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This study aimed to predict disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rate in Japan through 2040 with plausible future scenarios of fruit intake for neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and diabetes and kidney diseases (DKDs).
Data from National Health and Nutrition Surveys and the Global Burden of Diseases study in 2017 were used. We developed an autoregressive integrated moving average model with four future scenarios. Reference scenario maintains the current trend. Best scenario assumes that the goal defined in Health Japan 21 is achieved in 2023 and is kept constant afterwards. Moderate scenario assumes the goal is achieved in 2040. Constant scenario applies the same proportion of 2016 for the period between 2017-2040.
DALYs rates in Japan were predicted for the period between 2017-2040.
Human subjects were not utilized.
In our reference forecast, the DALYs rates in all-ages group were projected to be stable for CVDs and continue increasing for neoplasms and DKDs. Age-group-specific DALYs rates for these three disease groups were forecasted to decrease, with some exceptions. Among men aged 20–49, DALYs attributable to CVDs differed substantially between the scenarios, implying that there is a significant potential for reducing the burden of CVDs by increasing fruit intake at the population level.
Our scenario analysis shows that higher fruit intake is associated with lower disease burden in Japan. Further research is required to assess which policies and interventions can be used to achieve an increase in fruit intake as modelled in the scenarios of this study.
Background: The genus Roseomonas, containing pink-pigmented glucose nonfermentative bacteria, has been associated with various primary and nosocomial human infections; however, to our knowledge, its nosocomial transmission has never been reported in the literature. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of Roseomonas mucosa bacteremia. Methods: Two cases of R. mucosa bacteremia in 2018 are described. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were undertaken. Environmental surfaces prone to water contamination in the patient wards were sampled and cultured. The sampled surfaces included sinks, faucets, toilets, sewage, showerheads, refrigerators, exhaust vents, and washing machines. The 2 clinical isolates and all environmental isolates that showed growth of pink colonies were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed and fingerprinting software was used to analyze the DNA restriction patterns and determine their similarity. Results: Two patients who developed R. mucosa bacteremia had received care from the same treatment team. The patients were on different wards but had overlapping hospital stays. In addition to the treatment team, no other shared exposure was identified. Moreover, 126 environmental surfaces were sampled, of which 7 samples grew pink colonies. The 9 isolates from the patients and the environmental samples were examined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, 7 isolates, including isolates from both patients, were identified as R. mucosa, and the other 2 isolates were identified as Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea (Fig. 1). With 80% similarity as a cutoff, PFGE analysis revealed that the R. mucosa isolates from 2 patients’ blood cultures and 3 environmental isolates (a washing machine in the ward, a sink in the shared washroom, and a sink in the patient room) belonged to the same clone (Fig. 2). Conclusions: The hospital water environment was contaminated with R. mucosa, and the same clone caused bacteremia in 2 separate patients, suggesting nosocomial transmission of R. mucosa possibly linked to contaminated water, environment, and/or patient care.
