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We first consider the dynamics of a class of meromorphic skew products having superattracting fixed points or fixed indeterminacy points at the origin. Our theorem asserts that, if a map has a suitable weight, then it is conjugate to the associated monomial map on an invariant open set whose closure contains the origin. We next extend this result to a wider class of meromorphic maps such that the eigenvalues of the associated matrices are real and greater than
Mechanical exfoliation is performed to fabricate ultrathin SnS layers, and chemical/thermal stability of SnS layers is discussed in comparison with GeS, toward piezoelectric nanogenerator application. Both SnS and GeS are difficult to be exfoliated under 10 nm using tape exfoliation due to strong interlayer ionic bonding by lone pair electrons in Sn or Ge atoms. Au-mediated exfoliation enables to fabricate larger-scale ultrathin SnS and GeS layers thinner than 10 nm owing to strong semi-covalent bonding between Au and S atoms, but GeS surface immediately degrades during Au etching in an oxidative KI/I2 solution. Although the surface of SnS after the Au-mediated exfoliation reveals several-nm oxide layer of SnOx, the surface morphology retains the flatness unlike the case of GeS. The SnS layers are more robust than GeS against the thermal annealing as well as the chemical treatment, suggesting that SnOx works as a passivation layer for SnS. Self-passivated SnS monolayer can be obtained by a controlled post-oxidation.
Wetting of a planar solid substrate is investigated in the presence of a macroscopic particle in the complete wetting regime. A drop of silicone oil spreads on the substrate and its macroscopic edge is incident on the particle at the late stage of spreading. The drop–particle interaction is observed in detail by shadowgraph and interferometry. Although the spreading drop edge is pinned by the particle for a short time, a sharp acceleration occurs when the liquid starts wetting the extra surface area offered by the particle and forming a meniscus. This process yields a net gain in spreading speed. A theoretical model based on the classical wetting dynamics dictated by Cox’s law is developed. It predicts that the capillary energy of the meniscus gives rise to a rapid motion of the liquid edge, showing good agreement with the dynamics observed in the experiments.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We report on the growth and characterization of molecular mixed thin films of α-sexithiophene (6T), a well-known organic p-type semiconductor with high hole mobility, together with its perfluorinated counterpart, the so far rarely studied tetradecafluoro-α-sexithiophene (PF6T). Pure and blended thin films of these two molecules with different mixing ratios were grown on silicon oxide in ultrahigh vacuum by coevaporation. The effect of perfluorination and mixing on crystal structure, morphology, electronic, and optical properties was examined. The evolution of the PF6T crystal structure was followed in situ in real time by X-ray scattering. We found a new thin film structure different from the reported bulk phase with molecules either standing-up or lying-down depending on the growth temperature. The different morphologies of pure films and blends were investigated with atomic force microscopy. The impact of mixing on the core-levels and on the highest occupied molecular orbitals of 6T and PF6T is discussed.
A novel method to fabricate uniform epitaxial graphene on C-face SiC substrates was investigated. Graphene was grown on the C-face 6H-SiC substrates with a sputtered SiC film by annealing temperatures ranging from 1400 to 1900 °C under an Ar ambient. The fractional area of the graphene having the layer number of two was about 95% in a 75×75 μm square by a Raman mapping and a low energy electron microscopy. Graphene on the C-face SiC fabricated by this method is quite uniform compared to that made by a conventional method without the sputtered SiC films and is thus suitable for high frequency analog devices.
Several studies have reported association of altered levels of lipids and some trace elements with risk factors for cardiovascular disease development in adulthood. Accordingly, the present study aimed to determine the relationship among the serum levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in preterm infants through an assessment of atherogenic indices shortly after birth. Blood samples were collected within 20 min of birth from 45 preterm infants with gestational ages ranging from 32 to 35 weeks. Serum Cu, Zn, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels were measured, and the TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were calculated. Upon determining the correlation between the levels of Cu, Zn and these indices of lipid metabolism, triglyceride (TG) and Cu were found to correlate negatively with birth weight (BW) and the standard deviation (s.d.) score for body weight. Furthermore, Cu levels correlated positively with the TG level and TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios and negatively with the HDLc level and HDLc/apoA1 ratios. However, a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the s.d. score for BW and TG level were significant independent determinants of the Cu level. In contrast, Zn did not correlate with any of these indices. In conclusion, intrauterine growth restriction and the TG level at birth influence Cu levels in preterm infants, whereas atherogenic indices do not affect this parameter.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
The mean age of inpatients with schizophrenia has gradually increased in Japan and the risk of fracture in older schizophrenia patients is elevated. One possible cause may be idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and symptoms of iNPH in older inpatients with schizophrenia.
