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This textbook is a complete rewrite, and expansion of Hugh Rollinson's highly successful 1993 book Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation. Rollinson and Pease's new book covers the explosion in geochemical thinking over the past three decades, as new instruments and techniques have come online. It provides a comprehensive overview of how modern geochemical data are used in the understanding of geological and petrological processes. It covers major element, trace element, and radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. It explains the potential of many geochemical techniques, provides examples of their application, and emphasizes how to interpret the resulting data. Additional topics covered include the critical statistical analysis of geochemical data, current geochemical techniques, effective display of geochemical data, and the application of data in problem solving and identifying petrogenetic processes within a geological context. It will be invaluable for all graduate students, researchers, and professionals using geochemical techniques.
Desde hace unos 25 años, en Argentina comenzó el desarrollo de un nuevo campo de investigación arqueológica centrado en los espacios que sucesivamente funcionaron como fronteras interétnicas y/o territorios rurales en la región pampeana, el norte de Patagonia y sus inmediaciones, desde la colonia hasta la consolidación del estado-nación, a fines del siglo diecinueve. Este campo de estudio, en sentido amplio “arqueología de los espacios fronterizos y rurales”, se encuentra consolidado dentro de la arqueología histórica argentina mediante un número creciente de proyectos y el trabajo sistemático de distintos equipos que, desde diferentes perspectivas teórico-metodológicas, han recorrido múltiples caminos. Aquí se efectúa un análisis crítico sobre el desarrollo, el estado actual y las perspectivas de dicha especialidad, centrado en dos ejes: (1) su surgimiento y evolución y (2) el perfil y la inserción de los equipos de investigación. Ambos ejes muestran su gran dinamismo que se refleja en la diversificación sostenida de los temas, espacios y períodos abordados. El análisis pone en diálogo este nuevo campo, uno de los rasgos más destacados de la arqueología argentina en las últimas décadas, tanto con las coyunturas académico-institucionales y los contextos históricos locales como con el ámbito mayor de la arqueología histórica sudamericana.
Alteration of the colonic microbiota following antimicrobial exposure allows colonization by antimicrobial-resistant organisms (AROs). Ingestion of a probiotic, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), could prevent colonization or infection with AROs by promoting healthy colonic microbiota. The purpose of this trial was to determine the effect of LGG administration on ARO colonization in hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics.
Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of LGG versus placebo among patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Tertiary care center.
In total, 88 inpatients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics were enrolled.
Patients were randomized to receive 1 capsule containing 1×1010 cells of LGG twice daily (n = 44) or placebo (n = 44), stratified by ward type. Stool or rectal-swab specimens were collected for culture at enrollment, during admission, and at discharge. Using selective media, specimens were cultured for Clostridioides difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (VRE), and antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria. The primary outcome was any ARO acquisition. Secondary outcomes included loss of any ARO if colonized at enrollment, and acquisition or loss of individual ARO.
ARO colonization prevalence at study enrollment was similar (LGG 39% vs placebo 39%). We detected no difference in any ARO acquisition (LGG 30% vs placebo 33%; OR,1.19; 95% CI, 0.38–3.75) nor for any individual ARO acquisition. There was no difference in the loss of any ARO (LGG 18% vs placebo 24%; OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.27–7.68) nor for any individual ARO.
LGG administration neither prevented acquisition of ARO nor accelerated loss of ARO colonization.
Recent research in American politics demonstrates that despite gender-based partisan sorting, gender gaps in policy preferences persist within political parties—particularly among Republicans. Republican women report significantly more moderate views than their male counterparts across a range of policy areas. These gaps are largely attributable to gender differences in beliefs about the appropriate scope of government and attitudes toward gender-based inequality. Arguably, gender has become a more salient feature of American elections in recent years, and this heightened salience raises questions about whether these within-party gender gaps are stable over time or vary across campaign contexts. We use survey data from the 2012 and 2016 American National Election Study to evaluate whether gender gaps in policy preferences are stable across elections or if the 2016 election context affected the magnitude of gender differences in policy preferences. We find that gender gaps in policy preferences within political parties are fairly stable across the two electoral periods.