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011 produced over 100000 evacuees. In order to deal with an increased need of mental health care, brief, transdiagnostic Telephonic Interventions (TI) have been provided for those at risk of different mental health problems identified based on results of the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey (MHLS). This study aimed to examine usefulness of TI with focusing on evacuees’ subjective estimation assessed in individual follow-up interviews. The sample comprised 484 persons who had been evacuated from 13 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture to 8 safer regions in and out of Fukushima. We conducted semi-structured interviews for participants receiving TI (intervention group) and those not receiving TI despite being identified as high risk (non-intervention group). The intervention group was older, had a higher proportion of self-reported mental illness, and higher unemployment compared with the non-intervention group. The satisfaction proportion of those who underwent TI was as high as 74.6%. Satisfaction was significantly associated with advance knowledge of TI availability (OR = 3.00, 95% CI: 1.59‐5.64), and advice on health-related practices (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.12‐4.13). Thus, TI is considered to be feasible and useful for public health management practices in major disasters.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Lack of blood vessels remains a major obstacle in tissue regeneration. Angiopoietin 1 and 2 modulate angiogenesis through the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Ang1 activates pAKT to promote endothelial cell survival while Ang2 antagonizes these effects. We aim to dissect the Ang/Tie2 pathway to uncover the molecular basis for these opposing effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Ang1 and Ang2 bind Tie2 via nearly identical F-domains (Fd). To investigate the molecular basis regulating the Tie2 pathway, we generated a series of computationally designed self-assembling protein scaffolds presenting F-domains in a wide range of valencies and geometries using Rosette Molecular Modeling Suite. We examined the protein kinase activation, cell migration, and blood vessel formation produced by the designed proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Two phenotypic classes were demonstrated by the number of presented F domains: scaffolds presenting 3 or 4 Fd have Ang2 like activity, upregulating pFAK and pERK but not pAKT and failing to induce cell migration and tube formation; scaffolds presenting more than 6 Fd have Ang1 like activity, upregulating the three signaling branches and enhancing cell migration and tube formation. Scaffolds with 8 or more Fd show superagonist activity, producing significantly stronger phenotypes than Ang1. These results suggest that Fd valency largely determines Ang1 vs Ang2 signaling outcomes, and our designed superagonists can outperform Ang1 in vascularization and wound healing. In in vivo experiments, nanoparticles displaying 60 copies of Fd produce significant revascularization in hemorrhagic brains. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Targeting the Tie2 pathway is a new paradigm in regenerative medicine. Our designed constructs will enable us to generate high-affinity Tie2 agonists and antagonists as drugs to control angiogenesis, enabling tissue regeneration that recapitulates the biological architecture of the native tissue physiology, improving organ transplant outcome.
To investigate the effect of different energies on dose distribution in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck cancer.
Materials and methods:
Data from nine patients undergoing VMAT plans using 6 MV, 10 MV and dual-energy X-ray beams with the Pinnacle 3 V 9.10 treatment planning system (Philips Medical System, Fitchburg, WI, USA) were analysed for quality using the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for planning target volume (PTV), and for mean and maximum dose to the organs at risk (OARs): parotid glands, brainstem, spinal cord and optic nerves.
There were no clear differences in the HIs of the PTV dose among the different plans. The CIs for 10 MV and dual-energy VMAT plans were superior to that of the 6 MV VMAT plan (0·8 ± 0·3, 0·8 ± 0·3, and 0·7 ± 0·2, respectively; p = 0·001). There were no significant differences in mean/maximum dose to the OARs among the three VMAT plans.
Compared with the 6 MV VMAT plan, the dual-energy VMAT plan slightly increased the coverage of the PTV with the prescribed dose but did not decrease dose to the OARs.
N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia psychosis and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. In addition, plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were compared between the two groups.
Eighteen patients (nine males, nine females; age range: 13–52 years) were enrolled in the study, and 18 volunteers (nine males, nine females; age range: 15–49 years) with no current or past psychiatric history were also studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as sex- and age-matched controls.
Levels of NAA/Cr in the left basal ganglia (p = 0.0065) and parieto-occipital lobe (p = 0.00498), but not in the frontal lobe, were significantly lower in patients with first-episode schizophrenia psychosis than in control subjects. No difference was observed between the serum BDNF levels of patients with first-episode schizophrenia psychosis and control subjects. In regard to the plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites, plasma MHPG, but not HVA, was significantly lower in the patients with first-episode psychosis than in control subjects. In addition, a significantly positive correlation was observed between the levels of NAA/Cr of the left basal ganglia and plasma MHPG in all subjects.
These results suggest that brain NAA levels in the left basal ganglia and plasma MHPG levels were significantly reduced at the first episode of schizophrenia psychosis, indicating that neurodegeneration via noradrenergic neurons might be associated with the initial progression of the disease.
