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Understanding the origin of modern communities is a fundamental goal of ecology, but reconstructing communities with durations of 103–106 years requires data from the fossil record. Early Pliocene to latest Pleistocene faunas and sediments in the Meade Basin and modern soils and rodents from the same area are used to examine the role of environmental change in the emergence of the modern community. Paleoenvironmental proxies measured on modern surface soils and paleosols are described, and faunal dynamics of fossil rodents are discussed. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) was estimated from elemental concentrations and magnetic properties, and warm-season temperature and δ18O of soil water was estimated using carbonate isotope paleothermometry on pedogenic nodules. MAP and temperature estimates from paleosols exhibit no short-term variability, no long-term trends, and generally bracket modern values. Estimated soil water δ18O values increased through time, suggesting aridification played a role in the evolution of the regional grassland ecosystem. Carbon isotope analyses of biomarkers are used to examine the abundance of C4 grasses, which suggest more C4 biomass and more variability in C4 biomass than carbonate proxies. Rodent species richness remained constant due to balanced rates of extinction and immigration, both of which show episodic spikes consistent with a balance between forcing mechanisms that result in equilibrium on long time scales. Overall, these results suggest that different mechanisms of faunal change may be acting at different time scales, although the stratigraphic resolution of paleoenvironmental proxies needs to be increased, and body size and dietary distributions of rodents need to be determined before which processes of change are most important can be decided.
This study investigates the emergence and development of the discourse-pragmatic functions of the Japanese subject markers wa and ga from a usage-based perspective (Tomasello, 2000). The use of each marker in longitudinal speech data for four Japanese children from 1;0 to 3;1 and their parents available in the CHILDES database (MacWhinney, 2000) was coded and analyzed. Findings showed that the four children initially used wa as a wh-question marker. They then gradually shifted its use to convey the proposition of given information. In contrast, the use of ga varied among the children. One child used ga with dynamic verbs in the past tense to report events he witnessed/experienced, while the other three children used it with a particular stative predicate in the present tense, expressing their subjective feeling toward referents. Findings were explained by the frequency of input to which the children had been exposed.
A new approach for functionalising oxidised MWCNTs using hydroxylated imidazolium bromide via esterification reaction is reported. The bromide anion of a functionalised MWCNTs was exchanged with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TFSI) through a metathesis reaction to improve its solubility in the IL medium. Composite was characterized with IR, XPS, EDX and TGA analysis, which clearly confirmed that the MWCNTs were functionalized with IL. For potential application as lubricant, the tribological properties of the IL-functionalised MWCNTs (MWCNT-IL) were also evaluated. It was confirmed that even low concentrations of MWCNT-IL composite in ILs causes a significant improvement in the anti-wear and friction properties.
In the present study, polymerizable ionic liquids (ILs), 1-[n-(methacryloyloxy)alkyl]-3-methylimidazolium bromides (n = 2, 6, 7, or 10), were synthesized in high yields. Moreover, the compounds obtained (n = 6, 7, or 10) were used in the preparation of composite materials comprising a polymerized IL matrix and a nonpolymerizable IL additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) in various proportions (up to 75% vol/vol of [EMIM][BF4]). The UV-radiation-initiated photopolymerization process was monitored in situ by measuring the resistivities of the mixtures. An increase in [EMIM][BF4] content in the composites led to an increase in the ionic conductivities of the materials while retaining their solid state at levels as high as 40% vol/vol of the [EMIM][BF4] content. The 40% vol/vol composites had conductivities of approximately 10−4 S/cm compared to the conductivities of 10−5 S/cm for the corresponding neat polymerized ILs. Above this [EMIM][BF4] content, the materials were sticky gels, and from 50% vol/vol onwards, entirely liquid.
Pyrochlore type compound Nd2(Zr,Ce)2O7 is considered to precipitate in ThO2-based fuel, that is not observed in irradiated UO2. In order to evaluate the influences on fuel properties, thermomechanical properties of the pyrochlore type compounds, Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Dy) and Nd2Ce2O7 were investigated. We synthesized the samples by solid-state reaction and pelletized by spark plasma sintering to make high density (≥ 90 %T.D.) pellets. The phase states and lattice parameters were examined by using X-ray diffraction and SEM/EDX analysis. The lattice parameters of Ln2Zr2O7 depended on the ionic radii of lanthanide ions. The heat capacity, thermal conductivity, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and elastic constants were also measured. It was confirmed that the thermal conductivities for Ln2Zr2O7 were lower than that for ThO2 and depended on Ln ionic radii. The values of elastic constants tended to increase with increasing the Ln ionic radii, corresponding to the thermal conductivity.
Mobile decontamination units are intended to be used at the accident site to decontaminate persons contaminated by toxic substances. A test program was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of mobile decontamination units.
The tests included functionality, methodology, inside environment, effects of wind direction, and decontamination efficacy.
Three different types of units were tested during summer and winter conditions. Up to 15 test-persons per trial were contaminated with the imitation substances Purasolve ethyl lactate (PEL) and methyl salicylate (MES). Decontamination was carried out according to standardized procedures. During the decontamination trials, the concentrations of the substances inside the units were measured. After decontamination, substances evaporating from test-persons and blankets as well as remaining amounts in the units were measured.