While experiences of later-life homelessness are known to vary, classification of shelter, housing and service models that meet the diverse needs of older people with experiences of homelessness (OPEH) are limited. To address this gap, a scoping review was conducted of shelter/housing options, supports and interventions for OPEH. Fourteen databases were searched for English-language peer-reviewed and/or empirical literature published between 1999 and 2019, resulting in the inclusion of 22 sources. Through a collaborative, iterative process of reading, discussing and coding, data extracted from the studies were organised into six models: (1) long-term care, (2) permanent supportive housing (PSH), including PSH delivered through Housing First, (3) supported housing, (4) transitional housing, (5) emergency shelter settings with health and social supports, and (6) case management and outreach. Programme descriptions and OPEH outcomes are described and contribute to our understanding that multiple shelter/housing options are needed to support diverse OPEH. The categorised models are considered alongside existing ‘ageing in place’ research, which largely focuses on older adults who are housed. Through extending discussions of ageing in the ‘right’ place to diverse OPEH, additional considerations are offered. Future research should explore distinct sub-populations of OPEH and how individual-level supports for ageing in place must attend to mezzo- and macro-level systems and policies.
Examine pre-existing learning disorders (LD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) as risk factors for prolonged recovery and increased symptomology following pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children/adolescents (5-17 years) with mTBI who presented to a Children’s Minnesota Concussion Clinic between April 2018 and March 2019. Differences across strata of pre-existing conditions (present vs. absent) in time to recovery measures were estimated via Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses and differences in symptom trajectories were examined via linear mixed-effects regression models. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex and other confounders.
In our cohort of 680 mTBI patients, those with LD (n = 70) or ADHD (n = 107) experienced significantly longer median durations of symptoms (58 and 68 days, respectively) than those without (43 days). Accordingly, LD was significantly associated with delayed symptom recovery (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.16–2.29), return to school (1.47, 1.08–2.00), and return to physical activity (1.50, 1.10–2.04). Likewise, ADHD was associated with delayed recovery (1.69, 1.28–2.23), return to school (1.52, 1.17–1.97) and physical activity (1.55, 1.19–2.01). Further, patients with LD or ADHD reported, on average, significantly more concussion symptoms and higher vision symptom scores throughout recovery versus those without. There was no evidence that concussion or vision symptom recovery trajectories varied over time between those with/without LD or ADHD (joint P-interactions > 0.05).
Pre-existing LD and ADHD are risk factors for prolonged and more symptomatic mTBI recovery in youth. These results can inform clinical concussion management and recovery expectations.
Polysemy, or the property of words having multiple meanings, is a prevalent feature of vocabulary. In this study we validated a new measure of polysemy knowledge for children with English as an additional language (EAL) and a first language (EL1) and examined the relationship between polysemy knowledge and age, language status, and reading comprehension. Participants were 112 British children aged 5 to 6 (n = 61) or 8 to 9 years (n = 51), 37% of whom had EAL (n = 41). Participants completed the new measure of knowledge of polysemes, along with other measures of language, literacy and cognitive ability. The new measure was reliable and valid with EAL and EL1 children. Age and language status predicted children's polyseme knowledge. Polyseme knowledge uniquely contributed to reading comprehension after controlling for age, language status, non-verbal intelligence, time reading in English, and breadth of vocabulary. This research underscores the importance of polysemy for children's linguistic development.
This comparison study of two groups within an inception cohort aimed to compare the frequency of motor impairment between preschool children with univentricular and biventricular critical congenital heart disease (CHD) not diagnosed with cerebral palsy/acquired brain injury, describe and compare their motor profiles and explore predictors of motor impairment in each group.
Children with an intellectual quotient <70 or cerebral palsy/acquired brain injury were excluded. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. Total scores <5th percentile indicated motor impairment. Statistical analysis included χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis.
At a mean age of 55.4 (standard deviation 3.77) months, motor impairment was present in 11.8% of those with biventricular critical CHD, and 32.4% (p < 0.001) of those with univentricular critical CHD. The greatest difference between children with biventricular and univentricular CHD was seen in total test scores 8.73(2.9) versus 6.44(2.8) (p < 0.01) and in balance skills, 8.84 (2.8) versus 6.97 (2.5) (p = 0.001). Manual dexterity mean scores of children with univentricular CHD were significantly below the general population mean (>than one standard deviation). Independent odds ratio for motor impairment in children with biventricular critical CHD was presence of chromosomal abnormality, odds ratio 10.9 (CI 2.13–55.8) (p = 0.004); and in children with univentricular critical CHD odds ratio were: postoperative day 1–5 highest lactate (mmol/L), OR: 1.65 (C1.04–2.62) (p = 0.034), and dialysis requirement any time before the 4.5-year-old assessment, OR: 7.8 (CI 1.08–56.5) (p = 0.042).