Pilots are sometimes not provided with sufficient information to avoid go-arounds or other operational disruptions that result from low-level wind disturbances. We identified issues with existing windshear alerting systems and developed three types of airport low-level wind information systems to enhance pilot situational awareness of wind conditions by providing landing aircraft with quantitative and visualised wind information for ultimately mitigating air service disruptions due to low-level wind disturbances. The three systems, Airport Low-level Wind Information (ALWIN) and Low-level Turbulence Advisory System (LOTAS), both of which use Doppler radar/lidar, and Sodar-based Low-level Wind Information (SOLWIN), which uses Doppler SOnic Detection And Ranging (SODAR), have different costs and capabilities that allow the most cost-effective system to be selected for an airport according to its scale and local weather characteristics. This paper presents the operational concepts of our newly developed airport low-level wind information systems and describes their validation.
Cognitive deficits as well as affective and physical symptoms are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how these deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neuropsychological, affective and physical sequelae and outcomes such as social function and quality of life in patients with TBI. We studied these relationships in 57 patients with TBI over the course of 6 months post-injury. The patients completed neuropsychological assessments, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, and verbal fluency test. Affective and physical symptoms were assessed by beck depression inventory-II, Chalder fatigue scale, and Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Functional outcomes were assessed using the world health organization (WHO) disability assessment rated by others and the WHO quality of life assessment (WHO/QOL 26). The patients showed impairments in executive function assessed by verbal fluency test. The affective and physical assessments showed mild depressive mood and fatigue problem. Multiple regression analysis revealed that executive function and depressive mood were the best predictors of social function and quality of life, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that executive function and depressive mood are important factors to predict functional outcomes in patients with TBI.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We investigate the concept of orbital free entropy from the viewpoint of the matrix liberation process. We will show that many basic questions around the definition of orbital free entropy are reduced to the question of full large deviation principle for the matrix liberation process. We will also obtain a large deviation upper bound for a certain family of random matrices that is essential to define the orbital free entropy. The resulting rate function is made up into a new approach to free mutual information.
Observation of the dynamic interaction between dislocations and carbon atoms is important in steel design. Some steel materials are bake-hardened in several manufacturing processes. Solute carbons are known to segregate on dislocations; this hardens the steel even after low-temperature treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of monitoring a series of microstructural changes in strain aging by in-situ measurement of the electrical resistance in low-carbon steel. In tensile deformation, elastic, Lüders, and uniform plastic deformations could be distinguished by monitoring the changes in electrical resistance. Electrical resistance rapidly increased in the plastic deformation region in the strain-aged specimen. Although the deformation stress hardly changed, the amount of lattice defects monotonously increased. These analyses provide useful information in steel design related to thermomechanical treatments of bake-hardenable steel.
We discuss the geometry of rational maps from a projective space of an arbitrary dimension to the product of projective spaces of lower dimensions induced by linear projections. In particular, we give an algebro-geometric variant of the projective reconstruction theorem by Hartley and Schaffalitzky.
Optical properties of infrared-bright (IR-bright) dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are reported. DOGs are faint in optical but very bright in mid-IR, which are powered by active star formation (SF) or active galactic nucleus (AGN), or both. The DOGs is a candidate population that are evolving from a gas-rich merger to a quasar. By combining three catalogs of optical (Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam), near-IR (VIKING), and mid-IR (ALLWISE), we have discovered 571 IR-bright DOGs. Using their spectral energy distributions, we classified the selected DOGs into the SF-dominated DOGs and the AGN-dominated DOGs. We found that the SF-dominated DOGs show a redder optical color than the AGN-dominated DOGs. Interestingly, some DOGs shows extremely blue color in optical (blue-excess DOGs: bluDOGs). A possible origin for this blue excess is either the leaked AGN light or stellar UV light from nuclear starbursts. The BluDOGs may be in the transition phase from obscured AGNs to unobscured AGNs.
For achieving flame-retardant AZX912 magnesium alloy with superior mechanical properties, cast ingots were solution-treated at different temperatures of 420–525 °C prior to extrusion at 280 °C. With increasing solution treatment temperature, brittle Al2Ca intermetallic compound changed from a network-like morphology to a spheroidized shape, with an increase in hardness and became unbroken during extrusion. As the solution treatment temperature increased, cracking of Al2Ca particles during tensile deformation tended to be restricted due to hardening and spheroidizing behaviors, and tensile elongation of extruded alloys significantly enhanced from 11.2 to 19.2%. High mechanical strength was maintained with an improvement in ductility when increasing the solution treatment temperature up to 510 °C. The extruded alloy solution-treated at 510 °C exhibited a superior balance between mechanical strength and ductility, with a high ultimate tensile strength of 367 MPa and a good elongation of 16.8%.
