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Shipping is responsible for transporting 90% of the world's trade. This book provides a comprehensive review of the impact shipping has on the environment. Topics covered include pollutant discharges such as atmospheric emissions, oil, chemical waste, sewage and biocides; as well as non-pollutant impacts including invasive species, wildlife collisions, noise, physical damage, and the environmental effects associated with shipwrecks and shipbreaking. The history of relevant international legislation is also covered. With chapters written by eminent international authors, this book provides a global perspective on the environmental impact of ships, making it a useful reference for advanced students and researchers of environmental science, as well as practitioners of maritime law and policy, and marine business.
Archaeologists have long subjected Clovis megafauna kill/scavenge sites to the highest level of scrutiny. In 1987, a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) was found in spatial association with a small artifact assemblage in Converse County, Wyoming. However, due to the small tool assemblage, limited nature of the excavations, and questions about the security of the association between the artifacts and mammoth remains, the site was never included in summaries of human-killed/scavenged megafauna in North America. Here we present the results of four field seasons of new excavations at the La Prele Mammoth site that confirm the presence of an associated cultural occupation based on geologic context, artifact attributes, spatial distributions, protein residue analysis, and lithic microwear analysis. This new work identified a more extensive cultural occupation including the presence of multiple discrete artifact clusters in close proximity to the mammoth bone bed. This study confirms the presence of a second Clovis mammoth kill/scavenge site in Wyoming and shows the value in revisiting proposed terminal Pleistocene kill/scavenge sites.
Nineteenth-century Irish poetry, particularly ballad poetry, was often performed indoors and out as recitation or song. Audiences and readers varied and publications ranged from cheap broadsheets to expensive journals, edited collections or slim volumes published by Irish, English or Scottish publishers. Following the example of Moore’s popular Irish Melodies, theme, rhythm and verse-form, celebratory or nostalgic, could be shaped by older poems in Irish or by traditional tunes, many of them collected and published, and adapted to express differing personal, political and religious sentiments. Poets responsive to classical models, European Romanticism and English poets such as Tennyson could incorporate ballad forms and traditional and popular themes into a more ambitious poetics, aiming at a wider audience. Young Ireland balladists and generous-spirited journal and anthology editors, Catholic and Protestant, sensitive to sectarian and poetic diversity and different audiences, attempted to bring their readers together in a shared national culture.
Classicism and classical allusion provided writers of the period with a time-honoured way of thinking about personal and political life. Fragments of classical story survived in popular culture and there was a tradition of gentry classicism, typified by Burke’s appropriation of the classical sublime, signifying expensive education perhaps supplemented by travel. Artists, sculptors, and architects who might have studied in Rome could supplement and stimulate textual appropriations with visual representations of classical myth, heroism, and civic or senatorial dignity. Patriotic antiquarianism, both exploited and mocked by Thomas Moore, selected possible references to the antiquity, civility, and fortitude of Ireland from classical sources. Poets of both sexes elegantly imitated classical praise of love and wine. But gentry classicism was gradually extended and democratised, sometimes sharpening into quasi-Juvenalian satire, through growing awareness and deployment of classically derived discourses of rights and liberty. Moore’s mellifluous Anacreon versions were followed by the more national Irish Melodies.
Dicamba and 2,4-D systems control many problematic weeds; however, drift to susceptible crops can be a concern in diverse production areas. Glufosinate-based systems are an alternative, but current recommended rates of glufosinate can result in variable control. Research was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to investigate the optimum time interval between sequential glufosinate applications and determine if the addition of glyphosate with glufosinate is beneficial for controlling Palmer amaranth and annual grasses in cotton. The interval between sequential applications (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 14 d or no second spray) was the whole plot and herbicide option (glufosinate or glufosinate plus glyphosate) was the subplot. Combined over herbicides, Palmer amaranth 15- to 20-cm tall (at four locations) was controlled 98% to 99% with sequential intervals of 1 to 7 d compared with 70% to 88% with intervals of 10 or 14 d. Lowest biomass weight and population densities were noted with 1- to 7-d intervals. Large crabgrass 15- to 20-cm tall (at five locations) was controlled 93% to 98% with glufosinate applications 3- to 7-d apart as compared with 76% to 81% with applications 10- to 14-d apart. Lowest biomass weights were observed with 1- to 7-d intervals. When glufosinate controlled grass less than 93%, adding glyphosate was beneficial. Neither interval between sequential applications nor herbicide option influenced cotton yield. Shorter time intervals between sequential application and including glyphosate can improve the effectiveness of a glufosinate-based system in managing Palmer amaranth and large crabgrass.