We prospectively examined older inpatients with schizophrenia (N = 21, mean age = 70.5 ± 5.9) in a psychiatric ward. We evaluated iNPH symptoms using the idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Grading Scale (iNPHGS), Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), Gait Status Scale (GSS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We also evaluated symptoms of schizophrenia using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). We conducted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap tests for patients with possible-iNPH.
In total, three (14.3%) patients were diagnosed with possible iNPH: age, GS-Gait, GS-Cognition, TUG, 10-meter walking test, GSS, and DIEPSS were significantly increased in these compared to patients without iNPH; however, GS-Urine, MMSE, NPI, and BPRS did not differ significantly. Probable iNPH was diagnosed for two (9.5%) patients because of positive CSF tap tests.
The prevalence of possible and probable iNPH in older patients with schizophrenia was much higher than that reported for older people without mental illness. Of the symptoms evaluated with the tests employed, only gait disturbances, particularly walking speed, distinguished schizophrenia patients with iNPH. These findings suggest that we should pay more attention to the possibility of iNPH in older patients with schizophrenia.
We launched a health promotion program called the Hamarassen (“let’s get together”) Farm, which provided farming opportunities for the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake who resided in temporary housing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this program on physical and mental health in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and a sense of purpose in life.
Among 39 female participants in whom BMD was evaluated, there were 12 Hamarassen participants, 8 self-farming control subjects, and 19 non-farming control subjects. BMD was measured by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound immediately after the project launch and 5 months later. A sense of purpose in life prior to and 2 months after the project’s commencement was measured in 21 additional Hamarassen participants by use of the K-I Scale. Interviews were also conducted to qualitatively evaluate the effects of the Hamarassen program.
The mean BMD T-score improved by 0.43 in the Hamarassen group, by 0.33 in the self-farming group, and by 0.06 in the controls (p=0.02). Among the 21 Hamarassen participants in whom mental health was evaluated, the average score for a sense of purpose in life improved from 20.5 to 24.9 (p=0.001).
The Hamarassen Farm provided disaster victims with opportunities for social participation, interpersonal interaction, and physical exercise; such opportunities may improve physical and psychosocial well-being. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:103-110)
The phase equilibrium and oxidation behavior of the disilicides that form in the Nb-Cr-Si ternary system have been investigated. Although NbSi2 and CrSi2 both exhibit a C40 crystal structure, they form separate ranges of compositional homogeneity in the ternary system. Their phase boundaries at 1300 °C have been experimentally determined in this study. The binary NbSi2 exhibited poor oxidation resistance, showing pest-like behavior during oxidation at temperature above 800 °C. In contrast, the alloys containing Cr showed much better oxidation resistance up to 1200 °C.
It is known that a polynomial on
is holomorphically conjugate to its term of highest degree near infinity. By assigning suitable weights, we generalize this fact to polynomial skew products on
Evidence suggests that breastfeeding during infancy lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its attendant risk factors in adult life. To investigate the influence of feeding type on the risk factors of MS, we assessed insulin sensitivity and lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism in preterm infants. Blood samples were collected from preterm infants at the time of discharge. Infants were separated into two groups: a breast milk (BM) group receiving ⩾90% of their intake from BM, and a mixed-fed (MF) group receiving ⩾50% of their intake from formula. The following indices were then compared between the two groups. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were used to calculate the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We also measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels, and the ratios of TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1. The mean gestational age was 32.9 weeks at birth, and blood samples were collected at a mean corrected age of 37.4 weeks. There were 22 infants in the BM group and 19 in the MF group. QUICKI was significantly higher in the BM group. TC, HDLc and apoA1 were not significantly different between the groups, but LDLc and apoB levels were significantly higher in the BM group. The TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were significantly higher in the BM group. In preterm infants, the type of feeding exposure in the early postnatal period may influence glucose, lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism, and affect markers of MS.
