the Northern Highlands of Scotland. They belong to the annulatus–sextantii Spore Assemblage Biozone (AS SAB), in the spore zonation of Richardson & McGregor (1986), indicating an Early Devonian Emsian (but not earliest Emsian or latest Emsian) age. Comparison with the spore zonation of Streel et al. (1987) suggests they may be confined to the annulatus–bellatulus Oppel Zone (AB OZ), further constraining the age to early Emsian. This new biostratigraphical datum provides an age constraint for the onset of ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ sedimentation in the Orcadian Basin and, in particular, northwest of the Great Glen Fault System on the Northern Highlands. In the Orcadian Basin, there is a gap between ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ and ‘Middle Old Red Sandstone’ sedimentation, represented by either unconformity or disconformity, which appears to be variable in duration. In the Berriedale Outlier, it is estimated to represent up to 16 million years, but with an unknown thickness of ‘Lower Old Red Sandstone’ sequence removed at the unconformity. However, this basin-wide unconformity/disconformity is likely due to minor, local rather than large-scale, regional tectonism, and the evidence suggests little, if any, syn-depositional strike-slip movement along the Great Glen Fault System during Devonian ‘Old Red Sandstone’ deposition. The described spore assemblage is the most diverse AS SAB/AB OZ assemblage described from the British Isles. However, compared to contemporary spore assemblages from elsewhere on the Old Red Sandstone continent, the Scottish material is rather depauperate, with certain key taxa absent. This probably reflects subtle ecological effects, with the Scottish material representing restricted floras of the inland intermontaine basins.
No political theorist of the twentieth century has been more celebrated than John Rawls, and none has been more frequently misinterpreted. A Theory of Justice (TJ) was routinely misunderstood because readers were unprepared for the breathtakingly original types of arguments therein. Political Liberalism (PL) was systematically misjudged because many of us did not understand that it was concerned principally with legitimacy rather than justice. In this essay, I suggest that many commentators may have also misinterpreted John Rawls's project in The Law of Peoples (LP). In particular, I raise the possibility that many of the standard criticisms of this work miss their mark by presuming that Rawls sought to offer a comprehensive theory of global justice, when he meant more minimally to respond to a specific, practical problem: “How can we eliminate the great evils of human history?”
I divide this essay into three sections. First, I offer a very brief summary of The Law of Peoples. In the second section, I survey a number of criticisms that have been raised against Rawls's arguments and the conclusions he draws from them. Finally, I suggest an alternative interpretation of LP, one that both squares with Rawls's own description of his project and enables the rebuttal of the standard objections to this work.
High-quality evidence on morale in the mental health workforce is
To describe staff well-being and satisfaction in a multicentre UK
National Health Service (NHS) sample and explore associated factors.
A questionnaire-based survey (n = 2258) was conducted in
100 wards and 36 community teams in England. Measures included a set of
frequently used indicators of staff morale, and measures of perceived job
characteristics based on Karasek's demand–control–support model.
Staff well-being and job satisfaction were fairly good on most
indicators, but emotional exhaustion was high among acute general ward
and community mental health team (CMHT) staff and among social workers.
Most morale indicators were moderately but significantly intercorrelated.
Principal components analysis yielded two components, one appearing to
reflect emotional strain, the other positive engagement with work. In
multilevel regression analyses factors associated with greater emotional
strain included working in a CMHT or psychiatric intensive care unit
(PICU), high job demands, low autonomy, limited support from managers and
colleagues, age under 45 years and junior grade. Greater positive
engagement was associated with high job demands, autonomy and support
from managers and colleagues, Black or Asian ethnic group, being a
psychiatrist or service manager and shorter length of service.
Potential foci for interventions to increase morale include CMHTs, PICUs
and general acute wards. The explanatory value of the
demand–support–control model was confirmed, but job characteristics did
not fully explain differences in morale indicators across service types
A sporomorph assemblage recovered from the Sandy's Creek Beds, which constitute a diminutive fault bounded inlier on the west coast of the Midland Valley of Scotland, is described. Four species of trilete spore and the genus Fustisispora, a monospecific cryptospore genus, are proposed as new. The sporomorph assemblage is attributed an early Devonian, late–early to early–late Lochkovian age, and is interpreted as accumulating in a continental environment. The Sandy's Creek Beds are correlated herein with the upper part of the Arbuthnott Group which crops out in the north-east of the Midland Valley. Comparison with other sporomorph assemblages of similar age indicates that minor regional variation exists. It is suggested that this is related to small-scale regional variation in the composition of vegetation.
Practitioners increasingly use the enterprise multiple (EM) as a valuation measure. EM is (equity value + debt + preferred stock – cash) / (EBITDA). We document that EM is a strong determinant of stock returns. Following Fama and French (1993) and Chen, Novy-Marx, and Zhang (2010), we create an EM factor that generates a return premium of 5.28% per year. We interpret EM as a proxy for the discount rate. Firms with low EM values appear to have higher discount rates and higher subsequent stock returns than firms with high EM values.
We report a global morphological transition in the nucleation and growth of epitaxial Rh (111). The transition occurs near 600 K, about 1/4 of the Rh melting temperature, and is signaled by a change in the shape of the surface features from fingered to compact. The transition appears to be related to a change in the critical nucleation size from 1 to 2 atoms. On both sides of the transition, there lies a regime of persistent layer-by-layer growth indicated by a minimum in surface roughness and by the presence of RHEED oscillations. The general surface features exhibit well defined length scales that are not self-affine, and as growth proceeds they increase in size following a power-law dependence on film thickness with a temperature-independent exponent of 0.33 ± 0.03. The results suggest a general pathway to the layer-by-layer growth of close-packed metals.
We have studied smoothing kinetics of Rh (111) surfaces during low temperature annealing using in-situ real-time reflection high energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. The initial surface features were produced by low temperature homoepitaxial growth of Rh (111). Two types of surfaces were studied, surfaces with two-dimensional (2D) islands at submonolayer coverages, and those with 3D multilayered features. 2D islands coarsen rapidly at the onset of the anneal. 3D features are more stable initially. Their annealing process exhibits a distinct transition from an initial slow coarsening, characterized by a nearly linear growth of lateral size, to a rapid flattening. The activation energy for the transition is ˜ 0.6 eV. The observed behavior indicates that the smoothing kinetics in the low temperature regime is limited by adatom detachment from the step-edges, and that the fast process for the 3D features is made possible by the formation of a network of “chain-like” structures which provide new pathways for diffusion thus overcoming the slow detachment kinetics. These effects determine the low temperature stability of the non-equilibrium epitaxial morphologies.
Secretory proteins of Chironomus tentans larvae form insoluble fibers that are spun into threads used to construct underwater feeding and pupation tubes. The physical properties of spun fibers should reflect their protein constituents.
The disassembly and reassembly of secretory protein complexes in vitro were studied by solution turbidity, electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Secretory proteins were able to reform complexes with a similar morphology and dichroic spectrum to that of native complexes. These complexes are stabilized by electrostatic and disulfide bonds.
cDNA and genomic cloning indicate that spIs, the 1000-kDa secretory proteins, primarily consist of alternating “constant” and “subrepeat” regions. We synthesized and purified synthetic peptides for each region and used circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopy to measure their secondary structure. Constant peptide consists of α-helix and β-turn. Subrepeat peptide consists of poly(Gly) II-type helix and β-turn.
We conclude that spIs form the fibrous backbone of a novel biopolymer with alternating α-helices and poly(Gly)II helices punctuated by β-turns. Such fibers may have unique physical properties.