Nutsedge species are problematic in plastic-mulched vegetable production because of the weed’s rapid reproduction and ability to penetrate the mulch. Vegetable growers rely heavily on halosulfuron to manage nutsedge species; however, the herbicide cannot be applied over mulch before vegetable transplanting due to potential crop injury. This can be problematic when multiple crops are produced on a single mulch installation. Field experiments were conducted to determine the response of broccoli, cabbage, squash, and watermelon to halosulfuron applied on top of mulch prior to transplanting. Halosulfuron at 80 g ai ha−1 was applied 21, 14, 7, and 1 d before planting (DBP), and 160 g ai ha−1 was applied 21 DBP. In all experiments, extending the interval between halosulfuron application and planting reduced crop injury. For squash and watermelon, visual injury, plant diameters/vine runner lengths, marketable fruit weights, and postharvest plant biomass resulted in similar values when applying 80 g ha−1 21 DBP and with the nontreated weed-free control. Reducing this interval increased injury for both crops. Visual crop injury and yield reductions up to 40% occurred, with halosulfuron applied 14, 7, or 1 DBP in squash and 1 DBP in watermelon. Broccoli and cabbage showed greater sensitivity, with injury and plant diameter reductions greater than 15%, even with halosulfuron applied at 80 g ha−1 21 DBP. Experimental results confirm that halosulfuron binds to plastic mulch, remains active, and is slowly released from the mulch over a substantial period, during rainfall or overhead irrigation events. Extending the plant-back interval to at least 21 d before transplanting did overcome squash and watermelon injury concerns with halosulfuron at 80 g ha−1, but not broccoli and cabbage. Applying halosulfuron over mulch to control emerged nutsedge before planting squash and watermelon would be beneficial if adequate rainfall or irrigation and appropriate intervals between application and planting are implemented.
Between 1800 and 1900 the dominant literary mode of romanticism, with its various transformations, moved in the direction of modernism, accompanied and sometimes assailed along the way by different kinds of realism. More paradoxically, over the same period literature tended to become ever more international, indeed cosmopolitan, even as self-consciously national literatures developed and asserted themselves with growing confidence in Ireland and in the United States, in Russia and in Scandinavia.
