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Path planning represents planning collision-free strategies to move from starting point to ending point. These strategies can be carried out for known and unknown environments. Recently, a novel and reduced CPU-time modeling and simulation methodology for path planning in known environment based on resistive grids (RGs) has been introduced. In this work, a novel modified version of Resistive Grid Path Planning Methodology (RGPPM) methodology is presented with the purpose of exploring collision-free path planning for robotic arms. This extension of the methodology allows to numerically relate positions in the RG with angular values of the robotic systems. In addition, it is possible to include obstacles in the configuration space, and therefore collision detection can be established for RGs. Finally, the variation of links for robotic arms and obstacles for configuration space is explored by simulating different scenarios.
In recent years, tissue engineering has helped to reduce hospital stays and deaths caused by skin wounds. Scaffolds are one of the main factors that influence the success of any tissue graft. Collagen is one of the main components of the extracellular matrix, and there has been much interest in new sources for application as a biomaterial. In this work, a tissue engineering scaffold was developed using the electrospinning technique. The chicken skin was used as an alternative source to obtain collagen. The combination of this collagen with elastin was successfully electrospun, and a distribution of diameters was obtained, less than 100 nm. In vitro tests showed the adhesion and proliferation of the cells, as well as an absence of cytotoxicity from non–cross-linked scaffolds and scaffolds that were cross-linked with carbonyldiimidazole. The structure and composition of the developed scaffolding provide a favorable environment for cell growth and generating a skin substitute.
In this paper, a robust geometric navigation algorithm, designed on the special Euclidean group SE(3), of a quadrotor is proposed. The equations of motion for the quadrotor are obtained using the Newton–Euler formulation. The geometric navigation considers a guidance frame which is designed to perform autonomous flights with a convergence to the contour of the task with small normal velocity. For this purpose, a super twisting algorithm controls the nonlinear rotational and translational dynamics as a cascade structure in order to establish the fast and yet smooth tracking with the typical robustness of sliding modes. In this sense, the controller provides robustness against parameter uncertainty, disturbances, convergence to the sliding manifold in finite time, and asymptotic convergence of the trajectory tracking. The algorithm validation is presented through experimental results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach and illustrating that the tracking errors converge asymptotically to the origin.
Multiform glioblastoma (MG) represents 70% of all gliomas, with half of patients older than 65 years with median survival of 12–18 months, hypofractionation seeks to reduce the intensity and duration of treatment without impacting on survival rates. The objective was to determine the global survival and recurrence-free survival of adults over 70 years old with MG treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy and standard scheme. The review of patients older than 70 years treated with radiotherapy from 2013 to 2016 was performed.
Twenty-four patients were analysed, with a median follow-up of 239 days, and there is no difference in overall survival 12·3 versus 10·5 months (p = 0·55) and recurrence-free survival 8·3 versus 3·4 months (p = 0·48) between both schemes, conventional versus hypofractioanted, respectively.
The results in this study show that hypofractionated scheme could be comparable in overall survival and recurrence-free survival to conventional fractionation, but a longer patients’ trial should be done.
Dimethylformamide (DMF) has been tested as corrosion inhibitor in a metallic material like API 5LX70 in a corrosive solution of 3% of NaCl and using electrochemical technique as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that 20 ppm is the best concentration to protect the metallic surface of API 5L X70 with η∼ 94%. Hydrodynamic conditions (100 and 1000 rpm) demonstrated that the DMF at different concentration afforded moderate protection against corrosion with inhibition efficiency ∼70%. Finally, the adsorption of this compound follows the Langmuir isotherm with a chemisorption-physisorption process.
Rates and risk factors for suicidal behaviour require updating and comparisons among mood disorders.
To identify factors associated with suicidal risk in major mood disorders.
We considered risk factors before, during and after intake assessments of 3284 adults with/without suicidal acts, overall and with bipolar disorder (BD) versus major depressive disorder (MDD), using bivariate comparisons, multivariable regression modelling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
Suicidal prevalence was greater in BD versus MDD: ideation, 29.2 versus 17.3%; attempts, 18.8 versus 4.78%; suicide, 1.73 versus 0.48%; attempts/suicide ratio indicated similar lethality, 10.9 versus 9.96. Suicidal acts were associated with familial BD or suicide, being divorced/unmarried, fewer children, early abuse/trauma, unemployment, younger onset, longer illness, more dysthymic or cyclothymic temperament, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance misuse, mixed features, hospital admission, percentage time unwell, less antidepressants and more antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Logistic regression found five independent factors: hospital admission, more depression at intake, BD diagnosis, onset age ≤25 years and mixed features. These factors were more associated with suicidal acts in BD than MDD: percentage time depressed/ill, alcohol misuse, >4 pre-intake depressions, more dysthymic/cyclothymic temperament and prior abuse/trauma. ADHD and total years ill were similar in BD and MDD; other factors were more associated with MDD. By ROC analysis, area under the curve was 71.3%, with optimal sensitivity (76%) and specificity (55%) with any two factors.
Suicidal risks were high in mood disorders: ideation was highest with BD type II, attempts and suicides (especially violent) with BD type I. Several risk factors for suicidal acts differed between BD versus MDD patients.
