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Uncertain future risks pose cognitive and analytical challenges to household decision makers. Risks with uncertain probabilities, coupled with potentially severe outcomes pose problems for decision-making and are prone to overreactions. Imprecision in risk estimates generates behavioral distortions such as ambiguity aversion. This article presents new empirical results indicating household overvaluations of uncertain threats posed by several drinking water risks: traces of prescription drugs in drinking water, plastic water bottles with bisphenol-A, and the weed killer atrazine in drinking water. Negative reactions reflect responses to ambiguous risks, but policies driven by these concerns may misallocate regulatory resources due to risk conservatism and “no-regrets” responses.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
This article explores cartographic methods during the ninth and tenth century of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate, with a focus on the deformation of Sub-Saharan Africa in world maps produced during the early era. It reviews the preceding influences that factored into how ‘Abbasid cartographers understood and mapped out unknown regions alongside pieces of the folkloric fear that accompanied the idea of al-Wāq-Wāq, that is the uncharted and unknown areas of inland Africa south of the Sahara. By reviewing the methods and techniques of map making alongside information that circulated about al-Wāq-Wāq, this article offers a contribution to knowledge about cartographic practices during the ‘Abbassid era and reviews the work of prominent geographers alongside the deformations in their maps and social assumptions they carried about what and who rested within the interiors of Africa.
The Magellanic Clouds are nearby dwarf irregular galaxies that represent a unique laboratory for studying galaxy interactions. Their morphology and dynamics have been heavily influenced by their mutual interactions as well as with their interaction(s) with the Milky Way. We use the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) in combination with stellar partial models of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Milky Way to investigate the spatial distribution of stellar populations of different ages across the Magellanic Clouds. In this contribution, we present the results of these studies that allow us to trace substructures possibly related to the interaction history of the Magellanic Clouds.
Concentrate inclusion levels in dairy cow diets are often adjusted so that the milk yield responses remain economic. While changes in concentrate level on performance is well known, their impact on other biological parameters, including immune function, is less well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrate inclusion level in a grass silage-based mixed ration on immune function. Following calving 63 (45 multiparous and 18 primiparous) Holstein Friesian dairy cows were allocated to one of three isonitrogenous diets for the first 70 days of lactation. Diets comprised of a mixture of concentrates and grass silage, with concentrates comprising either a low (30%, LC), medium (50%, MC) or high (70%, HC) proportion of the diet on a dry matter (DM) basis. Daily DM intakes, milk yields and BW were recorded, along with weekly body condition score, milk composition and vaginal mucus scores. Blood biochemistry was measured using a chemistry analyzer, neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst assessed using commercial kits and flow cytometry, and interferon-γ production evaluated by ELISA after whole blood stimulation. Over the study period cows on HC had a higher total DM intake, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat+protein yield, protein content, mean BW and mean daily energy balance, and a lower BW loss than cows on MC, whose respective values were higher than cows on LC. Cows on HC and MC had a lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration than cows on LC (0.37, 0.37 and 0.50 mmol/l, respectively, P=0.005, SED=0.032), while cows on HC had a lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration than cows on MC and LC (0.42, 0.55 and 0.55 mmol/l, respectively, P=0.002, SED=0.03). Concentrate inclusion level had no effect on vaginal mucus scores. At week 3 postpartum, cows on HC tended to have a higher percentage of oxidative burst positive neutrophils than cows on LC (43.2% and 35.3%, respectively, P=0.078, SED=3.11), although at all other times concentrate inclusion level in the total mixed ration had no effect on neutrophil phagocytic or oxidative burst characteristics, or on interferon-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture. This study demonstrates that for high yielding Holstein Friesian cows managed on a grass silage-based diet, concentrate inclusion levels in early lactation affects performance but has no effect on neutrophil or lymphocyte immune parameters.
Up-converting thermographic phosphors are of significant interest due to specific advantages for temperature measurement applications over traditional contact-based methods. Typically, infrared excitation stimulates visible fluorescence only from the target phosphor and not the surrounding medium. This is in contrast to ultraviolet excitation which may also produce interfering luminescence from cells and other biological tissue in the vicinity, for instance. When traversing a material, usually infrared losses due to scattering and absorption are less than for ultraviolet wavelengths. An example is human skin. This investigation follows logically from earlier efforts incorporating thermographic phosphors into elastomers and aerogels and their function as a reusable temperature sensor has been previously demonstrated by the authors. Layered phosphor/PDMS/aerogel composites are also currently under investigation by the authors for heat flux sensing. For maximum utility and understanding; physical, optical and thermal properties are characterized over a wide range of temperatures. Y2O2S:Yb,Er and La2O2S:Yb,Er up-converting phosphor composites with a fixed doping concentration were synthesized for this study and fully characterized as a function of temperature. The excitation/ emission characteristics of the powder alone and the prepared composites were investigated between -50 °C and +200 °C in an environmental chamber and the decay behavior of each sample type was measured. Here, the authors report on decay behavior and emission intensity of the PDMS composites as a function of temperature. Results were compared with powder –only parameters and are reported here.
