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The purpose of this study was to investigate the 10-year impact of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) along with contributing risk factors and any alteration in chronobiology of AMI.
A single-center, retrospective, comparison study of AMI incidence was performed at Tulane University Health Sciences Center from 2 years before Hurricane Katrina to 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. A 6-year, pre-Katrina and 10-year, post-Katrina cohort were also compared according to pre-specified demographic, clinical, and chronobiological data.
AMI incidence increased from 0.7% (150/21,079) to 2.8% (2,341/84,751) post-Katrina (P<0.001). The post-Katrina cohort had higher rates of coronary artery disease (36.4% vs. 47.9%, P=0.01), diabetes mellitus (31.3% vs. 39.9%, P=0.04), hyperlipidemia (45.4% vs. 59.3%, P=0.005), smoking (34.4% vs. 53.8%, P<0.001), drug abuse (10.2% vs. 15.4%, P=0.02), psychiatric illness (6.7% vs. 14.9%, P<0.001), medication non-adherence (7.3% vs. 15.3%, P<0.001), and lack of employment (7.2% vs. 16.4%, P<0.001). The post-Katrina group had increased rates of AMI during nights (29.8% vs. 47.8%, P<0.001) and weekends (16.1% vs. 29.1%, P<0.001).
Even 10 years after the storm, Hurricane Katrina continues to be associated with increased incidence of AMI, higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors, and an altered chronobiology of AMI toward nights and weekends. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:217–222)
Deriving glacier outlines from satellite data has become increasingly popular in the past decade. In particular when glacier outlines are used as a base for change assessment, it is important to know how accurate they are. Calculating the accuracy correctly is challenging, as appropriate reference data (e.g. from higher-resolution sensors) are seldom available. Moreover, after the required manual correction of the raw outlines (e.g. for debris cover), such a comparison would only reveal the accuracy of the analyst rather than of the algorithm applied. Here we compare outlines for clean and debris-covered glaciers, as derived from single and multiple digitizing by different or the same analysts on very high- (1 m) and medium-resolution (30 m) remote-sensing data, against each other and to glacier outlines derived from automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Results show a high variability in the interpretation of debris-covered glacier parts, largely independent of the spatial resolution (area differences were up to 30%), and an overall good agreement for clean ice with sufficient contrast to the surrounding terrain (differences ∼5%). The differences of the automatically derived outlines from a reference value are as small as the standard deviation of the manual digitizations from several analysts. Based on these results, we conclude that automated mapping of clean ice is preferable to manual digitization and recommend using the latter method only for required corrections of incorrectly mapped glacier parts (e.g. debris cover, shadow).
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast, invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists and with the wider scientific community.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a profound impact with a high disease burden. In order to truly understand the scope of the effect OCD has on the patient population, one must take into account not only the relentless symptoms beleaguering the patients but also examine their overall ability to enjoy their life. Quality of life (QOL) assessments/improvements are becoming an increasingly important component of healthcare, especially in the mental health field. This review examines QOL in OCD, as well as the influence of comorbidities, and the impact that OCD treatment has on QOL. We searched MEDLINE/PUBMED and PsycINFO databases from 1980–2011 using keywords “obsessive compulsive disorder” OR “OCD” AND “quality of life” OR “QOL.” Fifty-eight studies meeting specific selection criteria were ultimately included in this review. The results show that QOL in OCD is significantly impaired when compared to QOL in the general population and in patients with other psychiatric and medical disorders. Likewise, QOL in OCD also appears to be largely affected by comorbid conditions, which should be taken into account when developing a treatment plan. Furthermore, QOL in OCD has been shown to improve with medications and with both individual and group psychotherapy, albeit not to the levels enjoyed by community norms. QOL assessment in both clinical and research settings is important to examine the disease burden, to monitor treatment effectiveness, and to determine full recovery from OCD. Treatment providers should strive to not only reach symptom abatement, but also to assure that patients have regained satisfaction and functioning in their daily lives.
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
The electronic structure of delta plutonium (δ-Pu) and plutonium compounds is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results for δ-Pu show a small component of the valence electronic structure which might reasonably be associated with a 5f6 configuration. PES results for PuTe are used as an indication for the 5f6 configuration due to the presence of atomic multiplet structure. Temperature dependent PES data on δ-Pu indicate a narrow peak centered 20 meV below the Fermi energy and 100 meV wide. The first PES data for PuCoIn5 indicate a 5f electronic structure more localized than the 5fs in the closely related PuCoGa5. There is support from the PES data for a description of Pu materials with an electronic configuration of 5f5 with some admixture of 5f6 as well as a localized/delocalized 5f5 description.
