A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia. A total of 330 questionnaire surveys were collected from 44 peasant associations (PA) distributed in 15 districts. Across agro-climate zones, herd-level LSD prevalence in the midland agro-climate was significantly higher 55·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47·5–62·6] than in highland and lowland agro-climate zones. Overall observed LSD prevalence at animal-level was 8·1% (95% CI 7·3–8·9) and observed mortality was 2·12% (95% CI 1·73–2·6). The odds ratio (OR) of LSD occurrence in midland vs. highland and lowland vs. highland zones was 3·86 (95% CI 2·61–5·11) and 4·85 (95% CI 2·59–7·1), respectively. Significantly high risk of LSD occurrence was associated with communal grazing and watering management (OR 4·1, 95% CI 2·02–6·18) and introduction of new cattle (OR 8·5, 95% CI 6·0–11·0). Our findings describe the distribution of LSD in different agro-climates in Ethiopia along with associated risk factors, and can help shed light on the epidemiology of LSD in other African countries suffering from the disease.