Social norms are strongly associated with pro-environmental behaviors, but the evolution and dynamic effects of norms are less well understood. This article builds on the distinction of norms being descriptive, characterizing what people actually do, or injunctive, characterizing what people should do. It identifies four categories of norms with the further distinction of whether the norms arise from the personal beliefs and actions or from the behaviors and judgments of others. The analysis uses five years of longitudinal US data that track household recycling and controls for household characteristics as well as differences in state recycling laws. The results extend previous research by showing that personal norms exhibit cascading dynamics in which norms encourage later changes in recycling, while recycling encourages later changes in personal norms. This mutual reinforcement implies that societal actions encouraging change in either personal norms or recycling will support growth in the other. Recognizing this interdependence can assist in the effective utilization of social norms as a behavioral policy instrument.
Highly variable climates induce large variability in the supply of forage for livestock and so farmers must manage their livestock systems to reduce the risk of feed gaps (i.e. periods when livestock feed demand exceeds forage supply). However, mixed crop-livestock farmers can utilise a range of feed sources on their farms to help mitigate these risks. This paper reports on the development and application of a simple whole-farm feed-energy balance calculator which is used to evaluate the frequency and magnitude of feed gaps. The calculator matches long-term simulations of variation in forage and metabolisable energy supply from diverse sources against energy demand for different livestock enterprises. Scenarios of increasing the diversity of forage sources in livestock systems is investigated for six locations selected to span Australia’s crop-livestock zone. We found that systems relying on only one feed source were prone to higher risk of feed gaps, and hence, would often have to reduce stocking rates to mitigate these risks or use supplementary feed. At all sites, by adding more feed sources to the farm feedbase the continuity of supply of both fresh and carry-over forage was improved, reducing the frequency and magnitude of feed deficits. However, there were diminishing returns from making the feedbase more complex, with combinations of two to three feed sources typically achieving the maximum benefits in terms of reducing the risk of feed gaps. Higher stocking rates could be maintained while limiting risk when combinations of other feed sources were introduced into the feedbase. For the same level of risk, a feedbase relying on a diversity of forage sources could support stocking rates 1.4 to 3 times higher than if they were using a single pasture source. This suggests that there is significant capacity to mitigate both risk of feed gaps at the same time as increasing ‘safe’ stocking rates through better integration of feed sources on mixed crop-livestock farms across diverse regions and climates.
High-yielding dairy cows must produce large amounts of milk of a desired quality from a cost-effective diet in order for the farmer to remain in profit. Optimal rumen function and health is a key part of the process of converting nutrients into milk efficiently. Essential oils are steam-volatile or organic-solvent extracts of plants that have been shown to have beneficial effects on human digestion. They are mainly cyclic hydrocarbons and their alcohol, aldehyde or ester derivatives (Wallace, 2004). ‘Crina Ruminants’ is a blend of such essential oil compounds, designed to stimulate rumen activity and boost the population of beneficial microbes, through anti-microbial and digestive stimulant activity. In particular, it is believed to encourage an increase in fibre-fermenting bacteria and to counteract the acidotic rumen conditions that can be caused by feeding high starch diets. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of ‘Crina Ruminants’ on intake and milk production.
As financial pressures on UK beef farms increase, each beef industry stockman will be expected to look after more animals. Consequently, labour availability around calving will be reduced in future years. In order to enable limited human assistance to be targeted towards those cows and calves that need it, a sound understanding of the time course of the natural calving process is needed. The objective of this study was to detail the time dynamics of the major externally visible calving events in unassisted spring calving suckler cows housed in a straw bedded yard, typical of UK practice.
Governments across the globe have begun evolving from lumbering bureaucracies into smaller, more agile special jurisdictions - common-interest developments, special economic zones, and proprietary cites. Private providers increasingly deliver services that political authorities formerly monopolized, inspiring greater competition and efficiency, to the satisfaction of citizens-qua-consumers. These trends suggest that new networks of special jurisdictions will soon surpass nation states in the same way that networked computers replaced mainframes. In this groundbreaking work, Tom W. Bell describes the quiet revolution transforming governments from the bottom up, inside-out, worldwide, and how it will fulfill its potential to bring more freedom, peace, and prosperity to people everywhere.