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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
We present a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study, on the unit-cell scale, of the degree of tetragonality and the displacements of cations away from the centrosymmetry positions in an ultra-thin epitaxial PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 film on a SrRuO3 electrode layer deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate. TEM results show that the lattice is highly tetragonal at the centre of the film with a c/a ratio of about 1.08, while it shows a reduced degree of tetragonality in the regions close to the interfaces. Most strikingly, we find that the maximum off-centre displacements for the central area of the film do not scale with the tetragonality in comparison with the bulk materials. The calculated switched polarization from the measured cationic displacement is 80 ìC/cm2 , and thus only half of the nominal bulk value. It is in very good agreement with electrical measurements of the switched polarization obtained via the PUND method. Furthermore, a systematic reduction of the atomic displacements is measured at the interfaces. This suggests that interface-induced suppression of the ferroelectric polarization plays a critical role in the size effect of nanoscale ferroelectrics. These issues will be discussed further in this presentation. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grants DMR-0132918, NSF-MRSEC DMR-0080008, and an NSF US-Europe program DMR-0244288. V.N also acknowledges the support of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for his stay in Germany and the financial support of an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant 0666231.
The daring vision of using big data technology to substantially advance the scientific understanding of human nature, individually and socially, and possibly solve age-old challenges of bridging the subjective and objective sides of human nature, rests on substantial assumptions about the concept of a human being. The daring big data vision may at the same time, in itself, serve to change the very concept of a human, regardless of how well the vision’s assumptions and prospects hold up to scrutiny. This issue of the European Review presents an attempt to critically engage with the question of how this complex situation affects the content and prospects of the vision of reconsidering humanity with the help of big data. In this introduction, the landscape of the issue is sketched and some general remarks of where the emerging map might take future research are made. In general, even if the assumptions of the daring big data vision turn out wanting, pragmatic factors may very well transform our own image of ourselves to fit it.
To analyse the relationship of altered birth weight with metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes among adolescents, as well as to identify if sports participation is able to attenuate or even eliminate the impact of birth weight on health outcomes.
Cross-sectional study (Analysis of Behaviours of Children During Growth [ABCD Growth Study]). Adolescents with age ranging from 11 to 18 years old (14.7±2.1) stratified according to normal (n = 230) and altered (n = 35) birth weight composed the sample. Birth weight was self-reported by adolescent’s parents. Sports participation was assessed by face-to-face interview. Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) and femoral intima–media thickness (FIMT) were measured using an ultrasound device. C-reactive protein levels were used to assess the inflammatory status. Blood pressure, Z score of metabolic risk (dyslipidemia and glucose), adiposity, and insulin resistance were covariates.
In the crude model, FIMT (p value = 0.037) and C-reactive protein (p value = 0.029) were affected by altered birth weight. In the adjusted models, altered birth weight affected FIMT (p value = 0.048; small effect size of 1.7%), independently of sports participation. For C-reactive protein, previous time of engagement in sports (p value = 0.001; small effect size of 4.8%) affected C-reactive protein, independently of birth weight.
Vascular structure seems to be affected by birth weight in adolescents, while its impact on inflammation seems to be attenuated by the regular engagement in sports.
This article contributes to the scholarly as well as societal decades-long debate on the state of democracy in the EU. The objective is to problematize, discuss, and come up with constructive ideas on the role of expert groups in the processes of legitimization of decision-making within the EU. The analysis is guided by a general research question: how could expert involvement compensate for an incomplete capability of legitimization through democratic representation? The empirical analysis of expert influence in decision-making is guided by a new modelling of the so-called Epistemic Community approach. The case chosen to illustrate the model is the authorization process of the emergency contraceptive ellaOne, within the institutional setting of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) at the European Medicines Agency. The empirical material consists of interviews with eight members of the CHMP. To guide the empirical analysis the paper introduces a two-dimensional model of the epistemic community approach, which distinguishes between the institutional preconditions and the ideational motivations of expert groups. The results indicate that the experts within the CHMP had an influence on the policy-making process thanks to favourable institutional preconditions as well as ideational motivations of the experts themselves. Our conclusion is that there is a need for ‘institutional engineering’ as regards the involvement of experts in decision-making, to sustain the legitimacy of expert involvement, and level out the institutional conditions for experts’ influence on policy-making within the EU.