Introduction: Although oral rehydration therapy is recommended for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with none to some dehydration, intravenous (IV) rehydration is still commonly administered to these children in high-income countries. IV rehydration is associated with pain, anxiety, and emergency department (ED) revisits in children with AGE. A better understanding of the factors associated with IV rehydration is needed to inform knowledge translation strategies. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) randomized, controlled trials of oral probiotics in children with AGE-associated diarrhea. Eligible children were aged 3-48 months and reported > 3 watery stools in a 24-hour period. The primary outcome was administration of IV rehydration at the index ED visit. We used mixed-effects logistic regression model to explore univariable and multivariable relationships between IV rehydration and a priori risk factors. Results: From the parent study sample of 1848 participants, 1846 had data available for analysis: mean (SD) age of 19.1 ± 11.4 months, 45.4% females. 70.2% (1292/1840) vomited within 24 hours of the index ED visit and 34.1% (629/1846) received ondansetron in the ED. 13.0% (240/1846) were administered IV rehydration at the index ED visit, and 3.6% (67/1842) were hospitalized. Multivariable predictors of IV rehydration were Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) score [compared to none: mild to moderate (OR: 8.1, CI: 5.5-11.8); severe (OR: 45.9, 95% CI: 20.1-104.7), P < 0.001], ondansetron in the ED (OR: 1.8, CI: 1.2-2.6, P = 0.003), previous healthcare visit for the same illness [compared to no prior visit: prior visit with no IV (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9); prior visit with IV (OR: 10.5, 95% CI: 3.2-34.8), P < 0.001], and country [compared to Canada: US (OR: 4.1, CI: 2.3-7.4, P < 0.001]. Significantly more participants returned to the ED with symptoms of AGE within 3 days if IV fluids were administered at the index visit [30/224 (13.4%) versus 88/1453 (6.1%), P < 0.001]. Conclusion: Higher CDS scores, antiemetic use, previous healthcare visits and country were independent predictors of IV rehydration which was also associated with increased ED revisits. Knowledge translation focused on optimizing the use of antiemetics (i.e. for those with dehydration) and reducing the geographic variation in IV rehydration use may improve the ED experience and reduce ED-revisits.
Sodalites have been investigated experimentally for the capture and long-term containment of 129I, a significant and hazardous waste product of the nuclear fuel cycle. Sodalites are zeolite-type structures commonly occurring in nature in alkaline igneous rocks and having the prototype formula Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2. The crystal structure is based around β-cages consisting of corner-sharing SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedra. In the centre of the β-cage is an anion X. Iodine captured by sodalites sits in the centre of the β-cages as iodide anions. Silver iodide (AgI) plays an important role in the capture and subsequent processing of 129I in the nuclear fuel cycle. Using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) modelling, we investigate the energetics and feasibility of iodine capture and containment in mixed cation sodalites Na8-xAgx(AlSiO4)6I2, and compare the results with experimental observations.
Zirconolite glass-ceramics are being developed as potential wasteforms for the disposition of Pu wastes in the UK. Previous studies utilised a variety of surrogates whilst this work uses both cold-press and sinter and hot isostatic press methods to validate the wasteform with PuO2. A cold press and sinter sample was fabricated as part of a validation study for plutonium incorporation in hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) wasteforms. The results confirmed the cold-press and sinter, achieved successful waste incorporation and a microstructure and phase assemblage that was in agreement with those expected of a HIPed equivalent. A HIP sample was fabricated of the same composition and characterised by SEM and XRD. Results were in agreement with the sintered sample and achieved complete waste incorporation into the glass-ceramic wasteform. These samples have demonstrated successful incorporation of PuO2 into glass-ceramic HIPed wasteforms proposed for processing Pu-based waste-streams in the UK.
Since the year 2000, Synroc has evolved from the titanate full-ceramic waste forms developed in the late 1970s to a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology platform that can be applied to produce glass, glass–ceramic, and ceramic waste forms and where there are distinct advantages over vitrification in terms of, for example, waste loading and suppressing volatile losses. This paper describes recent progress on waste form development for intermediate-level wastes from 99Mo production at ANSTO, spent nuclear fuel, fluoride pyroprocessing wastes and 129I. The microstructures and aqueous dissolution results are presented where applicable. This paper provides perspective on Synroc waste forms and recent process technology development in the nuclear waste management industry.
There is growing interest in reducing the use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) owing to its high energy consumption and CO2 emissions. An environmentally-friendly alternative is the use of geopolymers, which can potentially reduce direct CO2 emissions through the appropriate choice of raw materials, mix design, and curing regimes. In this regard geopolymer mortars are also realistic candidates for the replacement of OPC mortars in nuclear waste immobilisation applications as they provide a more durable incorporation matrix as well as suppressing the formation of radiolytic hydrogen. The advantages of geopolymers over OPC for nuclear waste immobilisation include i) lower water content as alkaline activator is the main component that drives geopolymerisation, ii) higher thermal stability (<600°-800°C) compared to OPC concrete (<300°C), iii) higher compressive strength (50-80 MPa), and iv) lower leachability of radioactive ions when the mix design and curing temperature are appropriately balanced. UNSW and ANSTO have embarked on a long-term research program to investigate the possibility of using geopolymers for the immobilisation of Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILLW), the focus of which will be around the influence of gamma-irradiation on the durability.