Surface-induced aromatic stabilization (SIAS), a recently proposed mechanism leading to a formation of charge-transfer (CT) states at organic/metal (O/M) interfaces [G. Heimel, et al., Nat. Chem.5, 187 (2013)], was investigated for an aromatic hydrocarbon, diindenoperylene (DIP), by means of synchrotron radiation-based ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). By employing DIP and noble metal substrates (Ag and Cu), we confirmed the formation of CT states, indicating that an inclusion of a specific functional group with a hetero-atom within adsorbate molecules as suggested before is not necessarily required for the formation of CT states mediated by the SIAS. With a comparison of the mother and analogue molecules, perylene and PTCDA, we discuss the structural requirement for the realization of the SIAS.
The concentrations of organophosphoric acid triesters (OPEs) in water samples from Maizuru Bay were in the range of 3.0–62 ng/l. In general, the concentrations of OPEs were found in the order of TBXP > TDCPP > TCEP > TBP > TCP > TPP > TEP. The organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) diazinon, fenitrothion, iprobenfos and chlorpyrifos were detected in water samples. The concentrations of OPEs in sediment from Maizuru Bay were in the range of <0.5–56 µg kg−1 dry weight (dw). Among OPPs, diazinon in sediment samples were in the range of 1.8–71 µg kg−1 dw. However, the detection frequencies of fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos in sediment were low. The concentrations of OPEs in mussels from Maizuru Bay were in the range of <1–34 µg kg−1 wet weight (ww). The concentrations of OPEs were found in the order of TBP > TDCPP > TCP > TBXP = TPP = TCEP. Pesticides were detected in mussels, but these concentrations were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. The partition coefficients between water and sediment (Kws) of diazinon and fenitrothion were 200–1300 and 200–300, respectively and the partition coefficients between water and biological samples (Kwb) of diazinon and fenitrothion were 700–3300 and 450–700, respectively, suggesting that these pesticides accumulate in biological samples at higher rates than in sediment.
This article examines Ottoman Armenian attitudes toward the Tanzimat reforms, particularly in relation to the situation of provincial Armenians. Even though implementation of the reforms was slow and marked by setbacks, the promises embedded in them raised expectations of change among Armenians in both Istanbul and the provinces. In response, individuals in these areas equipped themselves with knowledge of the language and principles of the Tanzimat. They interpreted and utilized these for their own purposes, sometimes not as the Ottoman government intended. In this sense, the Tanzimat was not merely a top-down state project; it was also pluralized through interactions between the government and its subjects. Exploring how non-Muslims negotiated the Tanzimat enables reconsiderations of the Muslim-elite-centered historiography on the reforms.
Site fidelity and long-distance homing are known to occur in nesting female Hymenoptera. We report here on the site fidelity and homing ability in males of five species of scoliid wasps (Hymenoptera: Scoliidae), a group whose females do not make nests but are ectoparasitoids of scarabaeid beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea). The males of these wasp species patrol female emergence areas searching for mates. Based on mark-recapture data, we found that between 40% and 100% of marked males left the release area and travelled 50–800 m from the point of capture returning to their original patrol area. We discuss the adaptive significance of site fidelity and homing behaviour in Scoliidae, and propose hypotheses about the evolution of the homing behaviour in Hymenoptera. The homing ability of these primitive Aculeata may represent a case of convergent evolution with other Hymenoptera in which males patrol emergence areas in search of females. Additionally, this homing ability may serve as a preadaptation for the evolution of nest-provisioning and nesting habits in Hymenoptera.
Treatment of [Li+@C60](PF6–) with 30% fuming sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis gave hydroxylated derivative Li+@C60O–(OH)7. Its structure was deduced by IR, NMR, MALDI-TOF/FAB MS, and elemental analysis. Notably, the reaction of [Li+@C60](PF6–) was site-selective, giving a single major isomer (ca. 70%) with two minor isomers, in marked contrast to the case of empty C60. Furthermore, the results clearly indicate that the internal Li cation was strongly shielded by the surface dipolar hydroxyl groups, and thus it appears that the properties of endohedral fullerenes can be controlled by the external modification of the fullerene cage. Whereas Li+@C60 is relatively insoluble, Li+@C60O–(OH)7 was found to be highly soluble in polar solvents such as DMSO and DMF. The increased solubility is especially desirable for biological/medicinal assays and applications in such research fields.