Declaration of interest
No author or immediate family member has financial relationships with commercial entities that might appear to represent potential conflicts of interest with the information presented.
To determine whether (-)-epicatechin (Epi) could decrease visceral adipose tissue and improve the metabolic profile of male offspring rats, after maternal obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
Maternal obesity in albino Wistar rats was induced with a HFD, whereas male offspring were fed with chow diet throughout the study. Eight male offspring per group, from different litters, were randomly assigned to the experimental or to the control groups. In the experimental group, Epi was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight to the male offspring twice daily for two weeks, beginning at postnatal day (PND).
Weight of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte size, and several metabolic parameters.
Epi administration in the male offspring induced a significant decrease in the amount of visceral fat (11.61 g less, P < 0.05) and in the size of adipose cells (28% smaller, P < 0.01). Besides, Epi was able to decrease insulin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), as well as triglycerides, when the experimental group was compared to the untreated male offspring of obese rats (P < 0.01).
Epi administration can reverse the negative effects that maternal obesity has on the male offspring. This could be because Epi reduces the amount of visceral fat and improves metabolic profile.
We use a novel survey experiment with a broadly representative sample to reveal an important phenomenon in voter integration of campaign communications: preference-mediated partisan motivation. When evaluating the credibility of candidate position changes on minimum wage policy (a readily quantifiable and salient issue domain), partisans do not take a new stance at face value, apply universal skepticism, or simply afford more credibility to co-partisans. Instead, they process a candidate’s stance through an interaction between the voter’s partisan allegiance and their own policy preference. Partisans update more when a co-partisan moves closer to them than when the candidate shifts away from them. The opposite pattern emerges with the other party’s candidates: partisans tend to be more receptive if the candidate moves away from them. This feature of campaign message acceptance has profound implications for political communication and our understanding of partisan cognition.
The active leisure, in particular reading, and hours of sleep play an important role in health and body mass index (BMI) in children. The aim of this study is to analyze, by means of path analysis, how these variables interact in influencing children’s weight. Two hundred and ninety-one children took part in the study. Their BMI was calculated and they were interviewed. A path analysis indicates that spending more time on leisure-time reading facilitates the control of BMI in two ways. Firstly, it is associated a greater number of active leisure activities (r = .35 p < .001) and predicts more hours of sleep (β = .13 p < .05), which in turn predicts a lower BMI (β = –.15 p < .001). Furthermore, it has been observed that spending more time reading is associated with less time spent on sedentary leisure activities (r = –.17 p < .001). It would appear that in order to control overweight in children, it is necessary to foster a well-ordered lifestyle. Reading as the last activity of the day can make a significant contribution to this process.
Studies of psychological interventions for the prevention of depression have found significant effects in the short-term, but the long-term efficacy has yet to be determined. This study evaluated the 8-year effect of a randomized controlled trial for indicated prevention of depression in female caregivers.
A total of 173 non-professional female caregivers with subclinical depressive symptoms not meeting criteria for a major depressive episode (MDE) were randomized to either a brief problem-solving intervention (n = 89) or usual-care control group (n = 84). Blinded evaluators conducted an assessment at the 8-year follow-up. The primary outcome was Depression Status, defined by diagnoses of MDE since the 1-year follow-up using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Disorders of the DSM-5. The secondary outcome was current Depressive Symptom Severity. Regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of the intervention on the outcomes.
There were no significant differences in the Depression Status between the problem-solving (30.3%) and control groups (26.2%) (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI −0.58 to 2.69). Depressive Symptom Severity, however, was significantly lower in the problem-solving group compared to the control group at this follow-up, amounting to a small effect size of Cohen's d = 0.39 (adjusted B = −3.32, p = 0.018).
This is the first study to assess such a long-term follow-up of intervention of indicated prevention of depression. Results seem to indicate that the protective effect of the intervention became smaller over time during follow-up. Future research should replicate these results.
Immigration federalism scholarship has established that state and local government policies can make federally defined immigration status more or less consequential. Drawing primarily on focus groups and interviews with 184 undocumented students attending the University of California, we suggest that institutional policies work alongside state and local efforts to mediate the consequences of illegality for undocumented students. We find that the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, state-funded financial aid policies, and university support programs all facilitate the integration of undocumented students by increasing access to higher education and enabling fuller participation. Although federal policies contribute to persistent barriers to academic engagement and professional development, we show that universities can intervene to improve educational experiences and opportunities. Ultimately, we argue that university policies are a key site for intervening in immigration policy and constructing immigrant illegality.
In general Latin America countries function differently in respect to the rest of the world because of their geographic allocations, economic and social situations. The areas of science and technologies are not excluded from this general rule. Thus, the following question arises : How has the area of analytical x-ray analysis techniques developed in Latin America in respect to the developed countries?