In this article Eva Urban describes a historical tradition of Breton enlightenment theatre, and examines in detail two multilingual contemporary plays staged in Brittany: Merc’h an Eog / Merch yr Eog / La Fille du Saumon (2016), an international interceltic co-production by the Breton Teatr Piba and the Theatr Genedlaethol Cymru (the Welsh-language national theatre of Wales); and the Teatr Piba production Tiez Brav A Oa Ganeomp / On avait de jolies maisons (2017). She examines recurring themes about knowledge, enlightenment journeys, and refugees in Brittany in these plays and performances, and presents the argument that they stage cosmopolitan and intercultural philosophical ideas. Eva Urban is Senior Research Fellow at the Senator George J. Mitchell Institute for Global Peace, Security and Justice, Queen's University Belfast. She has held a Région de Bretagne Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at the Centre for Breton and Celtic Studies, University of Rennes 2, a research lectureship in the English Department, University of Rennes 2, and a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Cambridge. She is the author of Community Politics and the Peace Process in Contemporary Northern Irish Drama (Peter Lang, 2011) and has published articles in New Theatre Quarterly, Etudes Irlandaises, Caleidoscopio, and chapters in book collections.
There are two important features of the Polish system of issuance of development consent for projects requiring the Environmental Impact Assessment that need mentioning for the purpose of this article: the first one is the multi-stage nature of the development consent in Poland and the other is that the first stage thereof is the “environmental decision”, summarizing the findings of the Environmental Impact Assessment. The latter is regulated by the Act of 3 October 2008 on the access to environmental information, public participation and the Environmental Impact Assessment (OJ 2016 item 353 text codified as amended, further referred to as EIA Act).
At the same time, the Polish legal system provides for several sectoral Acts that derogate the general rules of the issuance of environmental decisions and replace them with separate provisions that are more favourable for the investors and at the same time lowering the safeguards for the environment. Those changes encompass the elements as mentioned:
– restrictions imposed on the proceedings of the issuance of the environmental decisions,
– automatic assignment of the immediate enforceability to the environmental decisions,
– stricter rules of challenging the environmental decisions,
– prohibition of the quashing of the administrative decisions issued at the last stage of the development process.
The following reservation has to be made: while it is true that the environmental decisions are in many cases preceded by the Environmental Impact Assessment, it is not a prerequisite for their issuance; even if a project in the course of so-called screening procedure (see Article 4 of Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment as amended, OJ L 26, 28 January 2012) was found to be of non-EIA nature, the environmental decision is still required. However, for the sake of the clarity of this dissertation, it is focused solely on the environmental decisions issued for the projects requiring the Environmental Impact Assessment.
In the 2000s, Berlin saw the formation of so-called Baugruppen (construction groups) – associations of small-scale investors who pooled their modest capital to commission an architect and construct a multistorey building in which they would own and occupy a flat. They were mostly middle-class families united by a belief in community values and neighbourly contact as well as the qualities of urban living. This article will present the construction groups as an example of bottom-up architecture in an industrialized western country, in which individual initiatives and user-centred design had to be negotiated within a highly professionalized environment, as well as with contradictory political positions. It will show that construction groups brought together various threads of Berlin's recent urban history: the gradual integration of radical post-1968 lifestyles into mainstream society, the ‘return to the inner city’ connected with the increasing popularity of ‘new tenements’, and the evolution of innovative, post-functionalist architecture.
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) aims at providing decision makers with relevant data, matching different perspectives, with an evidence-based approach. The most common framework used is the European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Core Model (1): HTA may be further supported by a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) (2,3), leading to a final quantitative synthesis, facilitating the appraisal phase.
This project presents a multi-dimensional comparison of the technologies available for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (Ranibizumab, Aflibercept, Dexamethasone implant and off-label Bevacizumab), comparing three Italian Regions: Lombardy, Liguria and Veneto.