The association of chocolate consumption with risk of gestational diabetes has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between chocolate consumption and risk of gestational diabetes in a large birth cohort in Japan. A total of 97 454 pregnant women with a median gestational age of 12 weeks were recruited from January 2011 to March 2014. Data on demographic information, disease history, socio-economic status, lifestyle and dietary habits were obtained at the study enrolment. Dietary intake during the past 12 months before study enrolment was assessed through a semi-quantitative FFQ. The logistic regression was used to obtain the OR of gestational diabetes in relation to chocolate consumption. Among 84 948 women eligible for the analysis, 1904 cases of gestational diabetes (2·2 %) were identified during the period of pregnancy. After controlling for potential confounding factors including age, smoking status, drinking status, education level, occupation, pre-pregnant BMI, depression, previous history of macrosomia babies, parity, physical activity and dietary factors, women in the highest quartile of chocolate consumption, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a significantly lower risk of developing gestational diabetes (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·90; P for trend = 0·002). Stratified analyses suggested that the association was not significantly modified by pre-pregnancy BMI, age, parity, smoking status or drinking status. The present prospective cohort study provided evidence that chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of gestational diabetes in Japanese women.
We present ALMA [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of seven z > 6 low-luminosity quasars (M1450 > −25 mag) discovered by our on-going Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. The [CII] line was detected in all targets with luminosities of ∼(2−10) × 108 L⊙, about one order of magnitude smaller than optically luminous quasars. Also found was a wide scatter of FIR continuum luminosity, ranging from LFIR < 1011L⊙ to ∼2 × 1012L⊙. With the [CII]-based dynamical mass, we suggest that a significant fraction of low-luminosity quasars are located on or even below the local Magorrian relation, particularly at the massive end of the galaxy mass distribution. This is a clear contrast to the previous finding that luminous quasars tend to have overmassive black holes relative to the relation. Our result is expected to show a less-biased nature of the early co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Flow-induced rotation of an S-shaped rotor is investigated using an adaptive numerical scheme based on a vortex particle method. The boundary integral equation with respect to Bernoulli’s function is solved using a panel method for obtaining the pressure distribution on the rotor surface which applies the torque to the rotor. The present work first addresses the validation of the scheme against the previous studies of a rotating circular cylinder. Then, we compute the automatic rotation start of an S-shaped rotor from a quiescent state for various values of the moment of inertia. The computed flow patterns where the rotor supplies (or is supplied with) the torque to (or from) the fluid are shown during one cycle of rotation. The vortex shedding from the tip of the advancing bucket is found to play a key role in generating positive torque on the rotor. A remarkable finding is the fact that, after the rotor reaches a stable rotation, the trajectory of the limit cycle in the present autonomous system accounts for the stable rotating movement of the rotor. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic scenario of the rotor automatically starting up from a quiescent state and entering the limit cycle is elucidated for various values of the moment of inertia and the initial angle of the rotor.
This work demonstrates the in situ growth of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) on diamond semiconductors by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The resulting CNW/diamond junctions behave as photomemristors having both photocontrollable multiple resistance states and nonvolatile memory functions. The resistance state (high or low resistance) can be selected by irradiation with blue or violet light in conjunction with the application of a bias voltage, giving a large resistance switching ratio of ∼106. The photoinduced resistance switching behaviors are rarely observed and has only been observed in a few materials and/or heterostructures. These junctions also exhibit a photoresponsivity of ∼12 A/W, which is much larger than that obtained from photodiodes composed of other materials. These results suggest that CNW/diamond (i.e., carbon sp2/sp3) junctions could have applications in novel photocontrollable devices, which have photosensing, memory, and switching functions.