The air concentrations of PEL and MES inside the units during decontamination in some cases exceeded short-term exposure limits for most toxic industrial chemicals. This was a problem, especially during harmful wind conditions, i.e., wind blowing in the same direction as persons moving through the decontamination units. Although decontamination removed a greater part of the substances from the skin, the concentrations evaporating from some test-persons occasionally were high and potentially harmful if the substances had been toxic. The study also showed that blankets placed in the units absorbed chemicals and that the units still were contaminated five hours after the end of operations.
After decontamination, the imitation substances still were present and evaporating from the contaminated persons, blankets, and units. These results indicate a need for improvements in technical solutions, procedures, and training.
RibordyP, RocksénD, DellgarU, PerssonS, ArnoldssonK, EkåsenH, HäggbomS, NerfO, LjungqvistA, GrythD, ClaessonO. Mobile Decontamination Units—Room for Improvement?. Prehosp Disaster Med.2012;27(4):1–7.
In an effort to realize high-speed organic logic components, p- and n-type single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs) were fabricated using air-gap structures with channel lengths as short as several μm. High carrier mobility of about 10 cm2/Vs is demonstrated in rubrene SC-OFETs even with the short channel length of 6 μm, using Si-based microstructures. The contact resistance is estimated to be 450 Ohm cm, which is only 5% of the total channel resistance between source and drain electrodes. Performances of n-type air-gap devices based on PDIF-CN2 are also demonstrated exhibiting electron transport with the carrier mobility of about 2 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, micron-scale air-gap structures are fabricated using insulating materials on glass substrates to reduce parasitic gate capacitance. The cut-off frequency of this rubrene air-gap device is measured to be as high as 8 MHz with applied drain voltage VD of 15 V. These techniques are promising to be applicable to next-generation organic high-speed logic circuits.
In a gait generation method based on the parametric excitation principle, appropriate motion of the center of mass restores kinetic energy lost by heel strike. The motion is realized by bending and stretching a swing-leg regardless of bending direction. In this paper, we first show that inverse bending restores more mechanical energy than forward bending, and then propose a parametric excitation-based inverse bending gait for a kneed biped robot, which improves gait efficiency of parametric excitation walking.
Three-dimensional organic field-effect transistors with multiple sub-micrometer channels are developed to exhibit high current density and high switching speed. The sub-micrometer channels are arranged perpendicularly to substrates and are defined by the height of a multi-columnar structure fabricated without using electron-beam-lithography technique. For devices with dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, extremely high current density exceeding 10 A/cm2 and fast switching within 200 ns are realized with an on-off ratio of 105. The unprecedented performance is beyond general requirements to control organic light-emitting diodes, so that even more extensive applications to higher-speed active-matrices and display-driving circuits can be realized with organic semiconductors.
Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868–1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. This brief essay considers the role of state and nonstate agents in the genesis of institutions for young children in modern Japan after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and private involvement in education. After that, it proceeds in chronological order, treating first the founding of kindergartens and then day nurseries, focusing on the initial four decades.
Restoration of mechanical energy dissipating on impact at the ground is necessary for sustainable gait generation. Parametric excitation is one approach to restore the mechanical energy. Asano et al. (“Parametric excitation mechanisms for dynamic bipedal walking,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2005) pp. 611–617.) applied parametric excitation to a biped robot with telescopic-legs, in which up-and-down motion restores total mechanical energy like playing on the swing. In this paper, parametric excitation principle is applied to a kneed biped robot with only knee actuation and it is shown that the robot walks successively without hip actuation. We also examine influences of several parameters and reference trajectory on walking performance.
Attractiveness of organic field-effect transistors are in their low-cost and easy fabrication processes as well as their mechanical flexibility, while a significant drawback has been their poorer transistor performances than those of silicon and oxide semiconductors because of lower carrier mobility in organic semiconductors. We have developed an easy MEMS-based process to fabricate three-dimensional organic transistors with metal-insulator-semiconductor structures of multiple vertical channels on plastic platforms. The design maximizes the space availability and the output current per area. The flexible three-dimensional organic transistors indeed present outstanding current of ∼ 0.5 A/cm2, which is more than sufficient for driving pixels of typical organic light-emitting diodes. High on-off ratio up to 107 is also demonstrated.
Three-dimensional organic field-effect transistors are developed with multiple vertical channels of organic semiconductors to gain high output current and high on-off ratio. High-mobility and air-stable dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene thin films deposited on horizontally elongated vertical sidewalls have realized unprecedented high output current per area of 2.6 A/cm2 with the application of drain voltage -10 V and gate voltage -20 V. The on-off ratio is as high as 2.7×106. Carrier mobility of the organic semiconductor deposited on the vertical sidewalls is typically 0.30 cm2/Vs. The structure is built also on plastic substrates, where still considerable current modulation is preserved with high output current per area of 70 mA/cm2 and with high on-off ratio of 8.7×106. The performance exceeds practical requirements for applications in driving organic light-emitting diodes in active-matrix displays. The technique of gating with electric double layers of ionic liquid is also introduced to the three-dimensional transistor structure.
Thermal conductivity of rubrene single crystals is measured for both bulk and film-like crystals down to 0.5 K in order to estimate quantitatively density of crystalline defects through their phonon mean free paths. The temperature profile of the bulk rubrene crystals exhibit pronounced peak at ∼ 10 K in the thermal conductivity as the result of very long mean-free paths of their phonons which indicates extremely low-level defect density in the region of 1015-1016 cm−3 depending on different growth methods. The crystals grown from gas phase tend to have less defects than those grown from solution. It turned out that the film-like crystals have a few times more defect density as the result of the measurement by using newly developed devices for minute crystals.