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
Se presentan los primeros resultados obtenidos del estudio tecnológico-funcional de un conjunto de 55 cabezales de hachas o azuelas líticas asignadas al período prehispánico tardío (1500–360 años aP) de las Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina. A partir del análisis de sus atributos tecnológicos (peso, agudeza y largo de los filos, etc.) y de los rastros de uso utilizando aumentos de 20–50x, se argumenta que un número significativo de instrumentos fue utilizado para realizar tareas que involucraron el contacto con sedimentos abrasivos, probablemente para cortar y arrancar elementos leñosos del sotobosque a nivel del suelo. Una proporción del conjunto evidenció rastros de uso exclusivamente asociados al trabajo sobre maderas, como pulido y micro-estrías restringidas a la periferia de los filos. Se concluye que los grupos tardíos desarrollaron artefactos pulidos costosos para cumplir efectivamente con la apertura y mantenimiento de claros en el bosque serrano, ya sea para el cultivo, la construcción de viviendas o incrementar la capacidad reproductiva de plantas silvestres de las cuales dependían, entre otros motivos. De esta manera, comprender la función de las hachas o azuelas tardías es fundamental para discutir las actividades productivas y la modificación antrópica del paisaje propuesta para la región a fines del Holoceno.
Long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies may offer benefits over oral antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is still a lack of real-world studies assessing the effectiveness of these therapies.
This study aimed to explore the safety, tolerability, and treatment response of aripiprazole monohydrate (AOM) once monthly in non-acute but symptomatic adult patients switched from previous therapy with frequently used oral or injectable atypical antipsychotics.
This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional, single-arm, open-label, 6-month study.
The patients (N=54) were switched to aripiprazole monohydrate once-monthly (AOM) from daily oral treatment or monthly injectable treatment with either aripiprazole (n=25), olanzapine (n=7), paliperidone extended-release (PP1M) (n=10), quetiapine (n=4), or risperidone (n=8). In all groups, mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total (p=0.0001) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores improved significantly (p=0.0001). A reduction of ≥50% reduction of BPRS total-score and a CGI severity-score ≤4 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score were observed in 16.7% (aripiprazole), 21.2% (olanzapine), 35.1% (PP1M), 27.3% (quetiapine), and 37.2% (risperidone) of patients. The patients showed significant improvements involving safety features as they experienced significant overall weight loss (p=0.0001) and prolactine decrease (risperidone p=0.0001, paliperidone extended-release p=0.0001). AOM once-monthly was well tolerated, presenting no new safety signals. Patient also reported an overall significant improvement on their quality of life measured with the Quality of Life Rating Scale (QLS) (p=0.0004) as well as in sexual functioning PRSexDQ-SALSEX (p=0.0001). In addition, the all cause treatment discontinuation rate after6-month follow-up was small (n=3; 5,55%)
These data illustrate that stable, non-acute but symptomatic patients either on oral antipsychotic therapy or under monthly antipsychotic treatment may show clinically meaningful improvement of psychotic symptoms, tolerability involving relevant side effects and quality of life perception. The findings are limited by the naturalistic study design; thus, further studies are required to confirm the current findings.
Aideé Figueroa López, PhD in management science from Tecnológico de Monterrey's EGADE Business School.,
Isidro Marco A. Cristobal-Vazquez, Management science doctoral candidate at Tecnológico de Monterrey's EGADE Business School, and he lectures at the Instituto Politecnico Nacional in Mexico City.
As part of its mission statement, Nissan Motor Corporation instituted the Nissan Green Program (NGP), a roadmap for making the Japanese automaker the worldwide leader in zero-emission mobility. In 2011, Nissan launched NGP 2016, the third iteration of its green program, focused on reducing its carbon footprint, shifting to renewable energy, and diversifying the resources the company uses. In keeping with NGP 2016, Nissan Mexicana— the company's Mexican subsidiary— took a risk by adopting renewable power for the largest of its three plants, located in Aguascalientes. Before 2012, the main source of electricity in Mexico was the government-backed Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE), which used mostly fossil fuels to produce power. Nissan's facility, known as Aguascalientes 1 (or A1), has been using electricity generated from biogas and wind since that time and, by 2014, obtained nearly half of its electricity from renewables. These renewable energy sources have saved Nissan Mexicana money, lowered greenhouse gas emissions, and bolstered the company's reputation. This chapter shows how Nissan Mexicana and its energy development partner, ENER-G, worked with municipal and state governments to match interests and enhance environmental sustainability.
Climate change has deeply impacted the global automotive industry. For nearly a century, the industry's main product— four-wheeled transportation powered by fossil fuel combustion— has been a major emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Now, however, the tables have turned. The socalled carbon constraints to limit climate change are present in all automotive markets. These rules require auto manufacturers in the United States, European Union, and Japan to lower the carbon emissions of new vehicles and develop new technologies to help meet constraints. For example, according to Nissan's 2012 sustainability report, Japan's 2009 Emission Standards require a 47 percent reduction in nitrous oxide and 64 percent reduction in particulate matter emissions from 2005 levels for many Japanese vehicles. Europe's 2015 “Euro 6” standard aims to reduce automotive emissions in graduated stages. All mass-produced automobiles and vans must now meet emissions standards for nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter.
Carbon constraints generate both risks and opportunities for manufacturers like Nissan. Though new rules may be forcing automakers to change their practices, companies that use carbon constraints to drive innovation are creating competitive advantages.