The nine EUnetHTA dimensions were first prioritized by seventeen multidisciplinary evaluators. Thereafter a further nine professionals attributed a 3-level rating score (from “1” not performant, to “3” most performant) to each dimension and sub-dimension, after carefully assessing the three HTA reports. In conclusion, the investigation of statistically significant differences between the attributed scores of the evaluators was conducted, using a multi-variate analysis.
No statistically significant differences were reported in the prioritization of each dimension, except for the equity (more important in Liguria and in Lombardy) and the economic financial dimensions (more relevant in Veneto and in Lombardy).
Notwithstanding the evaluators’ different professional titles, job roles, center size, and various Regional contexts, they attributed similar scores to the HTA dimensions during the appraisal phase (even though conducted in different years, in 2015 and 2016). This finding demonstrates the robustness of both the evaluations and the final MCDA results: i) no statistically inter-regional significant differences emerged regarding Ranibizumab and Aflibercept (p-value >.05); ii) no statistically significant inter-regional differences emerged regarding Dexamethasone, except for the assessments in the clinical dimensions (p-value = .026), since in Lombardy Region the evaluation was carried out earlier in the technology's life-cycle.
Dexamethasone was consistently attributed a higher total score, considering the final normalised weight derived from the MCDA approach (p-value =.001).
In parallel to the classical theory of central extensions of groups, we develop a version for extensions that preserve commutativity. It is shown that the Bogomolov multiplier is a universal object parametrizing such extensions of a given group. Maximal and minimal extensions are inspected, and a connection with commuting probability is explored. Such considerations produce bounds for the exponent and rank of the Bogomolov multiplier.
We perform an experimental study of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection up to very high Rayleigh number,
, in a cylindrical aspect ratio one cell, 30 cm in height, filled with cryogenic helium gas. We monitor temperature fluctuations in the convective flow with four small (0.2 mm) sensors positioned in pairs 1.5 cm from the sidewalls and 2.5 cm vertically apart and symmetrically around the mid-height of the cell. Based on one-point and two-point correlations of the temperature fluctuations, we determine different types of Reynolds numbers,
, associated with the large-scale circulation (LSC). We observe a transition between two types of
, which is accompanied by a scaling change of the skewness of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the temperature fluctuations. The
dependencies measured near the sidewall at Prandtl number
are consistent with the
scaling above the transition, while for
dependencies are steeper. It seems likely that this change in
scaling is linked to the previously reported change in the Nusselt number
scaling. This behaviour is in agreement with independent cryogenic laboratory experiments with
, but markedly different from the
scaling obtained in water experiments (
). We discuss the results in comparison with different versions of the Grossmann–Lohse theory.
The ammonia molecule is known to be useful as a probe for studying conditions inside interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres. Correct interpretation of interstellar and planetary spectra need to be supported by adequate laboratory measurements. in the present studies we report the high resolution Fourier transform spectra of ammonia recorded with a pathlength of 192m at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Transitions with intensities that are two orders of magnitude weaker than those that have been reported earlier, have been observed and assigned. These include high J transitions, hot bands and forbidden transitions. These transitions are not saturated under long paths such as those available in planetary atmospheres and are therefore useful in the estimation of temperatures. The forbidden transitions have been processed with other relevant data to provide complete information on the energy levels. Such information is required for the calculation of equilibrium population of energy levels and partition functions, which go into the estimation of spectral intensities and abundances in terrestrial, interstellar and planetary atmospheres.
A high density reference star catalog is being compiled at the U. S. Naval Observatory for the purpose of making new reductions of the Astrographic Catalog. The catalog will be a replacement to the SAO catalog and will be derived from the large photographic catalogs and the modern meridian circle catalogs. It is expected that the final catalog will contain 346, 000 stars, with proper motion mean errors generally or less, on a uniform system, the data having been reduced first to FK4 and then to FK5 using the International Reference Stars (IRS).
This article describes a formal proof of the Kepler conjecture on dense sphere packings in a combination of the HOL Light and Isabelle proof assistants. This paper constitutes the official published account of the now completed Flyspeck project.