The Mockingbird Gap Clovis site is a surface archaeological site located along Chupadera Draw in central New Mexico. Coring of the draw during archaeological investigation of the Clovis assemblage on the adjacent uplands revealed evidence for a regionally rare continuous, stratified depositional record beginning immediately before the Younger Dryas chronozone (YDC). Thirty sediment samples from the draw adjacent to the archaeological site were analyzed for microinvertebrates (ostracodes and mollusks) and gyrogonites (calcareous algae) to reconstruct its environmental history. Wet-dry cycles marked the presence/absence of microfossils. Based upon microfossils, this investigation highlights environmental change marked by the evolution from wetter/cooler to warmer/drier conditions at the Mockingbird Gap site and its response to climate change and groundwater fluctuations during and after the YDC. Four biofacies are recognized: the pre-Ciénega setting is sterile. Holarctic species near the base of core 08-1 indicate cooling conditions prior to 13,000 cal yr BP during the early Ciénega phase. Warmer, more saline conditions characterize the late-Ciénega biofacies between 11,000 and 10,000 cal yr BP. Presence of gypsum during formation of the post-Ciénega phase and the most salinity tolerant species after 10,000 cal yr BP is consistent with the aridification typifying the early Holocene.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aim of this study was to determining how interruptions affect the triage process. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Prospective, observational study, where 118 triage interviews were observed. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 57% of triage interviews were interrupted. The most common interruption was by other nurses; however, 7% of the interruptions were by the triage nurse themselves. When an interruption occurred during the triage process, 67% of the time the triage nurse would stop the triage assessment and attend to the interrupter. In the interrupted interviews, 17% of the entire triage time was dedicated to addressing interruptions. Some interruptions (ie, additionally staff entering to conduct ECG) had a positive impact by expediting care during the triage process; where other interruptions delayed patient care. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Interruptions increased the total triage time and contributed to patient treatment delays, as well as led to errors in nursing assessment. Understanding the classifications of triage interruptions and the impact on patient outcomes will allow researchers to develop interventions to mitigate the impact of these interruptions.
To determine whether antimicrobial-impregnated textiles decrease the acquisition of pathogens by healthcare provider (HCP) clothing.
We completed a 3-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of 2 types of antimicrobial-impregnated clothing compared to standard HCP clothing. Cultures were obtained from each nurse participant, the healthcare environment, and patients during each shift. The primary outcome was the change in total contamination on nurse scrubs, measured as the sum of colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Nurses working in medical and surgical ICUs in a 936-bed tertiary-care hospital.
Nurse subjects wore standard cotton-polyester surgical scrubs (control), scrubs that contained a complex element compound with a silver-alloy embedded in its fibers (Scrub 1), or scrubs impregnated with an organosilane-based quaternary ammonium and a hydrophobic fluoroacrylate copolymer emulsion (Scrub 2). Nurse participants were blinded to scrub type and randomly participated in all 3 arms during 3 consecutive 12-hour shifts in the intensive care unit.
In total, 40 nurses were enrolled and completed 3 shifts. Analyses of 2,919 cultures from the environment and 2,185 from HCP clothing showed that scrub type was not associated with a change in HCP clothing contamination (P=.70). Mean difference estimates were 0.118 for the Scrub 1 arm (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.206 to 0.441; P=.48) and 0.009 for the Scrub 2 rm (95% CI, −0.323 to 0.342; P=.96) compared to the control. HCP became newly contaminated with important pathogens during 19 of the 120 shifts (16%).
Antimicrobial-impregnated scrubs were not effective at reducing HCP contamination. However, the environment is an important source of HCP clothing contamination.