Plutonium oxide heat sources are used to power space missions. The heat produced by alpha decay of the 238 isotope of Pu is converted to electricity in a thermopile, providing electricity during a substantial fraction of the 88 year half-life of the isotope. Decay of the Pu produces helium and uranium, and a fraction of the evolved helium is captured in the oxide matrix. All of the helium produced in decay can in principle be contained in the oxide lattice, where it occupies the tetrahedral sites. Some helium diffuses out at a rate that is somewhat dependent on the form and morphology of the fuel. Rates have previously been measured for oxide aged about 1 year. Current measurements on sealed heat sources as old as 34 years indicate that the rate of diffusion has changed only slightly over time. Possible mechanisms for helium release include bubble diffusion, point defect migration, agglomeration and movement of He at grain boundaries, and volume diffusion through the lattice sites. We observe primarily diffusion from site to site within the lattice, with an activation energy of 18.7 kcal/mole, independent of point defect movement, despite the rising concentration of helium in the lattice over time and the accumulation of radiation damage within the lattice. Because of the slow diffusion of helium from the fuel to the headspace, heat sources are anticipated to be stable over a long lifetime.
This chapter addresses changes in weather and climate events relevant to extreme impacts and disasters. An extreme (weather or climate) event is generally defined as the occurrence of a value of a weather or climate variable above (or below) a threshold value near the upper (or lower) ends (‘tails’) of the range of observed values of the variable. Some climate extremes (e.g., droughts, floods) may be the result of an accumulation of weather or climate events that are, individually, not extreme themselves (though their accumulation is extreme). As well, weather or climate events, even if not extreme in a statistical sense, can still lead to extreme conditions or impacts, either by crossing a critical threshold in a social, ecological, or physical system, or by occurring simultaneously with other events. A weather system such as a tropical cyclone can have an extreme impact, depending on where and when it approaches landfall, even if the specific cyclone is not extreme relative to other tropical cyclones. Conversely, not all extremes necessarily lead to serious impacts. [3.1]
Many weather and climate extremes are the result of natural climate variability (including phenomena such as El Niño), and natural decadal or multi-decadal variations in the climate provide the backdrop for anthropogenic climate changes. Even if there were no anthropogenic changes in climate, a wide variety of natural weather and climate extremes would still occur. [3.1]
A changing climate leads to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and timing of weather and climate extremes, and can result in unprecedented extremes. Changes in extremes can also be directly related to changes in mean climate, because mean future conditions in some variables are projected to lie within the tails of present-day conditions. Nevertheless, changes in extremes of a climate or weather variable are not always related in a simple way to changes in the mean of the same variable, and in some cases can be of opposite sign to a change in the mean of the variable. Changes in phenomena such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation or monsoons could affect the frequency and intensity of extremes in several regions simultaneously. [3.1]
Inkjet printing of alternate layers of anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes
allows organized gels to form with structures similar to those made by
layer--by-layer dipping methods but very much faster. Structures of gels
formed using slow and fast inkjet printing systems are compared using
elemental analysis, swelling and diffusion kinetics as characterization
methods. After printing and washing, most sodium or chloride counter-ions
are last from the gel, leave only the polymer complex. The swelling
properties of the printed and washed gel depend on the deposition rate and
on the ratio of the two polymers as originally printed. The synthetic
polyelectrolytes reported here can be compared with biological
polyelectrolytes reported earlier by us.
In this article, we report the unique microstructural characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)/BaSnO3 (BSO) nanocomposite thin films on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates. The BSO secondary phase grows as self-assembled vertically aligned nanopillars uniformly distributed in the superconducting YBCO matrix. Detailed microstructure and strain studies including x-ray diffraction, cross-section and plan-view transmission electron microscopy, and geometric phase analysis reveal that, as the BSO doping concentration varied from 2 mol% to 20 mol%, the nanopillar density increased from 0.26 × 1011/cm2 to 1.44 × 1011/cm2 while the diameter of the nanopillars remains relatively constant (7–8 nm in diameter). The strain state of the YBCO matrix is affected by both lateral and vertical lattice strains; while, the BSO lattice is strongly tuned by YBCO rather than the substrate. A high-density array of dislocations in the order of 1013/cm2 was observed along the vertical heterogeneous interfaces throughout the YBCO film thickness for all doping concentrations.