In recent years two lines of research on USSR power and personnel have challenged some long-standing interpretations of the bases of Soviet political activity. In one line, historical studies dealing with the Stalin era have called into question the conventional emphasis, epitomized in the totalitarian model, of a single leader who commands an army of loyal apparatchiki and monopolizes the political agenda. A number of scholars have shown that chaos and confusion in personnel matters were the salient characteristics of this period, rather than a coordinated system for the recruitment, placement, and promotion of cadres—an image suggested by both the totalitarian model and Stalinist boasting of a “monolithic party,” a “unified state structure,” and so forth. In substantive policy, the actual results in implementing regime directives in the Stalin period regularly bore no better than the faintest resemblance to the announced policy. Absent the well-oiled machine highlighted in images of the “totalitarian party,” the regime's failure to control real policy results seems to have followed as a necessary consequence.
Hydropower dams are back in the spotlight owing to a shifting preference for low carbon energy generation and their possible contribution to mitigating climate change. At the forefront of the renaissance of large hydropower dams are Chinese companies, as the builders of the world's largest dams at home and abroad, opening up opportunities for low- and middle-income countries. However, large hydropower dams, despite their possible developmental and carbon reduction contributions, are accompanied by huge economic costs, profound negative environmental changes and social impacts. Using fieldwork data from four hydropower projects in Ghana, Nigeria, Cambodia and Malaysia, this paper evaluates the behaviour of Chinese stakeholders engaged in large hydropower projects in Asia and Africa. We do this by first exploring the interests of the different Chinese stakeholders and then by investigating the wider implications of these Chinese dams on the local, national and international contexts. The paper concludes that hydropower dams will continue to play a prominent role in future efforts to increase energy security and reduce energy poverty worldwide, therefore the planning, building and mitigation strategies need to be implemented in a more sustainable way that takes into account national development priorities, the needs of local people and the impacts on natural habitats.
The longue durée of human activity on the island of Pantelleria represents an important locus of ancient cultural interaction in the Strait of Sicily. This narrow channel in the central Mediterranean has played a major and continuous role in human relations between Italy, Sicily and North Africa since the Neolithic period. Use or control of the Pantelleria has been pivotal for a number of cultures over time, each leaving a lasting impression on the landscape and the people of the island (Figure 1). The volcanic geology of Pantelleria has determined the shape of its landscape and is responsible for the creation of the collapsed-caldera basin and lake that form the study area of this project. The Brock University Archaeological Project at Pantelleria (BUAPP) is working in the Lago di Venere area, examining past human activity on the north-eastern lake shore. A previous project in the Lago di Venere area (1998–2002) interpreted the site as a Punic and Roman sanctuary (Audino & Cerasetti 2004; Cerasetti 2006). Our project complements this and other archaeological investigations of the island's classical past, including the ongoing excavations on the Acropolis, near the main harbour, which have revealed the remains of the island's Punic and Roman centre (Schäfer et al. 2015).
Recent narrative critical studies of the religious authorities in the Fourth Gospel have proposed, first, that the term ‘Jews’ has only one meaning in the Gospel and, second, that ‘the Jews’ and ‘the Pharisees’ constitute a single group character. However, when viewed from a different perspective, the term ‘Jews’ can be said to have three different meanings in the Gospel. Moreover, when viewed from this perspective, the various usages exhibit a remarkable consistency, one not evident when all instances are thought to have the same meaning. If only those instances of ‘the Jews’ that refer to religious authorities are studied from the point of view of narrative analysis, their character exhibits a great homogeneity but at the same time contrasts consistently with the portrayal of the character of ‘the Pharisees’ (together with ‘the chief priests’ and ‘rulers’). This article describes eight ways in which the character of the religious authorities is portrayed differently (and in a contrasting manner) in the two sets of terms, thus indicating that not all instances of the term ‘Jews’ have the same meaning and that the terms for religious authorities do not constitute a single group character, thus raising substantial questions about the proper method for interpreting these texts within the Gospel.