Early assessment of motor skills, particularly balance and manual dexterity, allows for intervention and supports that can address challenges during the school years.
Membrane filtration is a vital industrial process, with applications including air purification and blood filtration. In this paper, we study the optimal design for a concertinaed filtration membrane composed of angled porous membranes and dead ends. The geometry of the filter motivates a lubrication scaling for the flow, leading to a system of coupled (modified) Reynolds equations. By analysing this reduced system, we examine how the filter performance depends on the angle, position, thickness and permeance of the membrane, using a combination of numerical and asymptotic approaches, the latter in the limit of a slightly angled membrane. We find that, for a membrane of fixed angle and physical properties, there can exist multiple membrane positions that maximise the flux for an applied pressure difference. More generally, this shows how coupled problems in lubrication flow can exhibit non-trivial bifurcating optima. For the particular application on which we focus, we show that, while the maximal flux achievable depends on the membrane thickness and permeance, the optimal membrane configuration is always in one of two set-ups: centred and diagonal across the full domain; or angled and in the corner of the domain.
Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused mainly by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati and diagnosis in dogs and cats is an important tool for its control. For this reason, a new coprological loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of these species. The primer set was designed on a region of the mitochondrial cox-1 gene. Amplification conditions were evaluated using a temperature gradient (52°C to 68°C), different incubation times (15–120 min), and different concentrations of malachite green dye (0.004–0.4% w/v). The analytical sensitivity was evaluated with serial dilutions of genomic DNA from T. canis and T. cati adult worms, and with serial dilutions of DNA extracted from feces using a low-cost in-house method. The specificity was evaluated using genomic DNA from Canis lupus familiaris, Felis catus, Escherichia coli, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Taenia hydatigena. The LAMP assay applied to environmental fecal samples from an endemic area showed an analytical sensitivity of 10–100 fg of genomic DNA and 10−5 serial dilutions of DNA extracted from feces using the low-cost in-house method; with a specificity of 100%. Additionally, the total development of the assay was carried out in a basic laboratory and per-reaction reagent cost decreased by ~80%. This new, low-cost tool can help identify the most common agents of toxocariasis in endemic areas in order to manage prevention strategies without having to rely on a laboratory with sophisticated equipment.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the UK's primary health care priority-setting body, has traditionally described its decisions as being informed by ‘social value judgements’ about how resources should be allocated across society. This paper traces the intellectual history of this term and suggests that, in NICE's adoption of the idea of the ‘social value judgement’, we are hearing the echoes of welfare economics at a particular stage of its development, when logical positivism provided the basis for thinking about public policy choice. As such, it is argued that the term offers an overly simplistic conceptualisation of NICE's normative approach and contributes to a situation in which NICE finds itself without the necessary language fully and accurately to articulate its basis for decision-making. It is suggested that the notion of practical public reasoning, based on reflection about coherent principles of action, might provide a better characterisation of the enterprise in which NICE is, or hopes to be, engaged.
Children's vocabulary ability at school entry is highly variable and predictive of later language and literacy outcomes. Sleep is potentially useful in understanding and explaining that variability, with sleep patterns being predictive of global trajectories of language acquisition. Here, we looked to replicate and extend these findings. Data from 354 children (without English as an additional language) in the Born in Bradford study were analysed, describing the mean intercepts and linear trends in parent-reported day-time and night-time sleep duration over five time points between 6 and 36 months-of-age. The mean difference between night-time and day-time sleep was predictive of receptive vocabulary at age five, with more night-time sleep relative to day-time sleep predicting better language. An exploratory analysis suggested that socioeconomic status was predictive of vocabulary outcomes, with sleep patterns partially mediating this relationship. We suggest that the consolidation of sleep patterns acts as a driver of early language development.